Sweden has had a separate agency, Riksgäldskontoret (the Swedish National Debt Office [SNDO]), for government debt management since 1789. Inevitably, the principles and practices of debt management have changed repeatedly over the years. A major reform of the governance system was enacted in 1998. As a result, debt management decisions are made within a more clearly structured framework. There is also a more structured approach to evaluate the decisions after the fact. The outline of this system and the experiences so far are presented in the first section, which also discusses the organization of the debt office.

Accompanying Document and Selected Case Studies