The Republic of Vanuatu, previously known as the New Hebrides, is an archipelago of some 80 small islands, with a land area of 12,000 square kilometers. The population of 140,000 is 94 percent Melanesian; the expatriate community consists mainly of Europeans, Chinese, and Vietnamese. Population growth has exceeded 3 percent annually in recent years. Most people live on the coastal plains where the soil is fertile and the rainfall predictable. The largest concentration of population is in the capital, Port Vila. Cultivation of the interior is difficult because of the mountainous terrain. There are more than 100 different languages. The traditional society is characterized by strong clan affinities and religious beliefs. Education indicators are below the regional average, including high illiteracy rates and low primary school enrollment.