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Africa’s Burgeoning Ties with China Maximizing the benefits of China’s increasing economic engagement with Africa

Africa’s Burgeoning Ties with China Maximizing the benefits of China’s increasing economic engagement with Africa »

Source: Finance & Development, March 2008

Volume/Issue: 45/1

Series: Finance & Development

Author(s): International Monetary Fund. External Relations Dept.

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 07 April 2008

ISBN: 9781451922349

Keywords: climate change, emissions, crude oil, opec, oil prices

Commodity Boom: How Long Will It Last?" asks how economies will fare after the record-high prices of key raw materials posted in recent months, which build on dramatic increases from their lows of 2000. The lead ar...

Age at retirement by educational background in Nordic countries

Age at retirement by educational background in Nordic countries »

Series: Nordic Council of Ministers

Publisher: Nordic Council of Ministers

Publication Date: 01 June 2013

ISBN: 9789289326667

Keywords: Nordic, Norden, Baltic, Baltics, Labour Force, Nordic Countries, Retirement Age, Absent Additional Pension Policy Changes, Educational Level, Field of Study

The labour force in Nordic countries will change over the next few years. Absent additional pension policy changes, a majority of working persons age 50 and older will retire by 2020. Average retirement age varies...

Aggregation of indicators for biological diversity in the Nordic countries
			: Proceedings and recommendations from the workshop at Tune Landboskole, Denmark, 29 - 30 March 2006

Aggregation of indicators for biological diversity in the Nordic countries : Proceedings and recommendations from the workshop at Tune Landboskole, Denmark, 29 - 30 March 2006 »

Series: Nordic Council of Ministers

Author(s): Gudmundur A. Gudmundsson , Ari-Pekka Auvinen , Anders Glimskär , Gregor Levin , Bo Normander , and Odd Stabbetorp

Publisher: Nordic Council of Ministers

Publication Date: 01 June 2006

ISBN: 9789289313711

Keywords: Nordic, Norden, Baltic, Baltics, Common Goal, Biodiversity, Species Abundance, Species Composition, Habitat Structure, Nordic Biodiversity Index

The Nordic countries have a common goal to halt the decline in biological diversity by 2010. Indicators and indices are important tools to describe the development in biodiversity and hence evaluate the 2010-target...

Aging Populations and Public Pension Schemes

Aging Populations and Public Pension Schemes »

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Sheetal Chand , and Albert Jaeger

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 30 December 1996

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5089/9781557756206.084

ISBN: 9781557756206

Keywords: Aging, pension, public pension, retirement, contribution rates

This paper discusses a study analyzing aging populations and public pension schemes. An aging society is characterized by a growing proportion of the retired to the active working population. The study examines the...

Front Matter

Front Matter »

Source: Aging Populations and Public Pension Schemes

Series: Occasional Papers

Author(s): Sheetal Chand , and Albert Jaeger

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 30 December 1996

ISBN: 9781557756206

Keywords: Aging, pension, public pension, retirement, contribution rates

This paper discusses a study analyzing aging populations and public pension schemes. An aging society is characterized by a growing proportion of the retired to the active working population. The study examines the...

Agriculture and the environment in the Nordic countries
			: Policies for sustainability and green growth

Agriculture and the environment in the Nordic countries : Policies for sustainability and green growth »

Series: Nordic Council of Ministers

Author(s): Valborg Kvakkestad , Øystein Skutevik , and Anne Strøm Prestvik

Publisher: Nordic Council of Ministers

Publication Date: 01 June 2013

ISBN: 9789289325950

Keywords: Nordic, Norden, Baltic, Baltics, Agricultural Products, Natural Resources, Fragile Ecosystems, Sustainable Agricultural Practices, Green Growth, Water Pollution

In the future, demand for agricultural products will increase. The agricultural sector must meet the increase in demand without compromising the natural resources of which it depends on and damage fragile ecosystem...

Alkaloids in edible lupin seeds
			: A toxicological review and recommendations

Alkaloids in edible lupin seeds : A toxicological review and recommendations »

Series: Nordic Council of Ministers

Author(s): Jørn Gry , and Kirsten Pilegaard

Publisher: Nordic Council of Ministers

Publication Date: 01 June 2009

ISBN: 9789289318020

Keywords: Nordic, Norden, Baltic, Baltics, Toxicity Data, Natural Toxicants, Lupin Seeds, Quinolizidin Alkaloids, Substituting Wheat, Safe Use

The report reviews the toxicity data on inherent natural toxicants in lupin seeds, especially quinolizidin alkaloids. Lupin seeds are increasingly used in the Nordic countries, partially substituting wheat flour in...

Benefits of Green Public Procurement

Benefits of Green Public Procurement »

Series: Nordic Council of Ministers

Author(s): Bjørn Bauer , Ida Bode , and Tue Dyekjær-Hansen

Publisher: Nordic Council of Ministers

Publication Date: 01 June 2010

ISBN: 9789289319645

Keywords: Nordic, Norden, Baltic, Baltics, Green Public Procurement (GPP), Private Sector, Sustainable Products and Services, Nordic Public Procurement, Strengthening GPP, Economy and national budget

Green Public Procurement (GPP) can play a significant a role in efforts to influence the private sector towards more sustainable products and services. Following an account of the environmental impact of Nordic pub...

Allergen labelling and use of advisory labelling "May contain traces of [allergen]"

Allergen labelling and use of advisory labelling "May contain traces of [allergen]" »

Series: Nordic Council of Ministers

Author(s): Siri B. Svinddal

Publisher: Nordic Council of Ministers

Publication Date: 01 June 2013

ISBN: 9789289324588

Keywords: Nordic, Norden, Baltic, Baltics, Nordic Inspection Campaign, Labelling of Allergens, Advisory Labelling, Accurate Labelling of Allergens, Allergy Safety, Nordic Co-operation

In 2010-2012, Norway, Sweden, Denmark and Finland collaborated in a Nordic inspection campaign about labelling of allergens and use of advisory labelling ("May contain traces of [allergen]"). The background to the...

Alternative Methods of Estimating Potential Output and the Output Gap

Alternative Methods of Estimating Potential Output and the Output Gap »

Source: Alternative Methods of Estimating Potential Output and the Output Gap : An Application to Sweden

Volume/Issue: 2000/59

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Sweta Saxena , and Valerie Cerra

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 March 2000

ISBN: 9781451847932

Keywords: Business Cycles, Output Gap, Potential Output, Detrending, Production Function, Vector Autoregression, Unobserved Components Models, nairu, equation, time series

This paper reviews a number of different methods that can be used to estimate potential output and the output gap. Measures of potential output and the output gap are useful to help identify the scope for sustainab...