Front Matter

Front Matter

Philippe Egoume Bossogo, Jerald Schiff, Miho Ihara, Tetsuya Konuki, and Kornelia Krajnyak
Published Date:
July 2006
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    © 2006 International Monetary Fund

    Production: IMF Multimedia Services Division

    Cataloging-in-Publication Data

    Labor market performance in transition: the experience of Central and Eastern European countries / Jerald Alan Schiff … [et al.]—Washington, D.C.: International Monetary Fund 2006.

    p. cm.—(Occasional paper; 248)

    ISBN 9781589064690

    Includes bibliographical references.

    1. Labor market—Europe, Central. 2. Labor market—Europe, Eastern.

    3. Unemployment—Europe, Central. 4. Unemployment—Europe, Eastern.

    5. Unemployment—Europe, Central—Statistics. I. Schiff, Jerald Alan. II. Occasional paper (International Monetary Fund); no. 248

    HD5764.7. A6L32 2006

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    The following conventions are used in this paper:

    • … to indicate that data are not available or not applicable;
    • — to indicate that the figure is zero or less than half the final digit shown;
    • – between years or months (for example, 2004–05 or January-June) to indicate the years or months covered, including the beginning and ending years or months;
    • / between years or months (for example, 2004/05) to indicate a fiscal or financial year.

    “Billion” means a thousand million; “trillion” means a thousand billion.

    “Basis points” refer to hundredths of 1 percentage point (for example, 25 basis points are equivalent to 1/4 of 1 percentage point).

    Minor discrepancies between constituent figures and totals are due to rounding.

    * * *

    As used in this report, the term “country” does not in all cases refer to a territorial entity that is a state as understood by international law and practice. As used here, the term also covers some territorial entities that are not states but for which statistical data are maintained on a separate and independent basis.


    This Occasional Paper analyzes the labor market experiences of the countries of Central and Eastern Europe during their transition from centrally planned to market-based economies. The paper highlights remaining weaknesses in labor markets in these countries—still-high rates of unemployment and long-term unemployment in many countries, and the concentration of unemployment in selected poor regions—and suggests a broad policy road map for addressing these problems.

    The paper was prepared by a team comprising Jerald Schiff, Philippe Egoumé–Bossogo, Miho Ihara, Tetsuya Konuki, and Kornélia Krajnyák. In addition, Nadia Choueiri, Paulo Drummond, and David Moore contributed valuable country case studies, which appear in Appendix II of the paper. The authors would like to thank Carlo Cottarelli, Susan Schadler, and numerous economists in the IMF’s European Department for their comments and for help with data at various stages of the process of producing this paper. Anna Unigovskaya provided excellent research assistance, and Sara Salimi and Ana Rosa Reyes ably assisted in preparing the manuscript. James McEuen of the IMF’s External Relations Department edited the manuscript and coordinated production of the publication.

    The opinions expressed in this paper are solely those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of the International Monetary Fund or its Executive Directors.





    Active labor market policy


    Central and Eastern European


    Commonwealth of Independent States


    European Bank for Reconstruction and Development


    Employment protection legislation index


    European Union


    EU pre–2004: Austria, Belgium, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, and the United Kingdom


    Gross domestic product


    Independent and identically distributed


    International Labor Organization


    Labor force survey


    Ordinary least squares


    Nomenclature of Territorial Units for Statistics (Nomenclature des Units Territoriales Statistiques)

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