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International Monetary Fund. Monetary and Capital Markets Department
This Technical Note evaluates the financial safety net and crisis management for Bulgaria. Since the 2008 IMF Financial Sector Assessment Program Update, Bulgaria’s financial safety net and crisis management arrangements, including bank resolution and contingency planning, have improved. In 2015, to implement pertinent European Union rules, Bulgaria introduced a resolution regime for banks and investment firms; designated resolution authorities for said financial institutions; and established mechanisms to fund resolution measures. Despite the improvements, the financial safety net and crisis management arrangements face crucial challenges because none of their components is fully developed. To ensure operational capacity to rapidly deploy recovery and resolution tools, further actions are needed to strengthen the safety net and crisis management arrangements.
International Monetary Fund. Monetary and Capital Markets Department
This paper assesses the stability of the financial system in Bulgaria. Progress has been made in Bulgaria to strengthen supervision since the 2015 Basel Core Principles assessment, but more work and resources are needed. A more targeted strategy is needed to address high nonperforming loans (NPLs), which in Bulgaria’s banks stood at 13.7 percent of total loans as of June 2016—against the European Union–weighted average of 5.5 percent. Certain accounting, collateral valuation, and risk management practices have discouraged NPL reduction. Banks will also need to build provisions in preparation for the implementation of the forthcoming expected credit loss provisioning standards beginning in 2018.
International Monetary Fund. European Dept.
This Selected Issues Paper’s objective is to illustrate economic benefits and costs from euro adoption by reviewing the main arguments and empirical evidence in Central and Eastern Europe: New Member States (NMS). The parameters of the euro adoption debate have shifted. Although countries joining the euro area in the 2000s could expect to benefit from a significant country risk premium, this premium has mostly vanished with the euro crisis. The NMS that have maintained exchange rate flexibility and monetary policy autonomy have, in general, made good use of it. During convergence, nominal currency appreciation supported more balanced growth and restrained credit and asset price booms. It is an open question whether the macroeconomic volatility of the past decade will recur. If divergent growth patterns and volatility were to repeat, euro adoption would constrain macro-policy options, especially for economies with large income gaps and asynchronized business cycles vis-à-vis the euro area. Thus, a large burden would be placed on other policy instruments to safeguard balanced growth, notably counter-cyclical fiscal policy and macro-prudential policies. Structural reforms to boost growth potential and facilitate internal adjustment would also be important.
International Monetary Fund. Monetary and Capital Markets Department
This article is an overview of existing deposit insurance in the European Union. There are various national deposit schemes that form the source of insurance. The schemes come up with various coverage, contributions, and fund sizes. The recent financial crisis has brought about a change in the coverage system. The main intention of this insurance is to enhance financial stability. The role of this insurance varies both within the EU and worldwide. This insurance is important to sustain financial integration and internal functioning.
International Monetary Fund
This paper maps cross-border financial linkages and identifies factors that drive them, contributing to the discussion on the appropriate design of a global financial safety net (GFSN). It builds on previous staff work and complements the findings of the companion paper on the Analytics of Systemic Crises and the Role of Global Financial Safety Nets. This paper notes the growing roles of financial linkages and complexity in injecting latent instability into the global financial system, underscoring the value of a GFSN design that is effective in forestalling the risk that a localized liquidity shock propagates through the global financial network turning into a large-scale systemic crisis.
Mr. Michael Andrews
Bonds issued by the government or government agencies are often used to finance bank restructuring following a systemic crisis. Many conflicting considerations affect the design of the bonds used to pay for public sector investment in bank equity or the purchase of distressed assets from banks. Some bond features can leave restructured banks facing significant risks, laying the foundation for future banking sector problems. Sovereign default makes publicly financed bank restructuring more difficult, but it is still possible to carry out if banks receive sufficient interest income to provide a margin over their cost of funds.
Ms. Edda Zoli
The paper analyses the cost and effectiveness of bank restructuring policies in 11 transition countries during 1991-98. It argues that country-specific banking sector features, the size of bad loans inherited from the centrally planned system, and weaknesses in the restructuring policies implemented were the main factors affecting the overall fiscal costs, with the latter two being more significant. The paper finds no significant relationship between the size of restructuring costs and overall improvement in banking sector performance for the sample countries as a whole.