This paper discusses that for each quarter, the IMF prepares a financial transactions plan, in which it indicates the amounts of particular currencies and SDRs to be used during the relevant period. The IMF selects the currencies of members with strong balance of payments and reserve positions. It also seeks to promote, over time, balanced positions in the IMF. The effects of IMF transactions and operations are summarized in the IMF’s holdings of members’ currencies and in two other measures: reserve position in the IMF, and total IMF credit and loans outstanding. The IMF’s holdings of a member’s currency reflect, among other things, the transactions and operations of the IMF in that currency. This concept is used in calculating the amounts that a member can draw under tranche policies and in respect to certain of its obligations to the IMF.
This paper discusses that for countries that have introduced new currencies, the rates shown in International Financial Statistics (IFS) for the period before the introduction of the most recent currency may be used as conversion factors—they may be used to convert national currency in IFS to US dollar or SDR. In such cases, the factors are constructed by chain linking the exchange rates of the old and the new currencies. The basis used is the value of the new currency relative to the old currency, as established by the issuing agency at the time the new currency was introduced. Notes on the introduction of new currencies can be found in the Country Notes or in IFS print publication (if recent). Data on members’ IMF accounts are presented in the Fund Position section in the country tables and in four world tables. Terms and concepts of IMF accounts and the time series in the country and world tables are explained below.
This paper discusses that for countries that are members of the euro area, the exchange rates shown are expressed in national currency units per SDR or per US dollar through 1998, and in euros per SDR or per US dollar thereafter. Data on members’ IMF accounts are presented in the Fund Position section in the country tables and in four world tables. Terms and concepts of IMF accounts and the time series in the country and world tables are explained below. When a country joins the IMF, it is assigned a quota that fits into the structure of existing quotas. Quotas are considered in light of the member’s economic characteristics, and take into account quotas of similar countries. The size of the member’s quota determines, among other things, the member’s voting power, the size of its potential access to IMF resources, and its share in allocations of SDRs.
This paper describes the country, euro area, and world tables that provide measures of effective exchange rates, compiled by the IMF’s Research Department, Statistics Department, and area departments. A nominal effective exchange rate index represents the ratio of an index of a currency’s period-average exchange rate to a weighted geometric average of exchange rates for the currencies of selected countries and the euro area. A real effective exchange rate index represents a nominal effective exchange rate index adjusted for relative movements in national price or cost indicators of the home country, selected countries, and the euro area. For ease of comparison between the nominal effective exchange rate index and the real effective exchange rate index, the average exchange rate expressed in terms of US dollars per unit of each of the national currencies is also given in the index form, base 2010 = 100.
This paper discusses annual publication detailed data on transactions in revenue, expense, net acquisition of assets and liabilities, other economic flows, and balances of assets and liabilities of general government and its subsectors. International Financial Statistics (IFS), Balance of Payments Statistics (BOPS), Direction of Trade Statistics (DOTS), and Government Finance Statistics (GFS) are available on DVD-ROM by annual subscription. The DVD-ROMs incorporate a Windows-based browser facility, as well as a flat file of the database in scientific notation. The Statistics Department of the IMF is pleased to make available to users the IFS, Balance of Payments Statistics (BOPS), DOTS, and Government Finance Statistics (GFS) databases through the new, easy-to-use data. In the interest of streamlining and standardizing datasets, all indicator codes have been converted to one code/indicator that is the same in all media.
This paper discusses that for ease of comparison between the nominal effective exchange rate index and the real effective exchange rate index, the average exchange rate expressed in terms of US dollars per unit of each of the national currencies. In both cases, an increase in the index reflects an appreciation. Because of certain data-related limits, particularly where IMF estimates have been used, data users need to exercise considerable caution in interpreting movements in nominal effective and real effective exchange rates. The IMF publishes calculated effective exchange rates data only for countries that have given their approval. Similar indices that are calculated by country authorities may contain different results. For manufactured goods, trade by type of good and market is distinguished in the database. For primary products, the weights assigned depend principally on a country’s role as a global supplier or buyer of the product.
This paper discusses the complete set of updated country notes is accessible from the IFS Online Service internet site (in the Metadata tab), and appear on the DVD-ROM edition of IFS under the Publications tab. A print edition of Country Notes may be ordered separately by subscribers of the DVD-ROM. The sources for the unit labor cost data are the OECD Analytical Database (quarterly unit labor cost in manufacturing) and IMF staff (annual data interpolated into higher frequencies). Euro area unit labor cost is used as a proxy for a number of economies for which data are unavailable: Cyprus, Czech Republic, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Malta, and Slovak Republic. For manufactured goods, trade by type of good and market is distinguished in the database. For primary products, the weights assigned depend principally on a country’s role as a global supplier or buyer of the product. Trade in crude petroleum, petroleum, and other energy products are excluded. For some countries that heavily depend on tourism, bilateral exports of tourism services averaged over 2004–2006 are also included in calculating the competitiveness weights.
This paper focuses on composition of the basket that was changed on the basis of updated data for 1972–1976. The weights of some currencies were also changed. The amount of each of the 16 currencies in the revised basket was such as to ensure that the value of the Special Drawing Right (SDR) in terms of any currency on June 30, 1978 was exactly the same in the revised valuation as in the previous valuation. Since January 1, 1981, the value of the SDR has been determined based on the currencies of the five member countries having the largest exports of goods and services during the 5-year period ending one year before the date of the latest revision to the valuation basket. Broadly reflecting the currencies’ relative importance in international trade and finance, the weights are based on the value of the exports of goods and services of the members issuing these currencies and the balances of their currencies officially held by members of the IMF.
This paper discusses currencies’ relative importance in international trade and finance, the weights are based on the value of the exports of goods and services of the members issuing these currencies and the balances of their currencies officially held by members of the IMF. From January 1981 to December 1985, the currencies and currency weights of the five members having the largest exports of goods and services during 1975–1979 were the US dollar, 42 percent; deutsche mark, 19 percent; French franc, Japanese yen, and pound sterling, 13 percent each. From January 1986 through December 1990, reflecting the 1980–1984, the weights had changed to US dollar, 42 percent; deutsche mark, 19 percent; Japanese yen, 15 percent; French franc and pound sterling, 12 percent each. From January 1991 to December 1995, reflecting the years 1985–1989, the weights were US dollar, 40 percent; deutsche mark, 21 percent; Japanese yen, 17 percent; French franc and pound sterling, 11 percent each.