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International Monetary Fund. African Dept.

51. Burundi is a post-conflict country subject to several mutually reinforcing sources of fragility. Institutional weaknesses and economic fragility persist, with low implementation capacity, sporadic violence outbreaks, weak judicial and governance systems, high poverty and inequality, and high vulnerability to natural disasters. The country fell into deep recession following late President Nkurunziza’s decision to run for a third term in 2015 (Figures 1 and 2), which triggered a political and security crisis, withdrawal of donor support, and sharp deterioration of living standards. Burundi’s 2018–27 development plan (Plan National de Developpement, PND) aims to address key weaknesses through export diversification, infrastructure development, improved access to social safety nets and public services, and better governance. Security conditions have significantly improved, although risks persist (Annex I).