This 2019 Article IV Consultation with Estonia discusses that the outlook is favorable for the near term, however, for slower economic activity for the medium term. Th economy has performed well in recent years, supported by prudent management and effective structural reforms. Growth remains strong and unemployment is at a record low. Inflation is above the euro-area average, consistent with Estonia’s convergence process. Wages are rising, reflecting a tight labor market and skill shortages at the high end of the labor market. Absent reforms to boost productivity and manage demographic challenges, however, growth will slow notably. The authorities need to guard against potential overheating in the near term while taking advantage of sizable fiscal buffers in the medium term to support innovation and labor supply and reduce inequality. The report recommends that it is imperative to consider changes that preserve the pension system’s viability and sustainability, while promoting policies that address inequality. This includes raising female labor participation through broader implementation of gender pay transparency and flexible childcare arrangements.
This Technical Assistance Report discusses the findings and recommendations made by the IMF mission about the compilation of Coordinated Direct Investment Survey and Coordinated Portfolio Investment Survey (CPIS) in El Salvador. The mission recommended the authorities to research the nature of the information available that may be useful for starting the CPIS. This entails discussions regarding the forms designed during the mission for requesting information from new sources. It was also recommended to continue efforts to improve the coverage of surveys applied to nonfinancial private sector enterprises, with emphasis on the largest enterprises that are still reluctant to respond to the balance-of-payments questionnaires.
This 2015 Article IV Consultation highlights that Estonia’s economic growth has slowed following the rebound from the deep recession in 2009. Although Estonia’s economic and institutional fundamentals are among the strongest in the region, the economy is expected to expand by only a modest 1.6 percent in 2015. Growth is primarily driven by private consumption, which benefits from strong wage growth as labor market slack diminishes for demographic reasons. The economy should gather speed going forward. Growth is projected at 2.5 percent for 2016 and should average about 3 percent over the next few years.
This 2014 Article IV Consultation highlights that in 2013, Estonia’s recovery from the crisis continued but at a slower pace. Real GDP growth was 0.8 percent, with private consumption providing the main support, although net exports made a negative contribution. Inflation declined to about 3½ percent, but stayed above the euro average. Public finances remained strong, with a fiscal deficit of 0.2 percent of GDP and a gross public debt of 10 percent of GDP. Real GDP growth is projected at 2.4 percent in 2014, rising toward expected potential growth of 3 to 3.5 percent in the medium term.
Estonia has succeeded in reducing its macroeconomic imbalances and vulnerabilities, but faces the challenge of preserving its hard-earned fiscal and financial stability and enhancing long-term growth prospects. In this regard, adopting a fully fledged medium-term fiscal framework can help assess policy trade-offs and avoid procyclical policies. Financial sector stability can be safeguarded by strengthening macroprudential policies. Deeper Nordic-Baltic cross-border prudential arrangements and the EU banking union can enhance financial stability. Estonia needs to safeguard its external competitiveness, address skill mismatches, and accelerate human capital accumulation.
The staff report for the 2011 Article IV Consultation concluded that a vibrant recovery marked Estonia’s first year in the euro area, albeit amid nascent tensions. The economy’s strong rebound has been grounded in a proven track record of prudent macroeconomic policies. Executive Directors endorsed that Estonia faces an increasingly challenging environment as it looks to continue implementing policies preserving macroeconomic policy credibility and safeguarding sustainable growth. They also stated that, for the financial sector, the challenge entails safeguarding stability in the context of heightened global financial tension.
This 2009 Article IV Consultation highlights that the credit-fueled boom has resulted in a relatively large nonfinancial private sector debt stock in Estonia. With declining incomes, unemployment increasing sharply, and asset prices depressed, balance sheets of households and firms are under strain, weighing on domestic demand. Nonperforming loans have increased to more than 6 percent of total, and some banks are reporting losses. Executive Directors have supported the authorities’ aim toward speedy adoption of the euro, noting its effects in fostering stability and confidence.
This report examines the Observance of Standards and Codes on the Data Module for Turkey. Progress in data quality reflects the authorities’ commitment to set statistical development on a high and sustainable path, and to address remaining challenges. A cornerstone of this effort is the more robust framework established by the new Statistics Law of Turkey of November 2005. This law assigned compilation responsibilities for a broad range of official data, including macroeconomic statistics.
This Manual, which updates the first edition published in 1986, is a major advance in the standards for compilation and presentation of fiscal statistics. It is intended as a reference volume for compilers of government finance statistics, fiscal analysts, and other users of fiscal data. The Manual introduces accrual accounting, balance sheets, and complete coverage of government economic and financial activities. It covers concepts, definitions, classifications, and accounting rules, and provides a comprehensive framework for analysis, planning, and policy determination. To the extent possible, the Manual has been harmonized with the System of National Accounts 1993.
Ce manuel, qui actualise la première édition publiée en 1986, marque une avancée majeure dans la normalisation des méthodes d'établissement et de présentation des statistiques de finances publiques. Il est conçu pour guider tous ceux qui établissent, analysent ou utilisent les statistiques de finances publiques. Le manuel couvre désormais la comptabilité d'exercice, les bilans et une couverture complète des activités économiques et financières des administrations publiques. Il porte sur les concepts, les définitions, les classifications et les règles de comptabilité, et fournit un cadre complet d'analyse, de planification et de détermination des politiques. Dans la mesure du possible, le manuel est harmonisé avec le système de comptabilité nationale 1993.