Abstract

This paper reviews major issues and developments in the trade area and outlines the challenges governments face as they seek to liberalize trade in the Uruguay Round of trade negotiations and address new trade issues. In industrial countries, the reorientation of policies was most apparent in steps taken to liberalize financial markets and foreign direct investment, privatize public enterprises, and deregulate services, particularly in the transportation and communication sectors. Among developing countries, a growing number recognized the merits of outward, market-oriented policies and took steps to liberalize their trade regimes and open their economies to international competition. By and large, the increased focus on market principles in industrial countries did not carry over to trade and industrial policies or, most notable, to the agricultural sector. Despite strong growth performance in 1983–1989, little progress was made in rolling back the protective barriers that had risen during the preceding recessionary period; protection persists in agriculture and declining sectors and has spread to newer high-tech areas.

© 1992 International Monetary Fund

Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data

Issues and developments in international trade policy / by a staff team led by Margaret Kelly and Anne Kenny McGuirk: Peter Winglee … [et al.].

p. cm. — (World economic and financial surveys)

Includes bibliographical references.

ISBN 9781451939545

1. Commercial policy.2. International trade. I. Kelly. Margaret. II. McGuirk. Anne Kenney. III. Winglee, Peter IV. Series

HF1411.184 1992 92-28466

382.3—dc20 CIP

ISSN 0258-7440

Price: US$20.00

(US$12.00 to full-time faculty members and students at universities and colleges)

Please send orders to:

International Monetary Fund, Publication Services

700 19th Street N.W. Washington. D.C. 20431, U.S.A.

Tel.: (202) 623-7430 Telefax: (202) 623-7201

Contents

  • Preface

  • I. Overview

    • Major Developments in Trade and Trade-Related Policies

      • Background to Developments

      • Industrial Countries

      • Developing Countries

      • Regional Developments and Initiatives

    • Developments in the Multilateral Trade System

  • II. Overall Trends

    • Output, Trade, and Foreign Investment

    • Trade Trends in Developing Countries

  • III. Industrial Countries’ Trade and Trade-Related Policies

    • Recent Trends in Trade Policies

      • Tariffs

      • Nontariff Measures

      • Antidumping and Countervailing Duties

    • Trends in Government Support

      • Industrial Subsidies

      • Multilateral Efforts to Curb Subsidies

    • Trade Policy Developments in Individual Countries

      • United States

      • Japan

      • European Community

      • Canada

      • Other Industrial Countries

  • IV. Trade Liberalization in Eastern European Countries

    • Historical Setting: Trade Policy in the Context of Central Planning

    • Recent Reforms and Design Issues

      • Recent Reforms

      • Issues in the Design of Trade Reform

    • Integration into the Multilateral Trading System

      • Access to Industrial Country Markets

      • Full Integration into GATT

  • V. Trade Policies of Developing Countries

    • Trade Policies Prior to the Mid-1980s

    • Trade Policies Since the Mid-1980s

      • Extent of Reforms

      • Issues in the Design and Implementation of Trade Reforms

      • Trade Liberalization Versus Export Promotion and Selective Intervention

  • VI. Agricultural Trade Policies: Recent Developments and Issues in Reform

    • Recent Policy Developments

      • General Setting

      • United States

      • European Community

      • Japan

      • EFTA Countries

      • Canada, Australia, and New Zealand

      • Eastern Europe

      • Developing Countries

    • The Reform of Agriculture

      • Rationale for Agricultural Support

      • Studies of the Gains from Liberalization

      • Approaches to the Reform of Support Policies

  • VII. Issues for the 1990s

    • Integration of Developing and Eastern European Countries into the Multilateral Trade System

    • Regional Arrangements and the Multilateral Trade System

    • Globalization of Investment and Production

      • Interrelation Between Trade and Competition Policies

      • Issues Related to Trade and Investment Policies

      • Issues Related to Innovation and “Strategic” Trade Policies

    • Trade and the Environment

  • Boxes

    • 1. Trade-Related Work Program of the OECD

    • 2. Methodology Used in Trade Review

  • Appendices

  • I. The GATT System

    • The Contracting Parties

    • The GATT Council of Representatives

    • GATT Surveillance

    • Instruments of Protection

    • The Committee on Trade and Development

  • II. The Interface Between Trade and Competition Policies

    • Definitions, Aims, Sources of Conflict, and Implications

    • Past Efforts to Deal with the Interaction Between Trade and Competition Policies

    • Examples of Conflicts Between Trade and Competition Policies

    • Proposals to Reduce Policy Inconsistencies

  • III. Measures and Costs of Protection

    • Measuring Nontariff Barriers

    • Measuring the Effects of Nontariff Barriers

  • Statistical Appendix

  • Bibliography

  • Tables

  • Section

  • II. 1. Developments in Regional Trade Flows, 1980–89

    • 2. Merchandise Trade

    • 3. Developing Countries: Export Volumes, 1973–90

  • III. 4. Import Coverage Ratios of Selected Nontariff Measures, by Type of Measure, Applied by Selected Developed Market-Economy Countries

    • 5. Summary of Export Restraint Arrangements by Product and Exporting Region, End of March 1989

  • IV. 6. Trade and Payments Systems of Eastern European Countries as of June 1991

    • 7. Bilateral Trade Arrangements Between Eastern European Countries and the Former U.S.S.R.

    • 8. Market-Opening Measures Taken by Industrial Countries for Eastern European Exports

    • 9. Industrial Countries’ Nontariff Barriers to Exports by Eastern Europe

    • 10. Current Situation of Eastern European Countries in GATT

  • V. 11. Developing Country Trade Regimes Before Liberalization

    • 12. Trade Reform Programs in Developing Countries

    • 13. Current Structure of Developing Country Trade Regimes

    • 14. Trade Liberalization, Stabilization, or Both

  • VI. 15. Total Transfers Associated with Agricultural Policies

    • 16. Net Producer Subsidy Equivalents

  • VII. 17. Old Arguments in New Cloth?

  • Appendix

  • II. 18. Indicative Checklist for the Assessment of Trade Policy Measures

    • 19. Dumping and Antidumping

    • 20. Examples of Problems with Antidumping Laws and Procedures

    • 21. Excerpts from OECD Communiqué, June 1991

  • III. 22. Estimated NTB Tariff Equivalents in Japan and the United States, 1973

    • 23. A Comparison of NTB Tariff Equivalents

    • 24. A Comparison of the Stoeckel Model and the Deardorff and Stern Model

  • Statistical Appendix

    • A1. Major Industrial Countries: Real GNP, Domestic Demand, and Trade Volumes, 1973–90

    • A2. Shares in World Exports of Manufactures, 1963–89

    • A3. Developing Countries’ Exports by Product, 1980–88

    • A4. Shares of Exports of Manufactures by Area and Sector, 1973–88

    • A5. The Level of Post-Tokyo MFN, Applied, and GSP Tariffs in Selected Developed Countries

    • A6. Importance of GATT Tariff Bindings in Industrial Countries

    • A7. Import Coverage Ratios of Selected Nontariff Measures, by Country Groupings, Applied by Selected Developed Market-Economy Countries

    • A8. Trade Coverage Rates of Selected NTMs Applied by Developed Countries, 1981–90

    • A9. Export Restraint Arrangements, 1987–90

    • A10. Textiles and Clothing: Nontariff Barriers to Trade

    • A11. Summary of Antidumping Actions Taken by Selected Countries, 1981–90

    • A12. Summary of Countervailing Actions Taken by Selected Countries, 1981–90

    • A13. United States: Outstanding Unfair Trade Practice Cases Abroad and Safeguard Petitions, December 31, 1990

    • A14. Industrial Country Subsidies

    • A15. Subsidies by Sector (National Accounts Definition)

    • A16. Government Support in the EC by Sector

    • A17. Support to Manufacturing in the EC and EFTA Countries by Instrument

    • A18. Government-Financed Expenditure on Research and Development in the Enterprise Sector, 1970–88

    • A19. Determinations Under the 1988 Amendments to Section 301 of the 1974 Trade Act of the United States

    • A20. Commodity Composition of Exports, by Selected Eastern European Countries

    • A21. Commodity Composition of Imports, by Selected Eastern European Countries

    • A22. Total Transfers Associated with Agricultural Policies

    • A23. Agriculture in National Economies, 1988

    • A24. Factors Contributing to the Changes in Total Net Producer Subsidy Equivalents

    • A25. Trade in Agricultural Products of Selected Industrial Countries

    • A26. Cereal Exports, 1978/79–1990/91

    • A27. Cereal Imports, 1978/79–1990/91

    • A28. Main Agricultural Producer Support Policies for Selected Countries and Major Commodities, 1991

    • A29. United States: Agricultural Support, 1980–92

    • A30. United States: Support Programs for the Main Agricultural Commodities

    • A31. United States: Budgetary Spending on Agriculture, by Commodity, 1985/86–1991/92

    • A32. United States: Quantitative Restrictions on Agricultural Imports

    • A33. European Community: Average Degree of Self-Supply in Selected Agricultural Products, 1956–89

    • A34. European Community: European Agricultural Guarantee and Guidance Fund—Guarantee Section, Expenditures by Sector, 1976–90

    • A35. European Community: Target Prices for Selected Commodities, 1980/81–1991/92

    • A36. Japan: Self-Sufficiency Rates of Major Agricultural Products

    • A37. Japan: Administrative Prices of Major Agricultural Products

    • A38. Japan: Expenditure on Agriculture and Rural Development, 1975–91

    • A39. Japan: Nominal Protection Coefficients

    • A40. Direct, Indirect, and Total Nominal Protection Rates

    • A41. Estimates of the Impact of Liberalization of Agricultural Policies by Industrial Countries

    • A42. Effects on Global Welfare of Liberalization by Industrial Countries

    • A43. GATT Membership

    • A44. Multilateral Trade Negotiation (MTN) Agreements—Legal Status at December 7, 1990

    • A45. GATT Panels Established Since 1985

    • A46. Balance of Payments Consultations Since Introduction of 1979 Declaration

    • A47. Recourse to Article XIX of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade, 1978–91

  • Chart

    • 1. Real Trade and GDP Growth, 1960–90

The following symbols have been used throughout this paper:

… to indicate that data are not available:

— to indicate that the figure is zero or less than half the final digit shown, or that the item does not exist;

– between years or months (e.g., 1990–91 or January–June) to indicate the years or months covered, including the beginning and ending years or months;

/ between years (e.g., 1990/91) to indicate a crop or fiscal (financial) year.

“Billion” means a thousand million.

Minor discrepancies between constituent figures and totals are due to rounding.

The term “country” used in this study does not in all cases refer to a territorial entity that is a state as understood by international law and practice. The term also covers some territorial entities that are not states, but for which statistical data are maintained and provided internationally on a separate and independent basis.

Preface

This study was prepared in the Trade and Payments Division of the Exchange and Trade Relations Department of the International Monetary Fund. Its authors are Margaret Kelly, Division Chief; Anne McGuirk, Deputy Division Chief; Peter Winglee, Senior Economist; Clemens Boonekamp, Senior Economist (Geneva Office); Yoon Je Cho and Bernhard Fritz-Krockow, Economists; and Peter Uimonen, Research Assistant.

To obtain information and collect views for this paper, staff teams held discussions with trade and economics officials in Bonn, Brussels (the Commission of the European Communities), Canberra, London, Ottawa, Paris, Seoul, Tokyo, Washington, and Wellington. In addition, a staff team visited Geneva and Paris for discussions with GATT and OECD officials. Staff members of the Western Hemisphere Department participated in the discussions held in Ottawa and Washington. Staff members of the European Department participated in the discussions in Brussels, Canberra, Paris, and Wellington, and staff members of the Asian Department participated in the discussions in Seoul and Tokyo. While in Europe, the staff team was assisted by the Fund Office in Europe and the Fund Office in Geneva.

The study reviews major issues and developments in the trade area and outlines the challenges governments face as they seek to liberalize trade in the Uruguay Round of trade negotiations and address “new” trade issues. The coverage of the study is through October 1991 and, as a result, does not reflect subsequent developments, most notably in Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union. It follows the pattern of the Fund staff surveys prepared in 1978, 1981, 1982, 1985, and 1988.1

The authors are indebted to a number of colleagues, both in the Fund and in other national and international agencies, for their willingness to exchange views and provide information. The authors are grateful to Joslin Landell-Mills for her assistance in preparing the study from a longer manuscript; to the editor Juanita Roushdy of the External Relations Department; to Christine Hörbinger for research assistance, and to Marcela Toso and Elizabeth Mack for keyboarding. The authors alone are responsible for the study; any opinions expressed are theirs and do not necessarily reflect the views of the Fund.

Issues & Development in intl. Trade
  • Anderson, Kym,The International Dimension of the Political Economy of Agricultural Policy,paper presented at a conference on International Dimensions to Structural Adjustment: Implications for Developing Country Agriculture (Paris, 1991).

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Anderson, Kym, and Rod Tyers,How Developing Countries Could Gain from Agricultural Trade Liberalization in the Uruguay Round,in Agricultural Trade Liberalization: Implications for Developing Countries, ed. by Ian Goldin and Odin Knudsen (Paris: OECD Development Center, 1990), pp. 4775.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Australian Industry Commission, Strategic Trade Theory: The East Asian Experience (Canberra: Industry Commission, November 1990).

  • Balassa, Bela,Comparative Advantage in Manufactured Goods: A Reappraisal,Review of Economics and Statistics (May 1986), No. 68, pp. 31519.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Balassa, Bela, and M. Noland, Japan in the World Economy (Washington: Institute for International Economics, 1988).

  • Banks, Gary, Australia’s Antidumping Experience, PRE Working Paper No. 551 (Washington: World Bank, December 1990).

  • Barton, John H., “Toward an International Antitrust Code” (mimeograph, Stanford, California: Stanford International Center for Law and High Technology, July 1, 1990).

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Baumol, William J., and Kyu Sik Lee,Contestable Markets, Trade, and Development,in World Bank Research Observer (Washington), Vol. 6, (January 1991), pp. 117.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Bell, A.,Antidumping Practice of the EEC: The Japanese Dimension,Legal Issues of European Integration (Deventer, Netherlands: Kluwer Law and Taxation Publishers, 1987), pp. 131.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Bergsten, C. Fred, and William R. Cline, The United States-Japan Economic Problem, Policy Analysis in International Economics 13 (Washington: Institute for International Economics, 1987).

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Bhagwati, Jagdish,Export-Promoting Strategy: Issues and Evidence,World Bank Research Observer (Washington), Vol. 3 (1988), pp. 2756.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Bhagwati, Jagdish, The World Trading System at Risk (Hamel Hempstead, England: Harvester Wheatsheaf, 1991).

  • Blejer, M., and A. Cheasty, “Fiscal Implications of Trade Liberalization,” in Fiscal Policy in Open Developing Economies, ed. by V. Tanzi (Washington: International Monetary Fund, 1990).

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Boote, Anthony R., and Janos Somogyi, “Economic Reform in Hungary Since 1968,” IMF Occasional Paper, No. 83 (Washington: International Monetary Fund, July 1987).

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Brander, James A., and Barbara J. Spencer,Export Subsidies and International Market Share Rivalry,Journal of International Economics (Amsterdam), Vol. 18 (February 1985), pp. 83100.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Broome, John,Recent Developments in Trans-Tasman Business Law,paper prepared for the 17th International Trade Law Conference (September 1990).

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Burniaux, Jean Marc, Dominique van der Mensbrugghe, and Jean Waelbroeck, “Economy-Wide Effects of Agricultural Policies in OECD Countries: A GE Approach Using the WALRAS Model,” in Agricultural Trade Liberalization: Implications for Developing Countries, ed. by Ian Goldin and Odin Knudsen (Paris: OECD Development Center, 1990).

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Calvo, Guillermo A., and Jacob A. Frenkel,From Centrally Planned to Market Economy,Staff Papers, International Monetary Fund (Washington), Vol. 38 (June 1991), pp. 26899.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Canada, Bureau of Competition Policy, Europe 1992, Working Group Report on Competition Policy (Ottawa, January 1991).

  • Centre for Economic Policy Research, Monitoring European Integration: The Impact of Eastern Europe, CEPR Annual Report (London: CEPR, October 1990).

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Citrin, Daniel A., “Agricultural Policies in Japan and Their Economic Consequences,” in Staff Studies for the World Economic Outlook, World Economic and Financial Surveys (Washington: International Monetary Fund, September 1990).

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Cline, William, The Future of World Trade in Textiles and Apparel (Washington: Institute for International Economics, rev. ed., 1990).

  • Cline, William, and S. Weintraub, eds., Economic Stabilization in Developing Countries (Washington: The Brookings Institution, 1981).

  • Collins, Susan M., and Dan T. Rodrik, Eastern Europe and the Soviet Union in the World Economy, Policy Analysis in International Economics 32 (Washington: Institute for International Economics, May 1991).

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Collyns, Charles, and Steven Dunaway,The Cost of Trade Restraints: The Case of Japanese Automobile Exports to the United States,Staff Papers, International Monetary Fund (Washington), Vol. 34 (March 1987), pp. 15075.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Corbo, Vittorio, Morris Goldstein, and Mohsin Khan, eds., Growth-Oriented Adjustment Programs (Washington: International Monetary Fund and The World Bank, 1987).

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Corden, W.M., Protection and Liberalization: A Review of Analytical Issues, IMF Occasional Paper, No. 54 (Washington: International Monetary Fund, 1987).

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Corker, Robert,The Changing Structure of Japanese Trade Flows,IMF Working Paper, WP/90/107 (Washington: International Monetary Fund, 1990).

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Deardorff, Alan V.,Should Patent Protection Be Extended to All Developing Countries?in The World Economy, Vol. 13 (Oxford: Basil Blackwell Ltd., 1990), pp. 497507.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Deardorff, Alan V., and Robert Stern, Computational Analysis of Global Trading Arrangements (Ann Arbor, Michigan: The University of Michigan Press, 1990).

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • de C. Grey, Rodney,The Conflict between Trade Policy and Competition Policy: A Comment,in Studies in Transnational Economic Law, The New GATT Round of Multilateral Trade Negotiations, Legal and Economic Problems, ed. by Ernst-Ulrich Petersmann and Meinhard Hilf, Vol. 5 (Deventer, Netherlands: Kluwer Law and Taxation Publishers, 1988), pp. 44753.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • de la Torre, Augusto, and Margaret R. Kelly, Regional Trade Arrangements, IMF Occasional Paper, No. 93 (Washington: International Monetary Fund, 1992).

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • de Melo, Jaime, and David Tarr, Welfare Costs of U.S. Quotas on Textiles, Steel and Autos, PPR Working Paper, No. 83 (Washington: The World Bank, 1988).

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • “Economic Declaration of the London Summit,” International Trade Reporter (Washington), Vol. 8 (July 24, 1991), p. 1128.

  • European Report, No. 1704 (1991).

  • Farhadian-Lorie, Z., and M. Katz, “Fiscal Dimensions of Trade Policy,” in Fiscal Policy, Stabilization and Growth in Developing Countries, ed. by M. Blejer and Ke-Young Chu (Washington: International Monetary Fund, 1989).

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Feenstra, R.,Automobile Prices and Protection: The U.S.-Japan Trade Restraint,Journal of Policy Modelling, Vol. 7 (Spring 1985), pp. 4968.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Feketekuty, Geza (1991a), “Changes in the World Economy and Implications for the World Trading System” (mimeograph, Washington: Office of U.S. Trade Representative, June 1991).

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Feketekuty, Geza (1991b), “Beyond the Uruguay Round,IMF Survey (Washington), Vol. 20, (July 15, 1991), pp. 209.

  • Finger, J. Michael, “Antidumping and Antisubsidy Measures,” in The Uruguay Round: A Handbook on the Multilateral Trade Negotiations, ed. by J. Michael Finger and Andrzej Olechowski (Washington: The World Bank, 1987).

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Finger, J. Michael, and Patrick A. Messerlin, The Effects of Industrial Countries’ Policies on Developing Countries, Policy and Research Series (Washington: The World Bank, 1989).

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Finger, J. Michael, and Julio Nogues,International Control of Subsidies and Countervailing Duties,World Bank Economic Review (Washington), Vol. 1 (September 1987), pp. 70725.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Fischer, Stanley,Issues in Medium-Term Macroeconomic Adjustment,World Bank Research Observer (Washington), Vol. 1 (July 1986), pp. 16382.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Fischer, Stanley,Economic Growth and Economic Policy,in Growth-Oriented Adjustment Programs, ed. by Vittorio Corbo and others (Washington: International Monetary Fund and The World Bank, 1987).

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Fischer, Stanley,Comments on Lipton and Sachs,Brookings Papers on Economic Activity I (1990), p. 147.

  • Ford, Robert, and Wim Suyker,Industrial Subsidies in the OECD Economies,OECD Economic Studies (Paris), No. 15 (Autumn 1990), pp. 3781.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Frohberg, Klaus, G. Fischer, and K.S. Parikh, “World Developing Countries Benefit from Agricultural Trade Liberalization in OECD Countries,” in Agricultural Trade Liberalization: Implications for Developing Countries, ed. by Ian Goldin and Odin Knudsen (Paris: OECD Development Center, 1990).

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Gelb, Alan H., and Cheryl W. Gray, “The Transformation of Economies in Central and Eastern Europe: Issues, Progress, and Prospects” (mimeograph, Washington: The World Bank, Country Economics Department, 1991).

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Genberg, Hans,On Sequencing Reforms in Eastern Europe,IMF Working Paper, WP/91/13 (Washington: International Monetary Fund, February 1991).

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (1989a), Council Overview of Developments in the International Trading Environment, Annual Report by the Director General, C/RM/OV/1 (Geneva: GATT, 1989).

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (1989b), Trade Policy Review, Australia 1989 (Geneva: GATT, March 1989).

  • General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (1989c), Trade Policy Review, United States 1989 (Geneva: GATT, November 1989).

  • General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (1990a), International Trade 89–90, Vols. I and II (Geneva: GATT, 1990).

  • General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (1990b), Trade Policy Review, Sweden 1990 (Geneva: GATT, August 1990).

  • General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (1990c), Trade Policy Review, Canada 1990 (Geneva: GATT, November 1990).

  • General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (1990d), Trade Policy Review, Japan 1990 (Geneva: GATT, November 1990).

  • General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (1990e), Trade Policy Review, New Zealand 1990 (Geneva: GATT, November 1990).

  • General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (1991a), Council Overview of Developments in International Trade and the Trading System, Annual Report by the Director General, C/RM/OV/1 (Geneva: GATT, June 1991).

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (1991b), Trade Policy Review, European Communities 1991 (Geneva: GATT, March 1991).

  • General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (1991c), Council Overview of Developments in International Trade and the Trading System, Annual Report by the Director General, C/RM/OV/2 (Geneva: GATT, April 1991).

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (1991d), Council Overview of Developments in International Trade and the Trading System, Annual Report by the Director General, C/RM/OV/1 (Geneva: GATT, June 1991).

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Goldberg, Linda, and Janusz Ordover, Nontariff Barriers and Trade and Competition: Theory and Evidence, Note for the Secretariat (Paris: OECD, 1991).

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Goldin, Ian, and Odin Knudsen, eds., Agricultural Trade Liberalization: Implications for Developing Countries (Paris: OECD Development Center, 1990).

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Graham, Edward M., and J. David Richardson,Global Competition Policies” (Washington: Institute for International Economics, forthcoming).

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Greer, Douglas F., Efficiency and Competition: Alternative, Complementary or Conflicting Objectives, Research Monograph 47 (Wellington, New Zealand: Institute of Economic Research Inc., March 1989).

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Grossman, Gene M., Promoting New Industrial Activities: A Survey of Recent Arguments and Evidence, OECD Economic Studies (Paris), No. 14 (Spring 1990), pp. 87125.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Gruen, Fred Henry, Review of the Customs Tariff (Anti-Dumping) Act 1975 (Canberra, Australia: Canberra Publishing & Printing Co., March 1986).

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Harris, D., and others, Effects of the Liberalization of North Asian Beef Import Policies, ABARE, Discussion Paper No. 90.11 (Canberra, 1990).

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Havrylyshyn, Oleh, and Lanit Pritchett,Direction of Trade After Transition in East Europe: Predictions from a Gravity Model,draft (May 1991).

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Havrylyshyn, Oleh, and David G. Tarr, Trade Liberalization and the Transition to Market Economy (Washington: The World Bank, 1991).

  • Hufbauer, Gary C., Diane Berliner, and Kimberly Ann Elliott, Trade Protection in the United States: 31 Case Studies (Washington: Institute for International Economics, 1986).

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hufbauer, Gary C., Jeffrey J. Schott, and Kimberly A. Elliott, Economic Sanctions Reconsidered: Historical Current Policy (Washington: Institute of International Economics, 2d ed., 1990).

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Huff, H. Bruce, and Catherine Moreddu,The Ministerial Trade Mandate Model,OECD Economic Studies, No. 13 (Winter 1989–90), pp. 4567.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • International Monetary Fund, “The Role of Structural Policies in Industrial Countries,” in Staff Studies for the World Economic Outlook, World Economic and Financial Surveys (Washington: International Monetary Fund, August 1989).

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • International Monetary Fund, (1990a), World Economic Outlook (Washington: International Monetary Fund, May 1990).

  • International Monetary Fund, (1990b), World Economic Outlook, Staff Studies (Washington: International Monetary Fund, August 1990).

  • International Monetary Fund, (1990c), World Economic Outlook (Washington: International Monetary Fund, October 1990).

  • International Monetary Fund, (1991a), World Economic Outlook (Washington: International Monetary Fund, May 1991).

  • International Monetary Fund, (1991b), World Economic Outlook (Washington: International Monetary Fund, October 1991).

  • International Monetary Fund, The World Bank, Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development, and European Bank for Reconstruction Development, The Economy of USSR, a study undertaken in response to a request by the Houston Summit (1990).

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • International Trade Reporter (Washington), Vol. 8 (October 2, 1991) and (July 17, 1991).

  • Jackson, John H., World Trade and the Law of GATT (Indianapolis: Bobbs-Merrill, 1969).

  • Jackson, John H., The World Trading System: Law and Policy of International Economic Relations (Cambridge, Massachusetts: The MIT Press, 1989).

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Jacquemin, Alexis, and others, Merger and Competition Policy in the European Community, ed. by P.H. Admiral (Oxford: Basil Blackwell, Inc., 1990).

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Japan Economic Institute, “The Structure of Japan’s Imports: Causes and Consequences,JEI Report, No. 22A (Washington, June 14, 1991).

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Japan, Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry, and Fishing, “Basic Direction of Japan’s Agricultural Policy Toward the 21st Century,Agricultural Review, Vol. 15 (1987).

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Julius, DeAnne S., Foreign Direct Investment: The Neglected Twin of Trade, Occasional Papers 33 (Washington: Group of Thirty, 1991).

  • Junz, Helen B.,Integration of Eastern Europe into the World Trading System,The American Economic Review, Papers and Proceedings, Vol. 81 (May 1991), pp. 17680.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kelly, Margaret, and others, Issues and Developments in International Trade Policy, IMF Occasional Paper, No. 63 (Washington: International Monetary Fund, 1988).

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kenen, Peter B.,Transitional Arrangements for Trade and Payments Among the CMEA Countries,Staff Papers, International Monetary Fund (Washington), Vol. 38 (June 1991), pp. 23567.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Koulen, Mark,Potential Anti-Trust Liability of Exporters Participating in Various Forms of Export Restraint Arrangements,in Studies in Transnational Economic Law, The New GATT Round of Multilateral Trade Negotiations, Legal and Economic Problems, ed. by Ernst-Ulrich Petersmann and Meinhard Hilf, Vol. 5 (Deventer, Netherlands: Kluwer Law and Taxation Publishers, 1988), pp. 43746.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Krissoff, Barry, John Sullivan, and John Wainio,Developing Countries in an Open Economy: The Case of Agriculture,in Agricultural Trade Liberalization: Implications for Developing Countries, ed. by Ian Goldin and Odin Knudsen (Paris: OECD Development Center, 1990), pp. 15979.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Krueger, Anne, Foreign Trade Regimes and Economic Development: Liberalization Attempts and Consequences (Cambridge, Massachusetts: Ballinger Publishing Company, 1978).

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Krueger, Anne, “Interactions Between Inflation and Trade-Regime Objectives in Stabilization Programs,” in Economic Stabilization in Developing Countries, ed. by W.R. Cline and S. Weintraub (Washington: The Brookings Institution, 1981).

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Krueger, Anne, “Problems of Liberalization,” in World Economic Growth, ed. by A. Harberger (San Francisco, California: ICS Press, 1984).

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Krueger, Anne, Maurice Schiff, and Antonio Valdés,Agricultural Incentives in Developing Countries: Measuring the Effect of Sectoral and Economy Wide Policies,in World Bank Review (Washington), Vol. 2 (September 1988) pp. 25571.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Krugman, Paul R.,Is Free Trade Passé?Journal of Economic Perspectives, Vol. 1 (Fall 1987), pp. 13144.

  • Laird, S., and R. Vossenaar,Why We Should Be Worried About Non-Tariff Measures,Special Issue on Non-Tariff Measures (Madrid: Información Comercial Española, 1991).

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Laird, S., and Alexander J. Yeats, Quantitative Methods for Trade Barrier Analysis (New York: New York University Press, 1990).

  • Lane, Timothy D., and Elias Dinopoulos, Fiscal Constraints on Market-Oriented Reform in a Socialist Economy, IMF Working Paper, WP/91/75 (Washington: International Monetary Fund, August 1991).

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Lawrence, Robert Z.,Imports in Japan: Closed Markets or Minds?Brookings Papers on Economic Activity (U.S.), No. 2 (1987), pp. 51754.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Lawrence, Robert Z.,Efficient or Exclusionist? The Import Behavior of Japanese Corporate Groups: Comments and Discussion,Brookings Papers on Economic Activity (U.S.), No. 1 (1991).

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Lawrence, Robert Z., and Charles L. Schultze, eds., An American Trade Strategy: Options for the 1990s (Washington: The Brookings Institution, 1990).

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Lexeconomics, Inc., The Relationship Between Competition Policy and Anti-Dumping Laws, The Canadian Experience (Ottawa, January 1990).

  • Lincoln, Edward J., Japan’s Unequal Trade (Washington: The Brookings Institution, 1990).

  • Lipton, D., and Jeffrey Sachs,Creating Market Economy in Eastern Europe: The Case of Poland,Brookings Papers on Economic Activity (U.S.), No. 1 (1990), pp. 75147.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Low, Patrick, and Raed Safadi,Trade Policy and Pollution,World Bank Discussion Paper, No. 159 (Washington: The World Bank, May 1991).

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Marin, D.,Tying in International Trade: Evidence on Countertrade,in World Economy, Vol. 13 (September 1990), pp. 44562.

  • Matsushita, Mitsuo,Coordinating International Trade with Competition Policies,in Studies in Transnational Economic Law, The New GATT Round of Multilateral Trade Negotiations, Legal and Economic Problems, ed. by Ernst-Ulrich Petersmann and Meinhard Hilf, Vol. 5 (Deventer, Netherlands: Kluwer Law and Taxation Publishers, 1988), pp. 395432.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • McCulloch, Rachel,Investment Policies in the GATT,NBER Working Paper Series, No. 3672 (Cambridge, Massachusetts: National Bureau of Economic Research, 1991).

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • McKinnon, Ronald I.,Liberalizing Foreign Trade in a Socialist Economy: The Problem of Negative Value Added,Rivista di Politica Economía (Italy), Vol. 81 (June 1991), pp. 85120.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • McKinnon, Ronald I., and D. J. Mathieson, How to Manage a Repressed Economy, Princeton Essays in International Finance, No. 145 (Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton University Press, December 1981).

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Messerlin, Patrick A.,Antidumping Regulations or Pro-Cartel Law? The EC Chemical Cases,in The World Economy, ed. by David Greenaway and John Whalley, Vol. 13, No. 4 (Oxford: Basil Blackwell Ltd., 1990), pp. 46592.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Messerlin, Patrick A.,The Uruguay Negotiations on Subsidies and Countervailing Measures: Past and Future Constraints” (Washington: The World Bank, International Economics Department, 1989).

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Messerlin, Patrick A.,The EC Antidumping Enforcement: The Procedures,paper prepared for seminars organized by the University of Wisconsin and Free University of BrusselsAre the Fair Trade and Safeguard Laws Operating as Intended?” (Paris, May 1991).

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Michaely, M.,Trade Liberalization Policies: Lessons of Experience,paper presented at the conferenceFor a New Policy Towards Foreign Trade” (Brazil, April 1987).

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Michaely, M., D. Papageorgiou, and A. Choksi, Liberalizing Foreign Trade: Lessons and Experience in the Developing World, Vol. 7 (Oxford: Basil Blackwell Ltd., 1989).

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Michalopoulos, Constantine, and David Tarr,Trade and Payments Arrangements in Post-CMEA Eastern and Central Europe,Working Paper WPS 644 (Washington: The World Bank, April 1991).

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • National Consumer Council, Trade and Competition Policy: The Consumer Interest, International Trade and the Consumer, National Consumer Council, Working Paper No. 5 (London: National Consumer Council, March 1991).

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Nicolaides, Phedon,EC Antidumping Policy,in Tokyo Club Papers, No. 4 (London: The Royal Institute of International Affairs, 1991).

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Office of the United States Trade Representative, 1991 Trade Policy Agenda and 1990 Annual Report of the President of the United States on the Trade Agreements Program (Washington: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1990).

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development, Competition and Trade Policies: Their Interaction (Paris: OECD, 1984).

  • Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development, The Costs of Restricting Imports: The Automobile Industry (Paris: OECD, 1987).

  • Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development, (1990a), Industrial Policy in OECD Countries, Annual Review 1990 (Paris: OECD, 1990).

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development, (1990b), Reforming Agricultural Policies: Quantitative Restrictions on Production and Direct Income Support (Paris: OECD, 1990).

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development, Agricultural Policies, Markets and Trade: Monitoring and Outlook 1991 (Paris: OECD, 1991).

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Ostrom, Douglas,The Structure of Japan’s Imports: Causes and Consequences,JEI Report, No. 22A (Washington, June 14, 1991).

  • Ostry, Jonathan D.,Trade Liberalization in Developing Countries: Initial Trade Distortions and Imported Intermediate Inputs,in Staff Papers, International Monetary Fund (Washington), Vol. 38 (September 1991), pp. 44779.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Ostry, Sylvia, Governments and Corporations in a Shrinking World: Trade and Innovation Policies in the United States, Europe, and Japan (New York: Council on Foreign Relations Press, 1990).

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Papageorgiou, D., A. Choksi, and M. Michaely, Liberalizing Foreign Trade in Developing Countries: Lessons of Experience (Washington: The World Bank, 1990).

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Richardson, J. David,Empirical Research on Trade Liberalization with Imperfect Competition: A Survey.OECD Economic Studies, No. 12 (Spring 1989), pp. 750.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Roningen, Vernon O., and Praveen Dixit,Assessing the Implications of Freer Agricultural Trade,Food Policy (U.K.), Vol. 15 (February 1990), pp. 6775.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Roningen, Vernon O., and Alexander J. Yeats,Nontariff Distortions of International Trade: Some Preliminary Empirical Evidence,Weltwirtschaftliches Archiv (Kiel), Vol. 112, No. 4 (1976).

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Royal Institute of International Affairs, “Anti-Competitive Effects of Trade Policy” (London: Royal Institute of International Affairs, 1991).

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Sachs, Jeffrey D.,Trade and Exchange Rate Policies in Growth-Oriented Adjustment Programs,in Growth-Oriented Adjustment Programs, ed. by Vittorio Corbo, Morris Goldstein, and Mohsin Khan (Washington: International Monetary Fund and The World Bank, 1987), pp. 291325.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Sachs, Jeffrey D.,Conditionality, Debt Relief, and the Developing Country Debt Crisis,NBER Working Paper, No. 2644 (Cambridge, Massachusetts: National Bureau of Economic Research, 1988).

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Sandrey, R., and R. Reynolds, eds., Farming Without Subsidies, New Zealand’s Recent Experience (Wellington: New Zealand Ministry of Agriculture and Fisheries, 1990).

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Saxonhouse, Gary R.,The Micro- and Macroeconomics of Foreign Sales to Japan,in Trade Policy in the 1980s, ed. by William R. Cline (Washington: Institute for International Economics, 1983), pp. 259304.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Saxonhouse, Gary R.,What’s Wrong with Japanese Trade Structure?Seminar Discussion Paper 166, Research Seminar in International Economics (Ann Arbor, Michigan: University of Michigan, 1985).

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Singer, H.W., and Parvin Alizadeh,Import Substitution Revisited in a Darkening External Environment,in Policies for Development: Essays in Honor of Gamani Corea, ed. by S. Dell (London: MacMillan Press, 1988), pp. 6086.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Smith, A.,The Market for Cars in the Enlarged European Community,CEPR Discussion Paper Series (U.K.), No. 360 (December 1989).

  • Smith, Murray G.,Antidumping and Countervailing Duty Laws in North America: Negotiating Multilaterally, Trilaterally and Bilaterally” (mimeographed, Ottawa, Canada: University of Ottawa, Faculty of Law, May 11, 1991).

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Starrels, John M., Assisting Reform in Central and Eastern Europe (Washington: International Monetary Fund, 1991).

  • Stoeckel, Andrew, David Pearce, and Gary Banks, Western Trade Blocs: Game, Set or Match for Asia-Pacific and the World Economy? (Canberra, Australia: Centre for International Economics, 1990).

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Stern, Robert M.,Symposium on TRIPs and TRIMs in the Uruguay Round: Analytical and Negotiating Issues: Introduction and Overview,in The World Economy, ed. by David Greenaway and John Whalley, Vol. 13, No. 4 (Oxford: Basil Blackwell Ltd., 1990), pp. 49396.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Strategico, Inc., “Year Two of the Canada-U.S. Free Trade Agreement—Making It Work” (Ottawa, December 1990).

  • Stubbs, K.,Industry Needs a Strong Anti-Dumping Safety Net,Topic Paper 6 (Melbourne: Australian Chamber of Manufactures, 1989).

  • Subramanian, Arvind,TRIPs and the Paradigm of the GATT: A Tropical, Temperate View,in The World Economy, ed. by David Greenaway and John Whalley, Vol. 13, No. 4 (Oxford: Basil Blackwell Ltd., 1990), pp. 50921.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Tarr, David G., A General Equilibrium Analysis of the Welfare and Employment Effects of U.S. Quotas in Textiles, Autos, and Steel (Washington: U.S. Federal Trade Commission, 1989).

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Tarr, David G.,The Demise of the CMEA: Implications for Eastern Europe” (mimeograph, Washington: The World Bank, July 1991).

  • Tarr, David G., and Morris E. Morkre, Aggregate Costs to the United States of Tariffs and Quotas on Imports: General Tariff Cuts and Removal of Quotas on Automobiles, Steel, Sugar, and Textiles (Washington: U.S. Federal Trade Commission, 1984).

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Thomas, Vinod, K. Matin, and John Nash, Lessons in Trade Policy Reform (Washington: The World Bank, 1990).

  • Trela, Irene, and John Whalley,Global Effects of Developed Country Trade Restrictions on Textiles and Apparel,Economic Journal (December 1990), pp. 11901205.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Tyers, Rod, and Kym Anderson, Disarray in World Food Markets (Cambridge and New York: Cambridge University Press, 1992).

  • United Nations Conference on Trade and Development, Handbook of Trade Control Measures of Developing Countries, 1987 (Geneva: UNCTAD, 1987).

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • United Nations Conference on Trade and Development, Trade and Development Report, 1989 (Geneva: UNCTAD, 1989).

  • United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (1990a), Trade and Development Report, 1990 (Geneva: UNCTAD, 1990).

  • United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (1990b), Trade and Development Board, “Protectionism and Structural Adjustment,TD/B/1282 (Geneva: UNCTAD, December 20, 1990).

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • United Nations Conference on Trade and Development, Trade and Development Report, 1991 (Geneva: UNCTAD, 1991).

  • United States, Department of Agriculture, Office of Economics, Economic Implications of the Uruguay Round for Agriculture (Washington, May 1991).

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • United States, Department of Agriculture, Office of Economics, Department of Justice, Antitrust Enforcement Guidelines for International Operations, 1988 (unpublished).

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • United States, Department of Agriculture, Office of Economics, Office of the President, The United States-Canada Free-Trade Agreement, Biennial Report, A Report from the President to the Congress Under Section 304(f) of the United States-Canada Free-Trade Agreement Implementation Act, January 1991.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • UN-PAAERD, Africa’s Commodity Problems: Towards a Solution, a report by the U.N. Secretary General’s Expert Group on Africa’s Commodity Problems (Geneva, 1990).

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • USITC, “A Review of Recent Developments in the U.S. Automobile Industry Including an Assessment of the Japanese Voluntary Restraint Agreements,Preliminary Report to the Subcommittee on Trade, Committee on Ways and Means of the U.S. House of Representatives, in Connection with Investigation No. 332–188, USITC Publication No. 1648 (Washington: USITC, February 1985).

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • USITC, The Economic Effects of Significant U.S. Import Restraints, Phase I: Manufacturing, Report to the Committee on Finance of the U.S. Senate on Investigation No. 332–262 Under Section 332 of the Tariff Act of 1930, USITC Publication 2222 (Washington: USITC, October 1989).

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Viner, Jacob, Dumping: A Problem in International Trade (New York: Kelley, 1966).

  • Wade, Robert, Governing the Market Economic Theory and the Role of Government in East Asian Industrialization (Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton University Press, 1990).

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Westphal, Larry E.,Industrial Policy in an Export Propelled Economy: Lessons from South Korea’s Experience,Journal of Economic Perspectives, Vol. 4 (1990), pp. 4159.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Whalley, John, Trade Liberalization Among Major World Trading Areas (Cambridge, Massachusetts: MIT Press, 1985).

  • Whalley, John, Recent Trade Liberalization in the Developing World: What Is Behind It and Where Is It Headed?, NBER Working Paper, No. 3057 (Cambridge, Massachusetts: National Bureau of Economic Research, August 1989).

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • White House, Office of the Press Secretary, “Trade Enhancement Initiative for Central and Eastern Europe,press release, July 12, 1991.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Williamson, John, The Economic Opening of Eastern Europe, Policy Analyses in International Economics, No. 31 (Washington: Institute for International Economics, May 1991).

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Winters, L. Alan,The So-Called Noneconomic Objectives for Agricultural Protection,OECD Economic Studies (Paris), No. 13 (Winter 1989–90), pp. 23766.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Wonnacott, Ronald J.,U.S. Hub-and-Spoke Bilaterals and the Multilateral Trading System,Commentary, C.D. Howe Institute, No. 23 (October 1990).

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • World Bank, World Development Report, 1987 (Washington: The World Bank; New York: Oxford University Press, 1987).

  • World Bank, (1991a), World Development Report, 1991 (Washington: The World Bank; New York: Oxford University Press, 1991).

  • World Bank, (1991b), Operations Evaluation Department (OED), World Bank Support for Trade Policy Reform, Report No. 9527 (Washington, 1991).

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Xafa, Miranda, Roger P. Kronenberg, and Joslin Landell-MillsThe European Community’s Trade and Trade-Related Industrial Policies” (unpublished, Washington: International Monetary Fund, 1992).

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Zietz, Joachim, and Alberto Valdés,International Interactions in Food and Agricultural Policies: Effects of Alternative Policies,in Agricultural Trade Liberalization: Implications for Developing Countries, ed. by Ian Goldin and Odin Knudsen (Paris: OECD Development Center, 1990).

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation