Abstract

Privatization has been a key element of structural reform in many developing and transition economies during the last decade. This paper examines the fiscal and macroeconomic issues involved in the privatization of nonfinancial public enterprises in these economies. It considers issues such as the factors determining the proceeds from privatization and the amount accruing to the budget, the uses of proceeds, the impact of privatization on the budget and macroeconomic aggregates, and the privatization component of IMF-supported programs. The empirical evidence draws on case study countries that reflect geographical diversity and are representative of a range of privatization experience in developing and transition economies.

© 2000 International Monetary Fund

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Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data

Fiscal and macroeconomic impact of privatization/Jeffrey Davis… [et al.].

p. cm—(Occasional paper, ISSN 0251-6365; no. 194)

Includes bibliographical references.

ISBN 1-55775-888-3

1. Privatization—Case studies. 2. Government business enterprises—Case studies. 3. Finance, Public—Case studies. I. Davis, Jeffrey M., 1946 II. Occasional paper (International Monetary Fund); 194.

HD3845.6 .F57 2000

338.9’75—dc21 00-0031909

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Contents

  • Preface

  • I Overview

    • Privatization Proceeds

    • Uses of Privatization Proceeds

    • Fiscal Impact of Privatization

    • Macroeconomic Impact of Privatization

    • Issues for IMF-Supported Programs

  • II Privatization Proceeds

    • Scale of Privatization Proceeds in the Case Study Countries

    • Factors Affecting Budgetary Proceeds

    • Fiscal Reporting of Privatization Proceeds

  • III Use of Privatization Proceeds

    • Privatization and Government Net Worth

    • Short-run Macroeconomic Effects of Privatization

    • Use of Privatization Proceeds: Choices and Experience

  • IV Fiscal Impact of Privatization

    • Contemporaneous Use of Privatization Proceeds

    • Effects of Privatization on the Fiscal Accounts Over Time

  • V Macroeconomic Impact of Privatization

    • Effects on Growth and Investment

    • Impact on Labor Markets

  • VI Issues for IMF-Supported Programs

    • Privatization in IMF-Supported Programs

    • Privatization and Program Design

  • Appendices

  • I Factors Affecting the Sale Price of State Assets

  • II Privatization and Fiscal and Macroeconomic Developments

  • References

  • Boxes

  • Section

  • III 1. Sterilization of Privatization Revenues in Hungary

  • IV 2. The Impact of Economic Transition on Tax Administration

  • 3. Fiscal Issues in the Privatization of Profitable Public Enterprises

  • V 4. Mitigating the Social Impact of Privatization

  • Appendix

  • I 5. Governance Issues in Privatization

  • 6. Loans-for-Shares Privatization in Russia

  • Tables

  • Section

  • II 1. Gross and Budgetary Privatization Proceeds in Case Study Countries

  • 2. Privatization Proceeds Accruing to the Budget in Case Study Countries

  • 3. Budgetary Treatment and Classification of Privatization Proceeds

  • III 4. Use of Privatization Proceeds in Case Study Countries

  • 5. Earmarking of Privatization Receipts in Selected Countries

  • IV 6. Impact of Privatization on Domestic Financing

  • 7. Reduction in Debt Stock and Privatization

  • V 8. Summary of Three Studies of Firm-Level Efficiency Gains from Privatization

  • VI 9. Design of Adjusters Related to Privatization Receipts in Programs with Case Study Countries

  • Appendix

  • I 10. Factors Affecting the Sale Price: Country Illustrations

  • II 11. Contemporaneous Impact of Budgetary Privatization Proceeds on Domestic Financing

  • 12. Structural Relationship Between Total Privatization Proceeds and Selected Variables

  • Figures

  • Section

  • IV 1. Gross Budgetary Transfers and Subsidies to Public Enterprises for Selected Countries

  • 2. Operations of the Public Enterprise Sector Before and After Privatization for Selected Countries

  • VI 3. Monitoring Privatization in IMF Arrangements Approved in 1994–98

The following symbols have been used throughout this paper:

  • … to indicate that data are not available; n.a. to indicate not applicable;

  • — to indicate that the figure is zero or less than half the final digit shown, or that the item does not exist;

  • – between years or months (i.e., 1997–98 or January–June) to indicate the years or months covered, including the beginning and ending years or months;

  • / between years (i.e., 1997/98) to indicate a crop or fiscal (financial) year.

“Billion” means a thousand million; “trillion” means a thousand billion.

Minor discrepancies between constituent figures and totals are due to rounding.

The term “country,” as used in this paper, does not in all cases refer to a territorial entity that is a state as understood by international law and practice; the term also covers some territorial entities that are not states, but for which statistical data are maintained and provided internationally on a separate and independent basis.

Preface

The paper reflects the contributions of several members of staff in the IMF’s Fiscal Affairs Department. In particular, the authors are grateful to Rosa Alonso, Benedict Bingham, Isaias Coelho, Louis Kuijs, Jun Ma, Eric Mottu, Martin Petri, Arnim Schwidrowski, István Székely, George Tsibouris, and Timo Välilä for their research into the privatization experience of the case study countries. They would also like to thank John Nellis, as well as others at the World Bank, for their advice and support. Helpful and insightful comments on the paper were provided by Vito Tanzi, and colleagues in the Fiscal Affairs Department and in other departments in the IMF.

The authors appreciate as well the efficient research assistance provided by William Riordan and the document preparation assistance provided by Heather Huckstep. Gail Berre of the External Relations Department edited the paper and coordinated production of the publication.

The views expressed in the paper, as well as any errors, are the sole responsibility of the authors and do not necessarily represent the opinions of the Executive Board of the IMF or other members of the IMF staff.

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