Abstract

Population, millions (2012)

  • Abdih, Y., A. Barajas, R. Chami, and C. Ebeke, 2012, “Remittances Channel and Fiscal Impact in the Middle East, North Africa, and Central Asia,IMF Working Paper 12/104 (Washington: International Monetary Fund).

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  • Acosta-Ormachea, S., M. Keen, and J. Yoo, 2013, “Growth and the VAT” (unpublished; Washington: International Monetary Fund).

  • Arezki, R., and F. Hasanov, 2009, “Global Imbalances and Petrodollars,IMF Working Paper 09/89 (Washington: International Monetary Fund).

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  • Barajas, Adolfo, Ralph Chami, and Seyed Reza Yousefi, 2013, “The Finance and Growth Nexus Re-Examined: Do All Countries Benefit Equally?IMF Working Paper 13/130 (Washington: International Monetary Fund).

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  • Barnett, Steven, and Rolando Ossowski, 2002, “Operational Aspects of Fiscal Policy in Oil-Producing Countries,IMF Working Paper 02/177 (Washington: International Monetary Fund).

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  • Barro, R., 2008, “Inequality and Growth Revisited,Working Paper Series on Regional Economic Integration No. 11 (Manila: Asian Development Bank).

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  • Baum, A., M. Poplawski-Ribeiro, and A. Weber, 2012, “Fiscal Multipliers and the State of the Economy,IMF Working Paper 12/286 (Washington: International Monetary Fund).

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  • Baunsgaard, T., M. Villafuerte, M. Poplawski-Ribeiro, and C. Richmond, 2012, “Fiscal Frameworks for Resource-Rich Developing Countries,IMF Staff Discussion Note No. 12/04 (Washington: International Monetary Fund).

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  • Behar, A., forthcoming, “Comparing the Employment-Output Elasticities of Expatriates and Nationals in the GCC,IMF Working Paper (Washington: International Monetary Fund).

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  • Behar, A., and J. Espinosa-Bowen, forthcoming, “Export Spillover Implications of Global Shocks for the Middle East and Central Asia,IMF Working Paper (Washington: International Monetary Fund).

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  • Behar, Alberto, and Caroline Freund, 2011, “The Trade Performance of the Middle East and North Africa,World Bank Middle East and North Africa Region Working Paper 53 (Washington: World Bank).

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  • Behar, Alberto, Phil Manners, and Benjamin Nelson, 2012, “Exports and International Logistics,Oxford Bulletin of Economics and Statistics. doi: 10.1111/j.1468-0084.2012.00715.x

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  • Behar, A., and J. Mok, 2013, “Does Public-Sector Employment Fully Crowd Out Private-Sector Employment?IMF Working Paper 13/146 (Washington: International Monetary Fund).

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  • Ben Naceur, Sami, and Ruixin Zhang, forthcoming, “Financial Development, Income Inequality and Poverty: Evidence from MENA and CCA,IMF Working Paper (Washington: International Monetary Fund).

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  • Berg, A., R. Portillo, S.-C.S. Yang, L.-F. Zanna, 2013, “Public Investment in Resource Abundant Developing Countries,IMF Economic Review, Vol. 61, No. 1, pp. 92129.

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  • British Petroleum, 2013a, “BP Energy Outlook 2030” (London: British Petroleum).

  • British Petroleum, 2013b, “Statistical Review of World Energy,June (London: British Petroleum).

  • Buffie, E.F., A. Berg, C. Patillio, R. Portillo, and L.-F. Zanna, 2012, “Public Investment, Growth and Debt Sustainability: Putting Together the Pieces,IMF Working Paper 12/177 (Washington: International Monetary Fund).

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  • Cashin, P., K. Mohaddes, and M. Raissi, 2012, “The Global Impact of the Systemic Economies and MENA Business Cycles,IMF Working Paper 12/255 (Washington: International Monetary Fund).

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  • Cherif, R., and F. Hasanov, 2012, “Oil Exporters’ Dilemma: How Much to Save and How Much to Invest,IMF Working Paper 12/04 (Washington: International Monetary Fund).

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  • Clements, B. J., D. Coady, S. Fabrizio, S. Gupta, T. Alleyne, and C. Sdralevich, 2013, Energy Subsidy Reform: Lessons and Implications, (Washington: International Monetary Fund).

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  • Dabla-Norris, E., J. Brumby, A. Kyobe, Z. Mills, and C. Papageorgiou, 2011, “Investing in Public Investment: An Index of Public Investment Efficiency,IMF Working Paper 11/37 (Washington: International Monetary Fund).

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  • De Gregorio, J., and J.W. Lee, 2002, “Education and Income Inequality: New Evidence from Cross-Country Data,Review of Income and Wealth, Vol. 48, No. 3, pp. 395416.

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  • Duflo, E., 2011, “Women’s Empowerment and Economic Development,NBER Working Paper No. 17702 (Cambridge, Massachusetts: National Bureau of Economic Research).

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  • Economist, 2013, “The Future of Oil—Yesterday’s Fuel,August 3.

  • Elborgh-Woytek, K., M. Newiak, K. Kochhar, S. Fabrizio, K. Kpodar, P. Wingender, B. Clements, and G. Schwartz, 2013, “Women, Work, and the Economy: Macroeconomic Gains from Gender EquityIMF Staff Discussion Note 13/10 (Washington: International Monetary Fund).

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  • Energy Information Administration (EIA), 2013, Annual Energy Outlook 2013 (Washington: U.S. Energy Information Administration).

  • Felbermayr, Gabriel, Benedikt Heid, and Sybille Lehwald, 2013, Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership (TTIP)—Who Benefits from a Free Trade Deal? (Gutersloh, Germany: Bertelsmann Foundation).

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  • Fenochietto, Ricardo, and C. Pessino, forthcoming, “Understanding Countries’ Tax Effort,IMF Working Paper (Washington: International Monetary Fund).

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  • Frankel, Jeffrey, and David Romer, 1999, “Does Trade Cause Growth?The American Economic Review, Vol. 89, No. 3 (June), pp. 37999.

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  • Hakura, D., and A. Billmeier, 2008, “Trade Elasticities in the Middle East and Central Asia: What is the Role of Oil?IMF Working Paper WP/08/216 (Washington: International Monetary Fund).

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  • International Energy Agency (IEA), 2010, World Energy Outlook 2010 (Paris: International Energy Agency, Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development).

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  • International Energy Agency (IEA), 2013, Oil: Medium-Term Market Report (Paris: International Energy Agency, Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development).

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  • International Labour Organisation (ILO), 2008, Global Wage Report 2008/09 (Geneva: International Labour Organisation).

  • International Labour Organisation (ILO), 2010, Women in Labour Markets: Measuring Progress and Identifying Challenges (Geneva: International Labour Organisation).

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  • International Monetary Fund (IMF), 2007, “Code of Good Practices on Fiscal Transparency” (Washington: International Monetary Fund).

  • International Monetary Fund (IMF), 2012a, “Macroeconomic Policy Frameworks for Resource-Rich Developing Countries” (Washington: International Monetary Fund).

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  • International Monetary Fund (IMF), 2012b, “Towards Stronger Fiscal Policy and Institutions in the GCC,paper prepared for the 2012 Annual Meeting of GCC Ministers of Finance and Central Bank Governors (Washington: International Monetary Fund).

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  • International Monetary Fund (IMF), 2013a, “Assessing Saudi Arabia’s Systemic Role in the Oil Market and Global Economy,” in Saudi Arabia: Selected Issues, IMF Country Report No. 13/230 (Washington: International Monetary Fund).

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  • International Monetary Fund (IMF), 2013b, “How to Unleash the Foreign Direct Investment Potential in the Maghreb?IMF background paper for the 5th Regional Maghreb Conference, Nouakchott, Mauritania, January 2013.

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  • International Monetary Fund (IMF), 2013c, “IMF Executive Board Concludes 2013 Article IV Consultation with the Kingdom of Bahrain,Public Information Notice No. 13/53 (Washington: International Monetary Fund).

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  • International Monetary Fund (IMF), 2013d, “IMF Executive Board Concludes 2013 Article IV Consultation with the Republic of Kazakhstan,Press Release 13/308 (Washington: International Monetary Fund).

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  • International Monetary Fund (IMF), 2013e, “Macroeconomic Implications of the U.S. Unconventional Energy Boom,” in United States: Selected Issues, IMF Country Report No. 13/237 (Washington: International Monetary Fund).

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  • International Monetary Fund (IMF), 2013f, “2013 Spillover Report,” IMF Policy Paper (Washington, July).

  • Melina, G., S.-C.S. Yang, L.-F. Zanna, 2013, “Debt Sustainability, Investment and Natural Resources in Developing Countries” (unpublished, Washington: International Monetary Fund).

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  • Mitra, Pritha, 2013 (forthcoming), “Bringing Women into MENA’s Labor Force: A Path to Higher Growth,IMF Working Paper WP [13]/[yy] (forthcoming) (Washington: International Monetary Fund).

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  • Muravyev, A., D. Schafer, and O. Talavera, 2007, “Entrepreneurs’ Gender and Financial Constraints: Evidence from International Data,Discussion Paper No.706, DIW (Berlin: German Institute for Economic Research).

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  • Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC), 2012, World Oil Outlook (Vienna, Austria: Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries).

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  • Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC), 2013, “Monthly Oil Market Report,July (Vienna, Austria: Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries).

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  • Prasad, A., and G. Fayad, 2012, “The Natural Gas Market: Where Is It Heading?Annex 1.1 in Middle East and Central Asia: Regional Economic Outlook, November (Washington: International Monetary Fund).

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  • United Nations Development Programme, UNDP Human Development Report.

  • World Bank, 2012, World Development Report, Gender Equality and Development (Washington: World Bank).

  • World Bank, 2013, Doing Business 2013: Smarter Regulations for Small and Medium-Size Businesses (Washington: World Bank).

  • World Economic Forum, 2013, Global Competitiveness Report 2013–2014 (Geneva: World Economic Forum).

  • Zakharova, D., 2008, “Fiscal Coverage in the Countries of the Middle East and Central Asia: Current Situation and a Way Forward,IMF Working paper 08/111 (Washington: International Monetary Fund).

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