Front Matter
  • 1 0000000404811396 Monetary Fund


The challenge facing the Arab countries to maintain economic growth in the face of the deteriorating terms of trade affecting all developing countries was addressed in a seminar held in Abu Dhabi in early 1992. This volume, edited by Said El-Naggar, includes papers by contributors from the region as well as from the IMF.

Foreign and Intratrade Policies of the Arab Countries



Said El-Naggar

Papers presented at a Seminar held in Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates, January 27-29, 1992

International Monetary Fund

© 1992 International Monetary Fund

Cover design and interior by IMF Graphics Section

Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data

Foreign and intratrade policies of the Arab countries / edited by Said El-Naggar

      • p. cm.

    • “Papers presented at a seminar held in Abu Dhabi, United Arab

  • Emirates, January 27-29, 1992.”

    • Includes bibliographical references.

    • ISBN 9781557753052

    • 1. Arab countries—Commercial policy—Congresses. I. El-Naggar,

  • Said, 1920- II. International Monetary Fund.

  • HF1610.F54 1993

  • 382’.0917’4927—dc20

  • 92-25991

  • CIP

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Sponsoring Organizations

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The World Bank


World trade has been a powerful source of growth in the entire postwar period, and the further liberalization of international trade would give invaluable impetus to economic activity. For this reason, the subject of this seminar and its significance for the Arab countries in particular is of special interest. This fourth volume of seminar proceedings published jointly by the IMF and the Arab Monetary Fund is a valuable addition to the series. The IMF is pleased to have again been associated with the Arab Monetary Fund, the Arab Fund for Economic and Social Development, and the World Bank in this seminar that addressed the issues of foreign trade and intratrade policies of the Arab countries.

Held in Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates, on January 27–29, 1992, the seminar brought together government officials, academic experts, and representatives of international and private organizations to discuss their experiences and to offer proposals on such topics as import substitution versus export orientation, the impact of protectionism in the industrial countries on the trade of Arab countries, the significance and implications of the Uruguay Round of Multilateral Trade Negotiations, and prospects and problems of inter-Arab trade. Professor Said El-Naggar again moderated the seminar and brought his invaluable experience to bear on managing the discussions as well as on preparing the proceedings for publication.

Michel Camdessus

Managing Director

International Monetary Fund


This seminar, like the three before it, was the fruit of collaborative efforts between the Arab Monetary Fund, the Arab Fund for Economic and Social Development, the International Monetary Fund, and the World Bank. The subject of this seminar has recently acquired special importance in view of the liberalization programs undertaken by most of the Arab countries. It is not an exaggeration to say that the success of economic reform in many Arab countries will hinge on their capacity to adjust their foreign trade policies to take account of far-reaching changes in the world economy as well as at home and in the Arab region.

The seminar provided an excellent opportunity for a number of high-level experts and policymakers to examine the various aspects of foreign and intratrade policies of the Arab countries. The six papers presented at the seminar are included in this publication, together with the comments of the discussants. In addition, the moderator prepared a paper which, while expressing his personal views, reflects a number of points and issues raised in the course of discussions at the seminar.

On behalf of the participants, I would like to express my thanks to Ahmed Al-Tayer, Minister of State for Finance and Industry in the United Arab Emirates, for making the keynote address. A special word of thanks is due to Osama Faquih and Abdlatif Al-Hamad and to their collaborators, for their hospitality and their tireless efforts in planning and organizing the seminar. I would like also to thank Elin Knotter of the External Relations Department of the International Monetary Fund for editing this volume and preparing it for publication.

Said El-Naggar



  • Foreword

  • Acknowledgment

  • 1. Inaugural Speeches

    • Ahmed Humaid Al-Tayer

    • Osama J. Faquih

  • 2. Foreign and Intratrade Policies of the Arab Countries: The Basic Issues

    • Said El-Naggar

  • 3. Trade Liberalization: Policy Options from Inward-Looking to Outward-Oriented

    • Wilfried P. Thalwitz and Oli Havrylyshyn

      • Comment: Rasheed O. Khalid

  • 4. Trade Policies in Industrial Countries and Their Impact on Arab Countries

    • Margaret R. Kelly and Bernhard Fritz-Krockow

      • Comment: Mahmoud Sakbani

  • 5. The Multilateral Trading System and the Uruguay Round of Trade Negotiations: An Arab Perspective

    • Abdel Hamid Mamdouh

      • Comment: Mohamed Mamoun Kurdi

  • 6. Trade Policies and Economic Integration Among the Arab Maghreb Union Countries

    • Hassan Abouyoub

      • Comment: Abdel Hamid Al-Zigallaie

  • 7. Intra-Arab Trade: Determinants and Prospects for Expansion

    • Jamal Eddine Zarrouk

      • Comment: Tayseer Abdel Jaber

  • 8. Foreign Trade Policy of Egypt, 1986—91

    • Hanaa Kheir El-Din and Ahmed El-Dersh

      • Comments: Abadalla Al-Kuwaiz and Nasser Al-Kaoud Lyn Squire

  • List of Participants

The following symbols have been used throughout this paper:

… to indicate that data are not available;

— to indicate that the figure is zero or less than half the final digit shown, or that the item does not exist;

– between years or months (e.g., 1991–92 or January–June) to indicate the years or months covered, including the beginning and ending years or months;

/ between years (e.g., 1991/92) to indicate a crop or fiscal (financial) year.

“Billion” means a thousand million.

Minor discrepancies between constituent figures and totals are due to rounding.

The term “country,” as used in this paper, does not in all cases refer to a territorial entity that is a state as understood by international law and practice; the term also covers some territorial entities that are not states, but for which statistical data are maintained and provided internationally on a separate and independent basis.