Front Matter

Front Matter

International Monetary Fund
Published Date:
January 1994
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    © 1994 International Monetary Fund

    ISBN 9781451938333

    ISSN 0258-7440

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    The following symbols are used throughout this paper:

    • … to indicate that data are not available;

    • — to indicate that the figure is zero or less than half the final digit shown, or that the item does not exist;

    • – between years or months (e.g., 1992–93 or January–June) to indicate the years or months covered, including the beginning and ending years or months;

    • / between years (e.g., 1992/93) to indicate a crop or fiscal (financial) year.

    “Billion” means a thousand million.

    Minor discrepancies between constituent figures and totals are due to rounding.

    The term “country,” as used in this paper, does not in all cases refer to a territorial entity that is a state as understood by international law and practice. The term also covers some territorial entities that are not states, but for which statistical data are maintained and provided internationally on a separate and independent basis.


    This paper was prepared in the Policy Development and Review Department of the International Monetary Fund, under the direction of Michael G. Kuhn, Chief of the Official Financing Operations Division. Its authors are Przemyslaw Gajdeczka, Christopher J. Jarvis, Toshiyuki Kosugi, Keon Hyok Lee, and Pichit Patrawimolpon, economists in the division. Helpful contributions were also made by Anthony Boote and Matthew Fisher. The paper provides information on official financing for developing countries with a particular focus on the low- and lower middle-income rescheduling countries. It updates information contained in Official Multilateral Debt Rescheduling: Recent Experience, World Economic and Financial Surveys (Washington: IMF, November 1990) and also reviews recent developments in direct financing by official and multilateral sources.

    The work benefited from comments by staff in other departments of the IMF and by members of the Executive Board. Opinions expressed, however, are those of the authors and do not necessarily represent the views of the IMF or its Executive Directors. The study was completed in November 1993 and reflects developments to that time.

    The authors are grateful to Hassanin A. Ismeail for research, and Ann-Barbara Hyde for secretarial assistance, and are particularly indebted to Sulochana Kamaldinni for coordinating the processing of the document. Juanita Roushdy of the External Relations Department edited the manuscript and coordinated production.

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