The crucial challenge facing policy makers in government and the multilateral agencies is that of framing a new industrial strategy for sub-Saharan Africa in the 21st century. Whatever its limited success in other fields, structural adjustment has failed signally not just in reversing the recent trend towards de-industrialization but also in creating an appropriate policy environment for sustained industrial growth. … A fresh start—a new approach—is needed. [UNIDO, 1996, p. 122]