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Monetary Frameworks
			: Is There a Preferred Option for the European Central Bank?

Monetary Frameworks : Is There a Preferred Option for the European Central Bank? »

Volume/Issue: 1997/6

Series: IMF Policy Discussion Papers

Author(s): Ramana Ramaswamy

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 June 1997

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451972030.003

ISBN: 9781451972030

Keywords: European Central Bank, Monetary policy, Inflation, EMU, Inflation targeting, Monetary targeting, monetary union

This paper discusses how the size of the monetary union in Europe can influence the choice of the monetary framework. The main conjecture is that the European Central Bank ought to target inflation if monetary unio...

Euro Area Policies
			: 2011 Article IV Consultation-Lessons from the European Financial Stability Framework Exercise; and Selected Issues Paper

Euro Area Policies : 2011 Article IV Consultation-Lessons from the European Financial Stability Framework Exercise; and Selected Issues Paper »

Volume/Issue: 2011/186

Series: IMF Staff Country Reports

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 19 July 2011

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781462338542.002

ISBN: 9781462338542

Keywords: financial sector, financial institutions, financial system, financial services

The European Union's (EU) financial stability framework is being markedly strengthened. This is taking place on the heels of a severe financial crisis owing to weaknesses in the banking system interrelated with sov...

European Union
			: Publication of Financial Sector Assessment Program Documentation-Technical Note on Cross-Border Issues, Central Counterparties, and Central Securities Depositories

European Union : Publication of Financial Sector Assessment Program Documentation-Technical Note on Cross-Border Issues, Central Counterparties, and Central Securities Depositories »

Volume/Issue: 2013/72

Series: IMF Staff Country Reports

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. Monetary and Capital Markets Department

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 15 March 2013

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781475548679.002

ISBN: 9781475548679

Keywords: regulation, technical standards, regulations, legislation, international standards

The analysis focuses on the effectiveness of the regulatory, supervisory, and oversight frameworks for central counterparties (CCPs) and central securities depositories (CSDs) in the European Union (EU) as these ar...

Republic of Latvia
			: Recent Economic Developments

Republic of Latvia : Recent Economic Developments »

Volume/Issue: 1996/143

Series: IMF Staff Country Reports

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 23 January 1997

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451824407.002

ISBN: 9781451824407

Keywords: banking, banking crisis, balance of payments, bank of latvia, bank credit

This paper reviews economic developments in Latvia during 1994-96. The paper highlights that developments during this period have been dominated by the after-effects of the fiscal slippage in 1994 and the banking c...

Republic of Latvia
			: Staff Report for the 1999 Article IV Consultation

Republic of Latvia : Staff Report for the 1999 Article IV Consultation »

Volume/Issue: 1999/77

Series: IMF Staff Country Reports

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 10 August 1999

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451824421.002

ISBN: 9781451824421

Keywords: banking, bank of latvia, banking system, banking supervision, fiscal deficit

This 1999 Article IV Consultation highlights that macroeconomic developments in Latvia were severely affected by the Russian economic crisis. Real GDP declined by 1.9 percent in the fourth quarter of 1998, and furt...

Republic of Latvia
			: Staff Report for the 2000 Article IV Consultation and First Review Under the Stand-By Arrangement

Republic of Latvia : Staff Report for the 2000 Article IV Consultation and First Review Under the Stand-By Arrangement »

Volume/Issue: 2000/78

Series: IMF Staff Country Reports

Author(s): International Monetary Fund

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 10 July 2000

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781451824438.002

ISBN: 9781451824438

Keywords: deficit, debt, budget, balance of payments, financial sector

With the resumption in growth, the economic recession triggered by the Russian crisis has ended. Additional efforts will be needed to reduce the current account deficit and increase its financing. The IMF staff com...

Republic of Latvia
			: 2012 Article IV Consultation and Second Post-Program Monitoring Discussions

Republic of Latvia : 2012 Article IV Consultation and Second Post-Program Monitoring Discussions »

Volume/Issue: 2013/28

Series: IMF Staff Country Reports

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. European Dept.

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 28 January 2013

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781475519839.002

ISBN: 9781475519839

Keywords: external debt, current account, public debt, debt sustainability, current account deficit

Latvia has rebounded from the crisis, after successfully undertaking a difficult adjustment program. The recovery has been well balanced between external and domestic demand. The labor market is improving but unemp...

Fostering Growth in Europe Now

Fostering Growth in Europe Now »

Volume/Issue: 2012/7

Series: Staff Discussion Notes

Author(s): Bergljot Barkbu , Jesmin Rahman , and Rodrigo Valdes

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 18 June 2012

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781475504644.006

ISBN: 9781475504644

Keywords: Euro Area, Real effective exchange rates, Macroprudential Policy, Growth, unemployment, macroeconomic policy, structural reform, fiscal policy, labor market, employment

Staff Discussion Notes showcase the latest policy-related analysis and research being developed by individual IMF staff and are published to elicit comment and to further debate. These papers are generally brief an...

The Refugee Surge in Europe
			: Economic Challenges

The Refugee Surge in Europe : Economic Challenges »

Volume/Issue: 2016/2

Series: Staff Discussion Notes

Author(s): Shekhar Aiyar , Bergljot Barkbu , Nicoletta Batini , Helge Berger , Enrica Detragiache , Allan Dizioli , Christian Ebeke , Huidan Lin , Linda Kaltani , Sebastian Sosa , Antonio Spilimbergo , and Petia Topalova

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 19 January 2016

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781513552590.006

ISBN: 9781513552590

Keywords: Migrations, Euro Area, Migrant labor, Labor supply, Labor markets, Emigration and immigration, Demographic transition, Population growth, Migration, Refugees

Against the background of political turmoil in the Middle-East, Europe faces an unprecedented surge in asylum applications. In analyzing the economic impact of this inflow, this paper draws from the experience of...

Role of the Legislature in Budget Processes

Role of the Legislature in Budget Processes »

Volume: 10

Series: Technical Notes and Manuals

Author(s): Ian Lienert

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 06 April 2010

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781462398973.005

ISBN: 9781462398973

Keywords: budget, approval, parliament, legislature, government, executive, accountability, annual budget, appropriations, budgets

This paper examines the role of the legislature in budget processes. The paper highlights that for promoting good governance and fiscal transparency, the legislature's active engagement in the budget process is ess...