International Monetary Fund. Monetary and Capital Markets Department
Denmark’s insurance sector is highly developed with a particularly high penetration and density in the life sector. Traditionally, work-related life insurance and pension savings are offered as a combined package, and life insurance companies dominate the market for mandatory pension schemes for employees. The high penetration explains the overall size of the insurance sector, which exceeds those of peers from other Nordic countries and various other EU member states. Assets managed by the insurance industry amounted to 146 percent of the GDP at end-2018, compared to 72 percent for the EU average.
El Gobierno de Chile ha anunciado que está comprometido a alcanzar su meta fiscal y
contener el crecimiento del gasto. El objetivo de la meta fiscal es reducir el déficit estructural en
0,2% del PIB en cada año del mandato presidencial (2018-2021). A fin de alcanzar esa meta, el
Gobierno anunció un plan de consolidación cuatrienal para reducir gradualmente el gasto anual,
en aproximadamente US$1.100 millones, para lograr un ahorro total de US$4.400 millones durante
el período1. El Gobierno ha alcanzado la meta que había fijado para el balance estructural de 2018.
Con el objetivo de facilitar la consecución de estas metas en los próximos años, y liberar espacio
fiscal para el programa del Presidente, el Gobierno está adoptando una nueva herramienta: las
revisiones del gasto (RGs).
This technical assistance report on Chile focuses on introducing and institutionalizing spending reviews (SR). The Chilean government has announced its commitment to achieving its fiscal target and containing expenditure growth. This report proposes a SR framework with targeted reviews conducted on an annual rolling basis, combined with a periodic comprehensive review at most once every four years. Both types of reviews include targets to identify savings options. Targeted reviews focus on a limited predefined review topic or area and on value for money and efficiency. Comprehensive reviews do not have any predefined review topics; they undertake an unconstrained search for the best saving options. The report sets out a four-stage process for conducting an SR, which would start in September and have final saving decisions made in April or May of the following year. The government will need to announce the topic for the first full targeted review to Congress in September 2019. This review will be conducted in late 2019 and early 2020; the results will be ready in April 2020 in time for incorporation into the process for the 2021 budget.
This paper sheds new light on the degree of international fiscal-financial spillovers by investigating the effect of domestic fiscal policies on cross-border bank lending. By estimating the dynamic response of U.S. cross-border bank lending towards the 45 recipient countries to exogenous domestic fiscal shocks (both measured by spending and revenue) between 1990Q1 and 2012Q4, we find that expansionary domestic fiscal shocks lead to a statistically significant increase in cross-border bank lending. The magnitude of the effect is also economically significant: the effect of 1 percent of GDP increase (decrease) in spending (revenue) is comparable to an exogenous decline in the federal funds rate. We also find that fiscal shocks tend to have larger effects during periods of recessions than expansions in the source country, and that the adverse effect of a fiscal consolidation is larger than the positive effect of the same size of a fiscal expansion. In contrast, we do not find systematic and statistically significant differences in the spillover effects across recipient countries depending on their exchange rate regime, although capital controls seem to play some moderating role. The extension of the analysis to a panel of 16 small open economies confirms the finding from the U.S. economy.
This Selected Issues paper analyzes investment slowdown in Denmark. The post-global financial crisis (GFC) weakness in Denmark’s aggregate investment cannot be fully explained by the output slowdown. The baseline accelerator model confirms that output slowdown played a role, but post-GFC investment has fallen beyond the level explained by output movements in most of the post-GFC period. Most recently, investment converged to the level explained by output movements. The augmented accelerator model suggests that additional factors, such as high leverage, weak competition, and elevated policy uncertainty, also had a significant impact. Panel regressions using a panel of advanced economies show that reduction in leverage and product market reforms can boost investment in the medium term. Well-designed policies are needed to boost private investment.