Title Page



Alfred Schipke, Markus Rodlauer, and ZHANG Longmei


© 2019 International Monetary Fund

Cover design: Winking Fish

Cataloging-in-Publication Data

IMF Library

Names: Schipke, Alfred, 1959-, editor. | Rodlauer, Markus, editor. | Zhang, Longmei, 1984-, editor. | International Monetary Fund, publisher.

Title: The future of China’s bond market / editors: Alfred Schipke, Markus Rodlauer, and ZHANG Longmei. Description: [Washington, DC] : International Monetary Fund, [2019]. | Includes bibliographical references.

Identifiers: ISBN 9781484372142 (paper) | ISBN 9781484393116 (ePub) | ISBN 9781484393123 (Mobi) | ISBN 9781484393147 (PDF)

Subjects: LCSH: Bond market—China. | Capital market—China.

Classification: LCC HG4651.S35 2019

DISCLAIMER: The views expressed in this book are those of the authors and do not necessarily represent the views of the IMF’s Executive Directors, its management, or any of its members. The boundaries, colors, denominations, and any other information shown on the maps do not imply, on the part of the International Monetary Fund, any judgment on the legal status of any territory or any endorsement or acceptance of such boundaries.

Recommended citation: Schipke, Alfred, Markus Rodlauer, and ZHANG Longmei, eds. 2019. The Future of China’s Bond Market. Washington, DC: International Monetary Fund.

ISBN: 978-1-48437-214-2 (paper)

978-1-48439-311-6 (ePub)

978-1-48439-312-3 (Mobi)

978-1-48439-314-7 (PDF)

Please send orders to:

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Internet: www.elibrary.imf.org



Contents highlighted in red appear in this excerpt.

  • Foreword

  • Acknowledgments

  • Contributors

  • Abbreviations


  • 1 China’s Bond Market: Characteristics, Prospects, and Reforms

  • Alfred Schipke, Markus Rodlauer, and ZHANG Longmei

  • 2 China’s Bond Market and Global Financial Markets

  • Eugenio Cerutti and Maurice Obstfeld


  • 3 Sovereign Bonds: What Does the Yield Curve Tell Us?

  • CHEN Sally, ZHANG Longmei, and Kevin Chow, with Thomas Harjes and Nathan Porter

  • 4 Credit Bonds

  • ZHANG Longmei and WU Yuchen

  • 5 Local Government Bonds

  • W. Raphael Lam and WANG Jingsen

  • 6 Treasury Futures

  • FANG Xinghai

  • 7 Green Bonds

  • MA Jun, LIU Jialong, CHEN Zhouyang, and XIE Wenhong

  • 8 Asset-Backed Securities

  • ZONG Jun, LI Bo, and Laura E. Kodres


  • 9 Opening Up China’s Bond Market: Some Considerations

  • GUO Kai

  • 10 Strengthening Financial Stability in China’s Bond Market

  • MIAO Hui

  • 11 Clearing Roadblocks to Foreign Participation

  • LIU Becky

  • 12 Patterns of Trading in China’s Bond Market

  • Tobias Adrian, Henry Hoyle, and Fabio M. Natalucci

  • 13 Tapering Implicit Guarantees in the Bond Market

  • ZHU Ning, DING Ding, and ZHANG Chi

  • 14 Monetary Policy Communication: Frameworks and Market Impact

  • Michael McMahon, Alfred Schipke, and LI Xiang


  • 15 Offshore Renminbi Dim Sum Bonds

  • Kevin Chow and Daniel Law

  • 16 China’s Offshore Corporate Dollar Bonds

  • DING Ding, HUANG Yi, and ZHOU Yue

  • Glossary


Four decades ago, China embarked on gaige kaifang, or “Reform and Opening Up.” The result was a growth miracle that has transformed China, and indeed the world, as the country rapidly integrated with the global economy, boosted further by China’s accession to the World Trade Organization (WTO) in 2001. China’s financial sector has also grown dramatically, though it remains relatively bank-centric and its linkages with global markets are still limited. As China moves forward with reforms and further opening, development of its capital markets— and the bond market in particular—will play a crucial role in channeling resources to the most productive uses. And as China’s bond market matures and opens up, it will become an important pillar in the global financial landscape.

The Future of China’s Bond Market starts with a review of the market’s unique development and institutional structure, which is key to understanding the main impediments to its sustained growth in an environment of financial stability. The book analyzes the different market segments ranging from China’s sovereign and credit bonds to the rapidly growing local government and green bond markets. It also covers bond futures, asset-backed securities, and offshore markets, and identifies key areas for reforms. These include measures to improve market liquidity and risk pricing, as well as removal of obstacles for domestic and foreign investors. Crucially, it also provides suggestions on how to eliminate implicit guarantees, strengthen financial stability, and improve communication.

This book includes contributions from staff of the IMF, the People’s Bank of China, the China Securities Regulatory Commission, the Ministry of Finance, and the China Clearing Depository Corporation, as well as insights from the private sector and academia. Bringing together such a diverse group of experts allows for a combination of rigorous analysis with best international practice and in-depth institutional detail, ensuring both policy and practical relevance.

I welcome this book as a prime example of the close collaboration between China and the IMF. Through our surveillance, policy advice, and capacity building efforts, the IMF has been a committed partner in China’s successful journey of reform and opening up. I look forward to continuing and further strengthening our cooperation moving forward.

Christine Lagarde

Managing Director

International Monetary Fund


As China’s financial sector continues to mature, its bond market will play an increasingly important role in allocating savings and investment and allowing for greater diversification of assets. At the same time, the inclusion of China’s bonds in global indices will be another milestone in the country’s integration into global capital markets, with implications for investors and policymakers alike. More than ever, these developments call for a good understanding of China’s bond market structure, unique characteristics, and future reform areas, all of which are comprehensively studied in this book.

What makes this book truly unique is that it brings together authors from many IMF departments (Asia and Pacific, Monetary and Capital Markets, Research, Fiscal Affairs, and Capacity Development) as well as the People’s Bank of China, the China Securities Regulatory Commission, the Ministry of Finance, the China Central Depository and Clearing Co., Ltd., the Hong Kong Monetary Authority, the private sector, and academia. Only through this collaborative effort was it possible to combine rigorous analysis with detailed institutional knowledge, which is paramount to understanding China’s bond market.

The production of such a large project requires the support of many. We are thankful to the participants at the 2018 People’s Bank of China/IMF Conference on China’s Bond Market for their insightful comments and feedback. Special thanks go to the People’s Bank of China’s International Department, in particular to ZHU Jun, GUO Kai, and LIN Ran. We also thank James Daniel for his support and input, as well as the IMF Executive Director JIN Zhongxia. Besides the authors of individual chapters, the book benefited from input and comments by Changyong Rhee, Tobias Adrian, Kenneth H. Kang, Ratna Sahay, Itai Agur, Andreas W. Bauer, Jose Maria Cartas, CHEN Hongwan, CHEN Qianying, CHEN Sally, CHEN Sophia, Martin Cihak, Marcelo Dinenzon, Paolo Dudine, Andrew Fennel, GAO Terry, Ziya Gorpe, HO Kenneth, Deniz Igan, Phakawa Jeasakul, Gary Jones, Honey Karun, Mariam El Hamiani Khatat, Phousnith Khay, Purva Khera, Diane Kostroch, LU Dabiao, Sole Martinez Peria, Nicola Pierri, Lev Ratnovski, Edgardo Ruggiero, Mustafa Saiyid, Aydin Sakrak, Jochen Schmittmann, Stephen Schwartz, SHI Yu, Danny Suwanapruti, TANG Mk, Andrew Tilton, Helen Wang Wagner, James P. Walsh, WANG Kebing, WANG Ying, XU Yizhi, YAN Ting, and YU Xiaoyan.

We are grateful to ZHANG Chi, who led the coordination of the project with unrivaled energy, and to LI Jing and SHAN Qiqi for providing support in the Beijing office. At the same time, the book would not have been possible without the support of many economists and research assistants, including BAI Xuefei, ZHANG Yibin, and GE Tingting. Gabriel Alvim kept the wheels rolling at IMF headquarters, even late at night. We sincerely thank Nancy Morrison, Sherrie Brown, and Patty Loo for editorial support, as well as Jeffrey Hayden and Linda Kean for leadership and encouragement. We are deeply indebted to Rumit Pancholi for managing the production of the book in record time.

Alfred Schipke, Markus Rodlauer, and ZHANG Longmei



Tobias Adrian is the Financial Counsellor and Director of the Monetary and Capital Markets Department of the International Monetary Fund (IMF). In this capacity, he leads the IMF’s work on financial sector surveillance, monetary and macroprudential policies, financial regulation, bank resolution, debt management, and capital markets. He also oversees capacity building activities in IMF member countries with regard to the supervision and regulation of financial systems, bank resolution, central banking, monetary and exchange rate regimes, and debt management. Before joining the IMF, Mr. Adrian was a Senior Vice President of the Federal Reserve Bank of New York and the Associate Director of the Research and Statistics Group. Mr. Adrian has published extensively in economics and finance journals, including the American Economic Review and the Journal of Finance. He has taught at Princeton University and New York University. Mr. Adrian holds a Ph.D. in economics from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, an MSc in econometrics and mathematical economics from the London School of Economics, a diploma from Goethe University Frankfurt, and a Maîtrise from Dauphine University Paris.

Eugenio Cerutti has been Assistant to the Director at the Research Department at the IMF since June 2014. He has also served in the Macro-Financial Division of the Research Department, as well as on the IMF teams for Barbados, Bolivia, Lithuania, Sweden, Turkey, and Venezuela. His research interests include international macroeconomics and focus on currency and banking crises and macro-financial linkages. He earned a Ph.D. in economics from The Johns Hopkins University.

CHEN Sally is the IMF’s Resident Representative for Hong Kong SAR, covering financial market developments in the Greater China region. In this capacity, she engages with academia, think tanks, media, and market participants as she coordinates the IMF’s outreach in Hong Kong SAR. She has previously worked in the Strategy, Policy, and Review Department at the IMF and on the United States and Spain desks. Her research focuses on macro-financial linkages, including global liquidity, financial cycles, and the modalities and impact of debt deleveraging. Before joining the IMF, she was an economist with BNP Paribas Asset Management and the Federal Reserve Bank of New York.

CHEN Zhouyang is a researcher at the International Monetary Institute at Renmin University of China. He was chief editor of network for Xinhua News Agency and of a well-known finance information service institution, where he worked on a finance information product and finance database. His specialties include the renminbi exchange rate, renminbi internationalization, currency policy, and green finance. He has written numerous macroeconomic reviews, finance observations, and other analyses. He has prepared economic analysis reports and some reports exclusively for central leadership of China, including The RMB Internationalization Annual Report, RMB Internationalization Monthly Report, Green Finance Special Report, and Green Bonds Development Report of China, and was a coauthor of The RMB Internationalization Report. He obtained an M.J. and M.S.F. from Renmin University of China.

Kevin Chow is a senior economist in the IMF Hong Kong SAR Sub-Office. He conducts research on the development of the Hong Kong SAR economy and provides support to the IMF Resident Representative in Hong Kong SAR. He was previously a senior manager in the Hong Kong Monetary Authority, responsible for research and analysis on the credit strength of Hong Kong SAR and matters related to credit rating agencies. He received an M.Ec. from the University of Hong Kong.

DING Ding is Deputy Division Chief in the Caribbean I Division of the IMF’s Western Hemisphere Department. He previously worked on several advanced and emerging market economies, including Australia, Korea, New Zealand, and Sri Lanka, and was the lead desk economist on the IMF’s China team. He has published on a variety of topics including macro-financial linkages, monetary policy transmission, and economic issues in China. He earned a Ph.D. in economics from Cornell University.

FANG Xinghai is Vice Chairman of the China Securities Regulatory Commission. He previously served as Bureau Director, Office of the Central Leading Group for Financial and Economic Affairs; Director-General and Vice Director-General of Shanghai Municipal Financial Service Office; Assistant President and Vice President of the Shanghai Stock Exchange; Director of the Group Coordination Office of China Construction Bank; and Secretary General of the Management Committee of China Galaxy Securities Co., Ltd. He joined the World Bank through the Young Professionals Program in 1993. He earned a Ph.D. in economics from Stanford University.

GUO Kai is Deputy Director-General of the International Department of the People’s Bank of China. His main responsibilities include issues related to the United States, the United Kingdom, the G20, and the IMF. Before joining the People’s Bank of China, he was as economist at the IMF. His research interest includes the Chinese economy and international finance. He earned a Ph.D. in economics from Harvard University.

Thomas Harjes is a senior economist in the IMF’s Monetary and Capital Markets Department, where he works in the Monetary and Macroprudential Policies Division. From 2011 to 2015, Mr. Harjes was the chief euro area economist and European Central Bank watcher for Barclays Bank in Frankfurt. He has published on a variety of topics including monetary policy and exchange rate issues. He received a Ph.D. in economics from the University of Cologne, Germany.

Henry Hoyle joined the IMF in 2015 as a financial sector expert in the Global Markets Analysis Division, which is responsible for global financial market monitoring and financial stability risk assessments. He specializes in financial institutions and markets in China and other developing economies. He previously worked at the Federal Reserve Bank of New York and has an M.A. from the Johns Hopkins School of Advanced International Studies.

HUANG Yi is the Pictet Chair in Finance and Development at the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva, and a research affiliate at the Center for Economic and Policy Research (CEPR). He was previously an economist in the Research Department at the IMF and a research associate of Globalization and Monetary Policy Institution at the Federal Reserve Bank of Dallas. He serves at the Council on Global Economic Imbalances at the World Economic Forum. His research interests include international macroeconomics and finance, fintech, and eEntrepreneurship. Recent research focuses on the influence of corporate financing and investment on the financial market and labor market. Professor Huang received a master’s degree from the China Center for Economics Research at Peking University and a Ph.D. in international macroeconomics and finance from the London Business School.

Laura E. Kodres is currently an Assistant Director and Division Chief for the Asian Division in the Institute for Capacity Development at the International Monetary Fund. She holds a B.S. in economics from the University of California at Davis and a Ph.D. in economics from Northwestern University in Evanston, Illinois. She has held positions at the Chicago Mercantile Exchange, the Commodity Futures Trading Commission, and the Federal Reserve Board. She has been with the International Monetary Fund since 1994, holding a variety of positions, including Division Chief for the Global Financial Stability Analysis Division in the Monetary and Capital Markets Department. She has published papers on a number of financial topics, including contagion and behavioral finance, in American Economic Review, Journal of Finance, and Journal of Business.

W. Raphael Lam works in the IMF’s Fiscal Affairs Department on issues related to fiscal policies and surveillance. From 2014 to 2017, he served as the Deputy Resident Representative in the IMF office in China. He also worked in other country teams in the Asia Pacific Department and European Department, including participating in the IMF’s lending program to Iceland during the global financial crisis, Japan’s Financial Sector Assessment Program, and IMF regional surveillance. He has coedited a book on modernizing China and published research papers on China’s real estate, labor market, and government finances. Mr. Lam holds a Ph.D. in economics and finance from the University of California, Los Angeles.

Daniel Law works in the External Department at the Hong Kong Monetary Authority on issues related to global financial regulations and the Financial Stability Board. From 2013 to 2017, he was an economist in the IMF Resident Representative Office in Hong Kong SAR. His coverage includes macroeconomic and financial market issues in China and Hong Kong SAR. He also worked in the research departments at Hong Kong Monetary Authority and the Securities and Futures Commission. Mr. Law holds a master of economics from the Chinese University of Hong Kong, and he is a CFA charterholder.

LI Bo is a senior manager of the Chinabond Research Centre of China Central Depository and Clearing Co., Ltd. and specializes in research related to financial innovation such as asset-backed securities and structured financing. She has 10 years of research experience in macroeconomics and financial markets. She earned a master of technological economics from the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences.

LI Xiang is an assistant professor at Halle Institute for Economic Research and Martin Luther University of Halle-Wittenberg in Germany. She was a part-time economist in the IMF office in China from 2017 to 2018 and a visiting research fellow at the University of Minnesota from 2016 to 2017. Her research interests are international finance, open economy macroeconomics, and the Chinese economy. She received a Ph.D. in economics from the National School of Development at Peking University in 2018.

LIU Becky joined the Standard Chartered Bank in November 2012. She is currently Head of China Macro Strategy, based in Hong Kong SAR. Her main coverage areas include China’s onshore and offshore foreign exchange and fixed income markets, and the Hong Kong rates market. Prior to this role, Becky worked as an Asian credit strategist at HSBC covering dim sum and Asian US dollar bonds, and managing the HSBC bond indices. She holds a B.Sc. from the University of New Brunswick and an M.Phil. in computer science from the City University of Hong Kong.

LIU Jialong is an economist at the Centre for Finance and Development and Research Analyst of the Green Finance Committee of China Society for Finance and Banking. He is in charge of green finance project management, and participates in green finance market research and policymaking. He has previously worked for Fore Research and Management, a Wall Street hedge fund, and as green finance program manager at the Institution of Public Environmental Information, Beijing.

MA Jun is the director of the Center for Finance and Development, Tsinghua National Institute of Financial Research. He is also Special Advisor to the Governor of the People’s Bank of China, Chairman of the Green Finance Committee of the China Society for Finance and Banking, Co-chair of the G20 Green Finance Study Group, a member of China’s Finance 40 Forum, Vice Chairman of the China International Economic Relations Association, and Special Advisor on Sustainable Finance to UN Environment. From 2014 to 2017, he was Chief Economist at the Research Bureau of the People’s Bank of China. Before that, he worked for 13 years at Deutsche Bank, where he was Managing Director, Chief Economist for Greater China, and Head of China and Hong Kong Strategy. From 1992 to 2000, he worked as public policy specialist, economist, and senior economist at the IMF and World Bank. From 1988 to 1990, he was a research fellow at the Development Research Center of China’s State Council. Dr. Ma earned a Ph.D. in economics from Georgetown University and an M.S. from Fudan University.

Michael McMahon is a professor of economics at the University of Oxford. He is also a fellow at St. Hugh’s College and a research fellow of the Centre for Economic Policy Research. He previously worked at Warwick University and has given courses at INSEAD, New York University, the University of Chicago, the London Business School, and the London School of Economics. He has led capacity building courses throughout Asia with the IMF’s Singapore Training Institute. For many years, he worked at the Bank of England. His research has been published in journals including the Quarterly Journal of Economics, Review of Economic Studies, Journal of Monetary Economics, and Review of Economics and Statistics. He holds an M.S., an M.Res., and a Ph.D. from the London School of Economics.

MIAO Hui joined the IMF in 2015 as a senior financial sector expert in the Monetary and Capital Markets Department. He was previously the director of investment strategy with Temasek in Singapore, where he was responsible for the firm’s macroeconomic and cross-asset views on Japan and Greater China. Before that, he was a Director at Deutsche Bank (Hong Kong SAR) responsible for investment strategy for China and Hong Kong SAR. He also worked with Hong Kong Monetary Authority, JP Morgan, and Credit Suisse on research and trading. He spent most of his career in Hong Kong SAR and Singapore after obtaining his Ph.D. in international economics and an M.S. in computer science from the University of California, Santa Cruz.

Fabio M. Natalucci is a Deputy Director of the IMF’s Monetary and Capital Markets Department, with responsibility for the IMF’s global financial markets monitoring and systemic risk assessment functions. He is responsible for the Global Financial Stability Report that presents the IMF’s assessment of global financial stability risks. Before joining the IMF, he was a Senior Associate Director in the Division of Monetary Affairs at the US Federal Reserve Board, where he conducted research and analysis on the relationship between monetary policy, financial regulatory policy, and financial stability. Between October 2016 and June 2017, Mr. Natalucci was Deputy Assistant Secretary for International Financial Stability and Regulation at the US Department of Treasury. His responsibilities included leading US engagement on financial regulatory cooperation in the G20, representing the US Treasury at the Financial Stability Board, coordinating between domestic and international post-crisis regulatory reforms, and monitoring developments and vulnerabilities in global financial markets. He holds a Ph.D. in economics from New York University.

Maurice Obstfeld is the Class of 1958 Professor of Economics and former Chair of the Department of Economics (1998–2001) at the University of California, Berkeley. He arrived at Berkeley in 1991 as a Professor, after permanent appointments at Columbia (1979–86) and the University of Pennsylvania (1986–1989), and a visiting appointment at Harvard (1989–90). He received a Ph.D. in economics from MIT in 1979 after attending the University of Pennsylvania (B.A., 1973) and King’s College, Cambridge University (M.A., 1975). From September 2015 to December 2018, Dr. Obstfeld was the Economic Counsellor and Director of Research at the International Monetary Fund. From July 2014 to August 2015, he served as a Member of President Obama’s Council of Economic Advisers. Dr. Obstfeld was previously (2002–14) an Honorary Adviser to the Bank of Japan’s Institute of Monetary and Economic Studies. He is a Fellow of the Econometric Society and the American Academy of Arts and Sciences.

Nathan Porter is an advisor in the IMF’s Strategy, Policy, and Review Department, where he oversees the IMF’s work on collaboration with regional financing arrangements, as well as work on a number of surveillance and program countries. His research interests include financial liberalization and repression, monetary and exchange rate policies in emerging markets, and (external and internal) rebalancing in China. He has also led analytical work on the interaction of macroeconomic policy tools, emerging market vulnerabilities, the design of adjustment programs with members of currency unions, the adequacy of international reserves, and reforms of the IMF’s lending toolkit. Dr. Porter has also worked on IMF teams covering a number of economies including China, Hong Kong SAR, Iceland, and Ireland. Before joining the IMF, he worked for the Australian Treasury. He holds a Ph.D. in economics from the University of Pennsylvania.

Markus Rodlauer was the deputy director of the IMF’s Asia and Pacific Department until he retired in December 2018. Among other leadership responsibilities, he oversaw the IMF’s China team, which has conducted the annual Article IV Consultations with the People’s Republic of China in recent years. He was previously the deputy director of Human Resources; deputy director in the Western Hemisphere Department; mission chief for countries in Asia, Europe, and South America; and IMF Resident Representative to Poland and the Philippines. Dr. Rodlauer worked at the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Austria before joining the IMF. Since January 2019, he has been serving as Executive Advisor at the European Stability Mechanism in Luxembourg. He earned a Doctor of Law from the University of Innsbruck and a Master’s in International Relations from the Diplomatic Academy in Vienna.

Alfred Schipke is the IMF Senior Resident Representative for China. In this capacity, he provides policy advice, leads the analytical work of the office, and coordinates the IMF’s capacity building activities in China. He was previously a division chief in the Asia and Pacific Department at the IMF, where he coordinated the work on fast-growing low-income countries in Southeast Asia (Frontier Economies), and led missions to Vietnam. Before that, he was in the Western Hemisphere Department in charge of the Latin Caribbean and Eastern Caribbean Currency Union divisions, where he negotiated a number of IMF programs. He is research professor at the National School of Development at Peking University, teaches international finance at Harvard Kennedy School, and has authored and edited several books and articles. His research focuses on economic integration and the linkages between macroeconomics and finance. He holds a Ph.D. in economics from Duisburg-Essen University, an M.P.A. from Harvard University, and a B.A. from Indiana University of Pennsylvania.

WANG Jingsen works in the Policy and Fiscal Affairs Department of the Ministry of Finance, China. From June 2017 to June 2018, he worked as a part-time economist at the IMF Resident Representative Office in China, covering macroeconomic analysis and fiscal affairs research. He holds an M.S. in economics from the Chinese Academy of Fiscal Sciences.

WU Yuchen is a senior associate on the macroeconomic team at CITIC Securities Co., Ltd., covering the Chinese economy. Prior to CITIC Securities, he was a part-time economist at the IMF Resident Representative Office in China and a part-time lecturer in economics at Peking University. His research interests include financial market, innovation, and economic development. His research in innovation and industrial policies has been published in leading journals, including Technological Forecasting and Social Change. He holds an M.S. in finance from Cranfield University and a Ph.D. in economics from Peking University.

XIE Wenhong is an Economist at the Center for Finance and Development of Tsinghua University. His current research interests focus on green and sustainable finance, development finance, and the greening of the Belt and Road Initiative. Prior to joining the Center, Wenhong had more than six years of cross-sector experience including policy analysis, academic research, social organizations, and multilateral development banks. In Southeast Asia, China, and Africa, he worked at the local to global levels with governments, multilateral development banks, communities, and the private sector to inform policy and philanthropic decisions, transform conflicts, as well as improve environmental and social performance of transnational investment and lending practices through promoting legal standards, dialogues, and incentives for sustainable business practices. Wenhong has an M.A. in international policy studies from Stanford University, where he specialized in energy, environment, and development finance, and a B.A. in history from Hampshire College.

ZHANG Chi is a part-time economist at the IMF Resident Representative Office in China and an assistant research fellow at the Academic Center for Chinese Economic Practice and Thinking at Tsinghua University. His research focuses on China’s bond market, balance of payments, and the renminbi exchange rate dynamics. He has participated in research projects on China’s macroeconomic analysis and forecasts, Sino-US trade relations, and China’s path toward opening up. He is currently a Ph.D. candidate in finance at Tsinghua University.

ZHANG Longmei is the IMF Deputy Resident Representative for China. She was previously an economist in the IMF’s Asia and Pacific Department, where she focused on macroeconomic forecasting, broader China rebalancing, and issues concerning high savings. Before working on China, she worked on regional issues in the Asia Pacific region, and published research in a wide range of areas, including long-term growth/the middle-income trap, macroprudential policies, corporate leverage, and capital flows and asset prices. Before that, she worked on the Philippines, focusing on macro surveillance and labor market issues, and on Romania, engaged in IMF program negotiations and reviews. Ms. Zhang is a Young Global Leader of the World Economic Forum. She earned a Ph.D. in economics from Goethe University Frankfurt.

ZHOU Yue is a consultant in the Europe and Central Asia Chief Economist Office at the World Bank, covering labor market and fiscal issues. Before joining the World Bank, he was an economist in the IMF Resident Representative Office in China, where he advised the Resident Representative on monthly economic analysis and capital account management. His research interests include international capital flows, the collateral channel effect in real estate markets, and the Chinese economy. He is a Ph.D. candidate at the Graduate Institute Geneva and holds a master’s degree from Peking University.

ZHU Ning is Chair Professor of Finance at PBC School of Finance at Tsinghua University and Deputy Director of the National Institute of Financial Research at Tsinghua University. He is an expert on behavioral finance, investments, corporate finance, and Asian financial markets. He is currently on leave from the Shanghai Advanced Institute of Finance, where he is Deputy Dean and Professor of Finance. He is also Faculty Fellow at the Yale University International Center for Finance and Special Term Professor of Finance at the University of California, Davis, and the Guanghua School of Management at Beijing University. The author of the bestseller The Investors’ Enemy, and China’s Guaranteed Bubble, he has published numerous articles in leading journals in the areas of finance, economics, management, and law. He has extensive consulting experience advising government agencies, such as the People’s Bank of China, the China Securities Regulatory Commission, the World Bank and the IMF, market regulators, stock and futures exchanges, and some of the world’s largest institutional money managers and investment banks. He received an M.S. from Cornell University and a Ph.D. in finance from Yale University.

ZONG Jun is Chief Business Officer at China Central Depository and Clearing Co., Ltd. He is also the managing director of the Chinabond Research Centre and the executive editor-in-chief of Chinabond magazine. He has more than 20 years expertise in debt and other capital market development, especially on institutional design, product innovation, and financial market infrastructure development. He serves as an adjudication specialist for the China Postdoctoral Science Foundation, a national specialist for the Asian Bond Market Forum, and a principal consulting specialist for several Asian Development Bank and World Bank technical aid projects in China.



asset-backed securities


Climate Bond Initiative


China Banking and Insurance Regulatory Commission


China Construction Bank


China Development Bank


credit default swap


Central Economic Work Conference


China Financial Futures Exchange


China Foreign Exchange Trading System


China government bond; central government bond


China Interbank Bond Market


China Insurance Regulatory Commission


collective investment vehicle


Chinese yuan


consumer price index


China Securities Regulatory Commission


7-day interbank pledged repo rate


foreign direct investment


foreign exchange


gross domestic product


global financial crisis


industrial production


International Swaps and Derivatives Association


JP Morgan Global Bond Index-Emerging Markets


London interbank offered rate


local government financing vehicle


nominal effective exchange rate


outward direct investment


Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development


intermediate quantitative monetary target


Monetary Policy Executive Report


National Association of Financial Market Institutional Investors


medium-term lending facility


medium-term note


negotiable certificate of deposit


National Reform and Development Commission


People’s Bank of China


open market operations


Qualified Foreign Institutional Investors




return on assets


Renminbi Qualified Foreign Institutional Investors


State Administration of Foreign Exchange


Special Administrative Region


special drawing rights


Shanghai interbank offered rate


short-term lending facility


state-owned enterprise


special purpose vehicle


US dollar


vector autoregression


value-added tax


Chicago Board Options Exchange Volatility Index


World Government Bond Index