Back Matter

Back Matter

Author(s):
International Monetary Fund
Published Date:
January 1988
    Share
    • ShareShare
    Show Summary Details

    Index

    Letters are used as follows: c for chart, n for footnote, and t for table.

    ABU DHABI

    • Supplementary financing facility, 97t

    AFGHANISTAN

    • Exchange arrangements, 87t
    • SDRs, 100t

    AFRICA

    • Balance of payments, 27t, 30
    • Capital formation, 13c
    • Debt, 33–34;
      • and debt-service ratios, 33t;
      • debt-to-export ratios, 33;
      • outstanding, 217t
    • Exchange rates, 25c
    • Inflation, 15
    • Investment, 13
    • Living standards, 11, 13c
    • Output, 12, 13c, 217t
    • Prices, 15t
    • Purchases from Fund, 54t
    • Sub-Saharan countries, 1,8, 12, 15t, 29c, 30, 217t
    • Trade: exports, 12, 17, 30, 217t;
      • imports, 17c, 30

    ALGERIA

    • Classification by Fund, 216
    • Exchange arrangements, 87t
    • SDRs, 100t
    • Technical assistance by Fund, 82

    ANTIGUA AND BARBUDA

    • Article VIII obligations, acceptance of, 107t
    • Exchange arrangements, 87t
    • SDRs, 100t

    ARGENTINA

    • Article VIII obligations, acceptance of, 107t
    • Bank lending to, 19
    • Exchange arrangements, 87t
    • Financing innovations, 45, 46
    • Inflation, 9
    • Output, 12
    • Purchases from Fund, 72, 73, 90t
    • Repurchases from Fund, 55, 93t
    • SDRs, l00t
    • Stand-by arrangement with Fund, 73, 89t, 182t

    ARTICLES OF AGREEMENT

    • Article III, Section 2(a), review of quotas, 58,138–39
    • Article IV, consultations with members, 37–40, 43–44, 109
    • Article IV, Section 3(b), surveillance over exchange rate policies, 35, 35n, 109
    • Article VII, Section 1, borrowing by the Fund, 134
    • Article VIII, members accepting obligations of, 107t
    • Article XVII, Section 3, use of SDRs in payment of Trust Fund obligations, 135
    • Article XVIII, Section 1(a), global need for reserves, 53
    • Article XXVI, Section 2(a), ineligibility to use general resources, 57

    ASIA

    • Balance of payments, 27t, 29c, 30;
      • of newly industrializing economies, 9, 25, 30
    • Capital formation, 13c
    • Debt, 30, 33;
      • and debt-service ratios, 33t;
      • outstanding, 217t
    • Exchange rates, 25c
    • Inflation, 15
    • Living standards, 11, 13c
    • Output, 11, 12t, 217t
    • Prices, 15t, 21c
    • Purchases from Fund, 54t
    • Trade: balances, 29c;
      • exports, 17, 30, 217t;
      • imports, 17, 17c, 30

    AUSTRALIA

    • Article VIII obligations, acceptance of, 107t
    • Balance of payments, 6, 11, 28
    • Equity prices, 21c(n)
    • Exchange arrangements, 87t
    • Exchange rates, effective, 25t
    • Fiscal policy, 28
    • Output, 28
    • SDRs, 100t

    AUSTRIA

    • Article VIII obligations, acceptance of, 107t
    • Balance of payments, 6
    • Equity prices, 21e(n)
    • Exchange arrangements, 87t
    • Inflation, 14
    • SDRs, 100t
    • Supplementary financing facility, 97t

    BAHAMAS, THE

    • Article VIII obligations, acceptance of, 107t
    • Exchange arrangements, 87t
    • SDRs, 100t

    BAHRAIN

    • Article VIII obligations, acceptance of, 107t
    • Exchange arrangements, 87t
    • SDRs, 100t

    BANGLADESH

    • Exchange arrangements, 87t
    • Extended arrangement with Fund, 92t
    • Purchases from Fund, 90t
    • Repurchases from Fund, 93t
    • SDRs, 100t
    • Structural adjustment facility, arrangement with Fund, 98t, 182t
    • Supplementary Financing Facility Subsidy Account, beneficiary, 105t, 137t

    BANK FOR INTERNATIONAL SETTLEMENTS (BIS)

    • Borrowing agreements with Fund, 75
    • Borrowed Resources Suspense Accounts, deposits in, 75, 170
    • Prescribed holder of SDRs, 76n, 103t
    • Supplementary Financing Facility Subsidy Account, resources of, 79

    BARBADOS

    • Exchange arrangements, 87t
    • Repurchases from Fund, 93t
    • SDRs, 100t

    BELGIUM

    • Article VIII obligations, acceptance of, 107t
    • Balance of payments, 6
    • Equity prices, 21c(n)
    • European Monetary System, 23
    • Exchange arrangements, 87t
    • Exchange rates, effective, 25t
    • Inflation, 14
    • SDRs, 100t
    • Supplementary financing facility, 97t

    BELIZE

    • Article VIII obligations, acceptance of, 107t
    • Exchange arrangements, 87t
    • Repurchases from Fund, 93t
    • SDRs, 100t

    BENIN

    • Exchange arrangements, 87t
    • SDRs, 100t

    BHUTAN

    • Exchange arrangements, 87t
    • SDRs, 100t

    BOARD OF GOVERNORS

    • Interim Committee on the International Monetary System (Interim Committee): communiqués, 140–50
    • Joint Ministerial Committee of the Bank and the Fund on the Transfer of Real Resources to Developing Countries (Development Committee): communiqués, 151–55
    • Quotas, Ninth General Review, 58, 138;
      • Executive Board Report, 58, 138–39
    • Resolution on quota increase, proposed, 58, 58n, 139

    BOLIVIA

    • Article VIII obligations, acceptance of, 107t
    • Debt buy-back scheme, 46
    • Exchange arrangements, 87t
    • Repurchases from Fund, 93t
    • SDRs, 100t
    • Stand-by arrangement with Fund, 89t
    • Structural adjustment facility, arrangement with Fund, 98t, 182t
    • Supplementary Financing Facility Subsidy Account, beneficiary, 105t, 137t
    • Voluntary Contribution Accounts, use of, 199, 200

    BORROWING BY FUND

    • Bank for International Settlements, 75
    • Enlarged access to Fund resources, 74–75, 96t, 174, 181
    • General Arrangements to Borrow, 75, 96t, 134–35, 174–75
    • Guidelines for, 174–75
    • Interest on, 99t
    • Japan, arrangement with, 75, 96t, 174
    • Oil facility, in connection with, 96t
    • Repayment of, 75, 97t, 181t
    • Saudi Arabian Monetary Agency, 75, 133–35
    • Supplementary financing facility, 75, 97t, 174

    BOTSWANA

    • Exchange arrangements, 87t
    • SDRs, 100t

    BRAZIL

    • Debt conversion, 46
    • Exchange arrangements, 87t
    • Extended arrangement with Fund, 92t
    • Inflation, 9, 12
    • Interest payments, suspension of, 44
    • Output, 12
    • Paris Club debt rescheduling agreement, 47
    • Repurchases from Fund, 93t
    • SDRs, 100t

    BUDGET OF THE FUND, 164

    BUFFER STOCK FINANCING FACILITY

    • Access limits, 56
    • International Natural Rubber Agreement, 74
    • Purchases by members, 74, 95t, 96t, 180t
    • Purpose, 74, 169
    • Repurchases by members, 93t
    • Use of Fund credit, 95t

    BURKINA FASO

    • Exchange arrangements, 87t
    • SDRs, 100t

    BURMA

    • Exchange arrangements, 87t
    • Repurchases from Fund, 93t
    • SDRs, 100t
    • Technical assistance by Fund, 84

    BURUNDI

    • Exchange arrangements, 87t
    • SDRs, 100t
    • Stand-by arrangement with Fund, 89t
    • Structural adjustment facility, arrangement with Fund, 98t, 182t

    CAMEROON

    • Exchange arrangements, 87t
    • SDRs, 100t

    CANADA

    • Article VIII obligations, acceptance of, 107t
    • Balance of payments, 5t, 26c, 27t, 28, 39
    • Deficit, fiscal, 6, 28, 39
    • Economic policies, 2, 3, 39
    • Equity prices, 21c(n)
    • Exchange arrangements, 87t
    • Exchange rates, effective, 23, 24c
    • Fiscal policy, 5t, 39
    • Group of Seven, 2–3, 4, 6, 22, 36, 37, 42
    • Inflation, 14, 14c, 39
    • Interest rates, 7c
    • Louvre Accord, 2–3, 4, 6, 21, 22, 36, 37
    • Monetary policy, 39;
      • aggregates, 6t
    • Output, 6t, 10, 10t, 28, 39
    • Prices, 10t, 14c, 39, 21c(n)
    • SDRs, 100t;
      • transactions with designation, 77
    • Supplementary financing facility, 97t
    • Trade, 28, 39;
      • agreement with United States, 39;
      • terms of, 28
    • Unemployment, 11

    CAPE VERDE

    • Exchange arrangements, 87t
    • SDRs, 100t

    CAPITAL EXPORTING COUNTRIES

    • See DEVELOPING COUNTRIES

    CAPITAL IMPORTING COUNTRIES

    • See DEVELOPING COUNTRIES

    CAPITAL IMPORTING FUEL EXPORTERS

    • See DEVELOPING COUNTRIES, OTHER

    CAPITAL MARKETS

    • Access of developing countries to, 30, 31, 31t, 32
    • Balance of payments adjustment, financing of, 30–31
    • Capital formation, 13, 13c
    • Deregulation of, 8
    • Exchange rate effects on, 22, 23, 24c
    • Eurocurrency markets, 67–71
    • Growth of, 18–19
    • International bond markets, 19
    • International liquidity, role in providing, 52
    • Liberalization of, 39

    CENTRAL AFRICAN REPUBLIC

    • Exchange arrangements, 87t
    • Purchases from Fund, 90t
    • Repurchases from Fund, 93t
    • SDRs, 100t
    • Stand-by arrangement with Fund, 89t, 182t
    • Structural adjustment facility, arrangement with Fund, 98t, 182t

    CHAD

    • Exchange arrangements, 87t
    • SDRs, 100t
    • Structural adjustment facility, arrangement with Fund, 98t, 182t

    CHILE

    • Article VIII obligations, acceptance of, 107t
    • Exchange arrangements, 87t
    • Extended arrangement with Fund, 73, 92t, 182t
    • Purchases from Fund, 90t
    • Repurchases from Fund, 93t
    • SDRs, 100t

    CHINA

    • Classification by Fund, 215
    • Exchange arrangements, 87t
    • Output, 9, 12
    • SDRs, 100t
    • Stand-by arrangement with Fund, 89t
    • Structural adjustment facility, eligibility for assistance and intention not to use, 50, 75
    • Technical assistance by Fund, 83, 84

    CLASSIFICATION OF COUNTRIES, 213–17

    COLOMBIA

    • Exchange arrangements, 87t
    • SDRs, 100t

    COMMERCIAL BANK LENDING TO DEVELOPING COUNTRIES

    • Capital importing countries, 31t
    • Debt: amount outstanding, 217t;
      • capital importing countries’, 217t;
      • debt and debt-service ratios, 33t;
      • situation and strategy, 44–47
    • Decline in, 44–45
    • Fund’s role in promoting, 45
    • Indebted countries, 45–46
    • List of heavily indebted countries, 216
    • Multiyear restructuring agreements (MYRAs), 45

    COMOROS

    • Exchange arrangements, 87t
    • SDRs, 100t

    COMPENSATORY FINANCING FACILITY

    • Access limits, 50, 56
    • Contingency component, 49–50;
      • purpose of, 49–50;
      • access limits, 50
    • General resources of Fund, use of, 55c
    • Purchases by members, 55, 72–74, 88t, 90t, 96t
    • Purpose, 49–50, 169
    • Repurchases by members, 93t
    • Use of Fund credit, 95t

    COMPENSATORY AND CONTINGENCY FINANCING FACILITY

    • Access limits, 50, 56
    • Contingency mechanism, 49–50;
      • Executive Board review of, 49
    • Purpose, 4, 49–50

    CONDITIONALLY

    • Current issues in, 48
    • Guidelines on, 48n, 49
    • Implementation of, 48–49
    • Review of, 47–48, 48n, 49
    • Role of Fund in, 47–49
    • Structural adjustment facility, in connection with, 117;
      • collaboration with World Bank, 76

    CONGO

    • Exchange arrangements, 87t
    • SDRs, 100t
    • Stand-by arrangement with Fund, 89t

    CONSULTATIONS WITH FUND MEMBERS, 35–37, 39–43, 44, 109

    • Focus of, 35–37, 39–40
    • Frequency of, 35, 43, 44;
      • bi-cyclic procedure, 43–44, 109
    • Guidelines for, 43;
      • modifications in, 43–44
    • Indicators, use of, in, 42–43
    • Managing Director’s role in, 44, 109
    • Reports on, interim, 44
    • Staff’s role in, 35, 43–44
    • Streamlining of consultation process, 44
    • Trade issues, coverage of, 39–41
    • World Economic Outlook exercise and, 35–36

    COSTA RICA

    • Article VIII obligations, acceptance of, 107t
    • Debt conversion, 46
    • Exchange arrangements, 87t
    • Extended arrangement with Fund, 92t
    • Repurchases from Fund, 93t
    • SDRs, 100t
    • Stand-by arrangement with Fund, 89t, 182t

    CÔTE D’lVOIRE

    • Exchange arrangements, 87t
    • Extended arrangement with Fund, 92t
    • Interest payments, suspension of, 44
    • Purchases from Fund, 74, 90t
    • Repurchases from Fund, 93t
    • SDRs, 100t
    • Stand-by arrangement with Fund, 89t, 182t
    • Supplementary Financing Facility Subsidy Account, beneficiary, 105t, 137t

    COUNTRIES, CLASSIFICATION OF

    • See CLASSIFICATION OF COUNTRIES

    COUNTRIES WITH DEBT-SERVICING PROBLEMS

    • See DEVELOPING COUNTRIES

    COUNTRIES WITHOUT DEBT-SERVICING PROBLEMS

    • See DEVELOPING COUNTRIES

    CREDIT TRANCHE

    • Purchases from Fund, 55, 72, 88t, 90t, 96t, 169
    • Repurchases from Fund, 93t

    CYPRUS

    • Exchange arrangements, 87t
    • SDRs, 100t

    DENMARK

    • Article VIII obligations, acceptance of, 107t
    • Balance of payments, 6, 28
    • Equity prices, 21c(n)
    • European Monetary System, 23
    • Exchange arrangements, 87t
    • Exchange rates, effective, 25t
    • Output, 28
    • SDRs, 100t

    DEVELOPING COUNTRIES

    • Arrears, 32, 44, 56–57
    • Balance of payments, 1, 4, 8, 25, 27t, 28, 29–30, 29c, 31
    • Capital formation, 13c;
      • markets, 18–19
    • Classification, 213–17
    • Commercial bank borrowing, 4, 19 30–33
    • Debt, 4, 8, 30–33, 32c;
      • debt-to-export ratio, 4, 9, 30–33, 32c;
      • and debt-service ratios, 32–33, 33t;
      • outstanding, 33, 217t;
      • rescheduling, 46–47
    • Deficits, fiscal, 8, 9, 40
    • Economic situation and policies, 8–9, 11–13
    • Exchange rates, effective, 23, 25c, 40
    • Financing, 8, 30, 31t, 32, 45–46;
      • innovations in, 46
    • Ineligibility to use Fund resources, 57
    • Inflation, 4, 15, 15t, 36, 40
    • International bonds, 19
    • International reserves, 19–20, 22t, 65, 66t, 68t
    • Living standards, 11, 13c
    • Monetary policies, 15
    • Output, 1, 11–13, 12t, 28–30, 29c, 217t
    • Prices: consumer, 15t;
      • non-oil primary commodity, 17–18, 18c, 36;
      • oil, 18c
    • Purchases from Fund, 54t, 72–74, 105t
    • Reserves, 19, 20, 31, 65
    • SDRs, holdings of, 104t
    • Trade: balance, 29, 29c;
      • exports, 8–9, 12t, 16t, 17, 28–30, 29c, 217t;
      • imports, 16t, 17c;
      • liberalization, 40;
      • terms of, 16t, 28–30
    • Capital Exporting Countries
      • Balance of payments, 8
      • Classification, 215, 216
      • Debt, outstanding, 217t
      • Financing, 30–32, 31t
      • Output, 217t
      • SDRs, holdings of, 104t
      • Trade: exports, 217t
    • Capital Importing Countries
      • Balance of payments, 8
      • Classification, 215–16
      • Debt: and debt-service ratios, 33t;
        • outstanding, 217t
      • Deficits, fiscal, 31t
      • Financing, 31t, 32
      • International reserves, 31t, 65, 66t
      • Output, 217t
      • SDRs, holdings of, 104t
      • Trade: exports, 217t;
        • imports, 17c
      • Use of Fund credit, 31t
    • Diversified Borrowers
      • Classification, 216
      • Debt, outstanding, 217t
      • Output, 217t
      • Trade: exports, 217t
    • Market Borrowers
      • Balance of payments, 27t
      • Classification, 215
      • Debt, outstanding, 217t
      • Output, 217t
      • Trade: exports, 217t
    • Official Borrowers
      • Balance of payments, 27t
      • Classification, 215–16
      • Debt: and debt-service ratios, 33t;
        • outstanding, 217t
      • Output, 217t
      • Trade: exports, 217t
    • Countries with Debt-Servicing Problems
      • Debt: and debt-service ratios, 33t;
        • debt stocks and debt-to-export ratios, 32c;
        • outstanding, 217t
    • Definition, 216
    • Financing, 4, 32
    • Output, 12t, 217t
    • SDRs, holdings of, 104t
    • Trade: exports, 217t;
      • imports, 17c
    • Countries without Debt-Servicing Problems
      • Debt: debt stocks and debt-to-export ratios, 32c;
        • outstanding, 217t
    • Definition, 216
    • Financing, 4, 32
    • Output, 217t
    • SDRs, holdings of, 104t
    • Trade: exports, 217t;
      • imports, 17c
    • Fuel Exporters
      • Balance of payments, 8, 27t, 28–29, 29c, 31
      • Classification, 214
      • Debt, outstanding, 217t
      • Economic policies, 11, 28
      • Output, 1, 11–12, 12t
      • Reserves, 31
      • Trade: balance, 29c;
        • exports, 16t, 17, 29c, 217t;
        • imports, 16t, 17;
        • terms of, 16t
    • Non-Fuel Exporters
      • Balance of payments, 27t, 29, 29c, 30
      • Debt, outstanding, 217t
      • Definition, 214
      • Output, 1, 12t, 28, 217t
      • Trade: balance, 29c;
        • exports, 16t, 17, 29c, 217t;
        • imports, 16t;
        • terms of, 16t, 29
    • Exporters of Manufactures
      • Balance of payments, 31
      • Classification, 215
      • Debt, outstanding, 217t
      • Deficits, fiscal, 9
      • Output, 1, 12t, 217t
      • Reserves, 31
      • Trade: exports, 30, 217t;
        • imports, 17c
    • Primary Product Exporters
      • Balance of payments, 8
      • Classification, 214
      • Debt, outstanding, 217t
      • Deficit, fiscal, 9
      • Financing, 30
      • Output, 12t, 17, 217t
      • Trade: exports, 217t;
        • terms of, 30
    • Agricultural exporters
      • Debt, outstanding, 217t
      • Definition, 214
      • Output, 217t
      • Trade: exports, 217t
    • Mineral exporters
      • Classification, 214
      • Debt, outstanding, 217t
      • Output, 217t
      • Trade: exports, 217t
    • Service and Remittance Countries
      • Classification, 215
      • Debt, outstanding, 217t
      • Output, 12t, 217t
      • Trade: exports, 217t
    • Non-Oil Developing Countries
      • Classification, 217
      • Debt, outstanding, 217t
      • Economic policies, 17
      • Output, 217t
      • Prices, oil, 17
      • Trade: exports, 217t
    • Oil Exporting Countries
      • Classification, 216, 216n, 217
      • Debt, outstanding, 217t
      • Output, 217t
      • Prices, oil, 17, 18c
      • Trade: exports, 217t;
        • terms of, 17

    DEVELOPING COUNTRIES, OTHER

    • Capital Importing Fuel Exporters Classification, 216
    • Debt, outstanding, 217t
    • Output, 217t
    • Trade: exports, 217t;
      • imports, 17c
    • Heavily Indebted Countries
    • Arrears, payments, 44
    • Classification, 216
    • Debt: debt stocks and debt-to-export ratios, 32c;
      • outstanding, 4, 217;
      • strategy, 4, 45
    • Economic policies, 4
    • Financing, 1, 4, 45–46;
      • innovations in, 45, 46
    • Investment, 45
    • Output, 12t, 217t
    • Stand-by and extended arrangements, 49
    • Trade: exports, 17, 217t;
      • imports, 17c
    • Small Low-Income Countries Classification, 216
    • Debt: burden, 4, 33;
      • debt stocks and debt-to-export ratios, 32c;
      • outstanding, 217t
    • Financing, 45;
      • role of Fund and World Bank in, 47, 48–51;
      • structural adjustment facility and enhanced structural adjustment facility in, 32, 50–51
    • Output, 217t
    • Paris Club debt rescheduling agreements, 46–47
    • Stand-by and extended arrangements, 49
    • Structural adjustment facility, assistance under, 50;
      • enhanced structural adjustment facility, 50–51
    • Trade: exports, 217t;
      • imports, 17c
    • Sub-Saharan Africa Balance of payments, 1, 29c, 30
    • Classification, 216
    • Debt, outstanding, 217t
    • Deficit, fiscal, 30
    • Financing, 8
    • Living standards, 11
    • Output, 1, 12, 12t, 217t
    • Prices, 8, 15t
    • Trade: balance, 29c;
      • exports, 12, 217t;
      • terms of, 12, 30

    DEVELOPMENT COMMITTEE Communiqués, 151–55

    DIVERSIFIED BORROWERS

    • See DEVELOPING COUNTRIES

    DJIBOUTI

    • Article VIII obligations, acceptance of, 107t
    • Exchange arrangements, 87t
    • SDRs, 100t

    DOMINICA

    • Article VIII obligations, acceptance of, 107t
    • Exchange arrangements, 87t
    • Extended arrangement with Fund, 92t
    • Repurchases from Fund, 93t
    • SDRs, 100t
    • Structural adjustment facility, arrangement with Fund, 98t, 182t
    • Supplementary Financing Facility Subsidy Account, beneficiary, 105t, 137t

    DOMINICAN REPUBLIC

    • Article VIII obligations, acceptance of, 107t
    • Exchange arrangements, 87t
    • Extended arrangement with Fund, 92t
    • Repurchases from Fund, 93t
    • SDRs, 100t

    ECUADOR

    • Article VIII obligations, acceptance of, 107t
    • Exchange arrangements, 87t
    • Exchange rates, 25
    • Financing innovations, 46
    • Interest payments, suspension of, 44
    • Purchases from Fund, 90t
    • Repurchases from Fund, 93t
    • SDRs, 100t
    • Stand-by arrangement with Fund, 89t, 182t

    EGYPT

    • Classification by Fund, 213
    • Exchange arrangements, 87t
    • Extended arrangement with Fund, 92t
    • Paris Club debt rescheduling agreement, 47
    • Purchases from Fund, 90t
    • Repurchases from Fund, 93t
    • SDRs, 100t
    • Stand-by arrangement with Fund, 73, 89t, 182t

    EL SALVADOR

    • Article VIII obligations, acceptance of, 107t
    • Exchange arrangements, 87t
    • Repurchases from Fund, 93t
    • SDRs, 100t

    ENHANCED STRUCTURAL ADJUSTMENT FACILITY

    • Access to resources, 130–32, 133
    • Assistance to low-income countries, 4, 32, 50, 119
    • Borrowing for, 122–23, 197
    • Establishment, 47, 50, 76, 119
    • Executive Board Decisions on, 119–33
    • Fund-Bank collaboration, 50–51
    • Loans: framework for lending, 130–31;
      • terms and conditions of, 129–30
    • Managing Director’s summary, 128–32
    • Operation, 196–97
    • Policy framework papers, requirement of, 50–51, 115–116, 130;
      • seminar on, 51
    • Purpose, 50, 196
    • Resources, 195t;
      • transfer of, 132
    • Trust: access to resources, 133;
      • administration, 127–28;
      • establishment, 119;
      • Fund as Trustee, 120, 133;
      • loans, 120–22, 129–31;
      • purpose, 120;
      • Trust instrument, 120–27

    ENLARGED ACCESS TO FUND RESOURCES

    • Access limits, modification, 56, 109
    • Borrowed Resources Suspense Accounts, 170
    • Borrowing by Fund for, 74–75, 96t, 174, 181
    • Charge, rate of, 80
    • Executive Board Decisions, 109–110
    • Extension of, 109
    • Fund’s general resources, use of, 55c
    • Ordinary and borrowed resources, use of, 110
    • Purchases from Fund, 90t, 180t
    • Purpose, 170
    • Repayments of Fund borrowing, 181t
    • Repurchases from Fund, 93t
    • Use of Fund credit, 95t

    EQUATORIAL GUINEA

    • Exchange arrangements, 87t
    • SDRs, 100t

    EQUITY MARKETS, 6, 8, 20–21, 21c

    ETHIOPIA

    • Exchange arrangements, 87t
    • Repurchases from Fund, 93t
    • SDRs, 100t

    EUROPE

    • Balance of payments, developing countries, 27t, 29c
    • Capital formation, 13c
    • Debt: and debt-service ratios, developing countries, 33t;
      • outstanding, 217t
    • European Monetary System, 23
    • Exchange rates, 25c
    • Inflation, 14
    • Interest rates, 8, 23
    • Living standards, developing countries, 13c
    • Output, developing countries, 12t, 13c, 217t
    • Prices, 15t, 21c
    • Purchases from Fund, developing countries, 54t
    • Trade: balance, developing countries, 29c;
      • exports, 12, 20, 217t;
      • imports, 17c
    • Unemployment, 8, 11, 11c

    EUROPEAN MONETARY SYSTEM (EMS)

    • European currency units (ECUs), role as reserve currency, 67–70, 69t, 70, 71t
    • European Monetary Cooperation Fund, 67, 70, 70n
    • Exchange rates, 23;
      • realignment, 23
    • Gold holdings, 67, 70, 70n
    • Participants, currencies of, 23

    EXCHANGE MARKETS

    • Fluctuations in, 52
    • Official intervention, 19, 22, 23, 52
    • Plaza Accord, 22

    EXCHANGE RATES

    • Adjustment, 15, 16, 20
    • Arrangements, 25, 40, 87t
    • Balance of payments, effect on, 22, 36
    • Currency preferences, effect on, 1, 4
    • Depreciation of U.S. dollar and, 19, 22, 32
    • Effective: in developing countries, 23, 25c;
      • in major industrial countries, 24c;
      • in smaller industrial countries, 25t
    • European Monetary System, 23
    • Interest rates and, 20, 23c
    • List as of March 1988, 87t
    • Plaza Accord, 22
    • Policies, 22
    • Prices, effect on, 15
    • Realignment, 4, 22, 23
    • Trade imbalances, effect on, 4
    • See also SURVEILLANCE OVER EXCHANGE RATE POLICIES and individual countries

    EXECUTIVE BOARD

    • Arrears, consideration of measures on, 54, 57
    • Article IV consultations: conclusions, 37–40;
      • modifications, 43–44;
      • procedures, 43–44;
      • review of guidelines, 43
    • Changes in membership of, 160
    • Collaboration with World Bank, 51
    • Commodity price indices, use of, 43
    • Compensatory financing facility, review of, 49–50;
      • external contingency component, 49–50
    • Conditionality, review of guidelines, 47–49
    • Enhanced structural adjustment facility, establishment of, 50;
      • policy framework paper, 50–51
    • Enhanced surveillance procedures, 45
    • Extended Fund facility, reconsideration of, 49
    • Financial position of the Fund, measures for strengthening, 57
    • Financing, recent innovations in, 46
    • Indicators, analysis of, 42–43
    • List of Executive Directors and voting power, 156
    • Monitoring of Fund-supported programs, 35, 48–49;
      • adjustment programs for poverty, 48;
      • structural reforms in, 48
    • Policy coordination, promotion of, 35–37, 42
    • Quotas, report to Board of Governors, 58, 138;
      • Committee of the Whole, 58;
      • proposed resolution, 58, 138–39
    • SDRs, discussion of allocations, 53;
      • review of issues relating to, 53
    • Structural adjustment facility, first review of, 50, 114–18
    • Surveillance over exchange rate policies, review of implementation, 44, 108
    • Trade policy, review of, 40–41
    • World economy, review of, 2–3, 35–37, 43;
      • focus on indicators, 42–43
    • See also EXECUTIVE BOARD DECISIONS

    EXECUTIVE BOARD DECISIONS

    • Article IV consultation procedures, 109;
      • change in cycles, 109
    • Borrowed resources, greater use of, 72n
    • Borrowing agreement with Saudi Arabian Monetary Agency, proposed renewal, 133–34
    • Burden sharing: implementation of, 112;
      • principles of, 112
    • Charges, rate of, 57, 57n, 137–38;
      • retroactive reductions in, 57, 57n, 138
    • Conditionality, guidelines on, 48n
    • Enhanced structural adjustment facility, 119–33: access to resources, 133;
      • administration, 118;
      • establishment, 76n, 119;
      • interest on loans, 133;
      • Trust established, 119;
      • Trust instrument, 119–28
    • Enlarged access to Fund resources: extension of period and access limits, 109;
      • lengthening of program period for extended arrangements, 109;
      • use of ordinary and borrowed resources, 110
    • Extended arrangements, period of, 109
    • Extended Fund facility, establishment of, 73n
    • Fund’s income position: additions to Special Contingent Account and disposition of amounts, 111–12;
      • burden sharing, 112–13;
      • establishment of Special Contingent Account, 111;
      • income target, 112;
        • rate of charge, determination of, 112;
      • review of income position, 113
    • General Arrangements to Borrow, Sixth Renewal, 56n, 75n, 133
    • General Resources Account, SDR holdings in, 76n
    • Multiple currency practices, application to capital transactions, 110
    • Overdue financial obligations to the Fund: eligibility for subsidy payment, 79n;
      • medium of payment, 110;
      • special charges, 79n, 110;
      • Special Contingent Account, 111
    • Quotas, Ninth General Review, proposed Resolution, 138–39
    • Remuneration, rate of, 57n, 137–38
    • SDRs: level of Fund’s holdings, 76, 76n;
      • use in payment of Trust Fund obligations, 135
    • Special Contingent Account, establishment of, 57, 111;
      • additions and disposition of amounts, 57, 57n, 111
    • Structural adjustment facility, 114–18: administration, 114;
      • amendment, 118;
      • amounts of assistance, 114;
      • review of, 114–18, 119
    • Supplementary Financing Facility Subsidy Account: payments to members, 136, 137t;
      • resources of, 79n
    • Surveillance over exchange rate policies, 35n: amendment and review of document, 108;
      • review of implementation, 108–109
    • Transfer of resources for Enhanced Structural Adjustment Facility Trust, 132
    • Trust Fund, 135: interest payments, means of, 135;
      • repayment of principal, 135

    EXPORTERS OF MANUFACTURES

    • See DEVELOPING COUNTRIES

    EXTENDED FUND FACILITY

    • Access limits, 49, 56
    • Arrangements under, 54t, 92t, 182t
    • Borrowed resources, use of, 92t
    • Duration, 49,109
    • Enlarged access to Fund resources, use by members, 55c
    • Executive Board decisions, 73n, 109
    • Ordinary resources, use of, 55c
    • Purchases by members, 73, 88t, 96t, 182t
    • Purpose of, 170
    • Repurchases by members, 93t
    • Use of Fund credit, 95t, 172t

    EXTERNAL RELATIONS OF FUND, 85–86

    FIJI

    • Article VIII obligations, acceptance of, 107t
    • Exchange arrangements, 87t
    • Repurchases from Fund, 93t
    • SDRs, 100t

    FINANCES OF FUND

    • Administered accounts, 78–79, 169–71
    • Arrears, members in, 56–57, 57t
    • Borrowed Resources Suspense Accounts, 75, 170
    • Burden sharing, principles of, 112
    • Financial statements, 165–212
    • Income, 57–58, 79–80;
      • target, 57, 80, 112
    • Overdue obligations, examination of, 79;
      • Executive Board Decisions, 111–14
    • Reserves, 57–58, 112
    • Special Contingent Account, 57, 111
    • Special Disbursement Account, 75–76, 114, 132, 182t
    • See also GENERAL RESOURCES ACCOUNT TRANSACTIONS

    FINLAND

    • Article VIII obligations, acceptance of, 107t
    • Balance of payments, 6
    • Exchange arrangements, 87t
    • Exchange rates, effective, 25t
    • SDRs, 100t

    FRANCE

    • Article VIII obligations, acceptance of, 107t
    • Balance of payments, 5t, 26c, 27, 27t, 38
    • Deficit, fiscal, 6, 38
    • Equity markets, 20, 21c(n)
    • European Monetary System, 23
    • Exchange arrangements, 87t
    • Exchange rates, effective, 24c
    • Fiscal policy, 5t, 38, 42
    • Group of Seven, 2–3, 4, 6, 22, 36, 37, 42
    • Inflation, 14c
    • Interest rates, 7c, 38
    • Louvre Accord, 2, 6, 21, 22, 36, 37
    • Monetary aggregates, 6t
    • Output, 6t, 10, 10t, 38
    • Prices, 6t, 14c;
      • of equities, 20, 21c(n)
    • Role of franc as currency peg, 87t;
      • as reserve currency, 68t, 69t
    • SDRs, 100t;
      • transactions with designation, 77
    • Trade, terms of, 27
    • Unemployment, 11c, 38

    FUEL EXPORTERS

    • See DEVELOPING COUNTRIES

    GABON

    • Exchange arrangements, 87t
    • Extended arrangement with Fund, 92t
    • Purchases from Fund, 90t
    • SDRs, 100t
    • Stand-by arrangement with Fund, 89t, 182t

    GAMBIA, THE

    • Exchange arrangements, 87t
    • Purchases from Fund, 90t
    • Repurchases from Fund, 93t
    • SDRs, 100t
    • Stand-by arrangement with Fund, 89t
    • Structural adjustment facility, arrangement with Fund, 98t, 182t
    • Supplementary Financing Facility Subsidy Account, beneficiary, 105t, 137t

    GENERAL AGREEMENT ON TARIFFS AND TRADE (GATT)

    • Fund relations with, 41, 84, 85
    • Uruguay Round of multilateral trade negotiations, 8, 40, 41, 85

    GENERAL ARRANGEMENTS TO BORROW (GAB), 56, 75, 95t, 133, 134, 174–75

    • See also BORROWING BY FUND

    GENERAL RESOURCES ACCOUNT TRANSACTIONS

    • Arrears in settling obligations, 56–57, 57t
    • Asssessments, 99t, 100t
    • Borrowing by Fund, 97t
    • Charges, 79–81, 100t, 137–38
    • Fund credit outstanding, 55, 95t
    • Ineligibility to use Fund resources, 56–57, 57t
    • Interest payments received on, 99t, 100t
    • Overdue financial obligations: charges, 57n, 57t, 79, 79n, 81, 137–38
    • Purchases by members, 54–55, 54t. 72–73, 90t, 91t, 96t, 99t, 180t
    • Quota payments, 99t, 176t
    • Remuneration, 81, 99t;
      • rate of, 137–38, 105t
    • Repurchases by members, 53, 55, 56c, 54t, 74, 911, 93t, 96t, 99t;
      • overdue charges on, 80–81, 99t, 137–38
    • SDRs, 54–55;
      • holdings, 76, 96t, 100t;
      • reduction in Fund’s and increase of participants’ and prescribed holders’, 76;
      • receipt of, 99t, 100t;
      • transactions in, 77, 99t, 100t;
      • transfers of, 78, 99t, 100t
    • Usable currencies, 96t(n)
    • Use of Fund credit, 54t, 96t

    GERMANY, FEDERAL REPUBLIC OF

    • Article VIII obligations, acceptance of, 107t
    • Balance of payments, 1, 2, 5t, 26, 26c, 27t, 38
    • Deficit, fiscal, 6
    • Economic policies, 2, 3, 42
    • Equity markets, 20, 21c(n)
    • European Monetary System, 23
    • Exchange arrangements, 87t
    • Exchange rates, 23c;
      • effective, 24c
    • Fiscal policy, 3, 5t, 38
    • Group of Seven, 2–3, 4, 6, 22, 36, 37, 42
    • Inflation, 14c
    • Interest rates, 6, 7c, 23c
    • Louvre Accord, 2–3, 4, 6, 21, 22, 36, 37
    • Monetary aggregates, 6t;
      • policy, 38
    • Output, 6t, 10, 10t
    • Prices, 10t, 14, 14c;
      • of equities, 20, 21c(n)
    • Role of deutsche mark as reserve currency, 68t, 69t
    • SDRs, 100t;
      • transactions with designation, 77
    • Supplementary financing facility, 97t
    • Trade, terms of, 26
    • Unemployment, 11c, 38

    GHANA

    • Exchange arrangements, 87t
    • Extended arrangement with Fund, 73, 92t, 182t
    • Purchases from Fund, 90t
    • Repurchases from Fund, 93t
    • SDRs, 100t
    • Stand-by arrangement with Fund, 89t
    • Structural adjustment facility, arrangement with Fund, 98t, 182t

    GOLD

    • Fund holdings, 74n, 96t
    • Market price, 65, 66t, 67
    • Official holdings, 65, 66t, 67
    • Reserves, 66t

    GREECE

    • Exchange arrangements, 87t
    • SDRs, 100t

    GRENADA

    • Exchange arrangements, 87t
    • Extended arrangement with Fund, 92t
    • Repurchases from Fund, 93t
    • SDRs, 100t

    GROUP OF SEVEN

    • Countries comprising, 2, 36n
    • Statements by, 2–3, 4, 6, 22, 36, 37, 42
    • Tokyo Economic Declaration, 42
    • Toronto Economic Declaration, 3
    • Venice Economic Declaration, 2

    GUATEMALA

    • Article VIII obligations, acceptance of, 107t
    • Exchange arrangements, 87t
    • Repurchases from Fund, 93t
    • SDRs, 100t
    • Supplementary financing facility, 97t

    GUINEA

    • Exchange arrangements, 87t
    • Repurchases from Fund, 93t
    • SDRs, 100t
    • Stand-by arrangement with Fund, 89t, 182t
    • Structural adjustment facility, arrangement with Fund, 98t, 182t

    GUINEA-BISSAU

    • Exchange arrangements, 87t
    • Paris Club debt rescheduling agreement, 47
    • Repurchases from Fund, 93t
    • SDRs, 100t
    • Structural adjustment facility, arrangement with Fund, 98t, 182t

    GUYANA

    • Article VIII obligations, acceptance of, 107t
    • Exchange arrangements, 87t
    • Extended arrangement with Fund, 92t
    • Ineligibility to use Fund resources, 57
    • SDRs, 100t
    • Supplementary Financing Facility Subsidy Account, beneficiary, 105t, 137t

    HAITI

    • Article VIII obligations, acceptance of, 107t
    • Exchange arrangements, 87t
    • Extended arrangement with Fund, 92t
    • Repurchases from Fund, 93t
    • SDRs, 100t
    • Structural adjustment facility, arrangement with Fund, 98t, 182t

    HEAVILY INDEBTED COUNTRIES

    • See DEVELOPING COUNTRIES, OTHER HONDURAS
    • Article VIII obligations, acceptance of, 107t
    • Debt conversion, 46
    • Exchange arrangements, 87t
    • Extended arrangement with Fund, 92t
    • Repurchases from Fund, 93t
    • SDRs, 100t

    HONG KONGE

    • Equity markets closed, 20
    • Output, 12
    • Prices, equity, 20, 21c(n)

    HUNGARY

    • Exchange arrangements, 87t
    • Repurchases from Fund, 93t
    • SDRs, 100t

    ICELAND

    • Article VIII obligations, acceptance of, 107t
    • Exchange arrangements, 87t
    • Repurchases from Fund, 93t
    • SDRs, 100t

    INCOME AND EXPENSES OF FUND

    • See FINANCES OF FUND

    INDIA

    • Balance of payments, 9
    • Classification, 215
    • Exchange arrangements, 87t
    • Extended arrangement with Fund, 92t
    • Repurchases from Fund, 55, 74, 93t
    • SDRs, 100t
    • Structural adjustment facility, eligibility for assistance and intention not to use, 50, 75
    • Supplementary Financing Facility Subsidy Account, beneficiary, 105t, 137t

    INDONESIA

    • Article VIII obligations, acceptance of, 107t
    • Exchange arrangements, 87t
    • Purchases from Fund, 72, 73–74, 90t
    • SDRs, 100t

    INDUSTRIAL COUNTRIES

    • Balance of payments, 1, 4–6, 5t, 9, 18, 25–28, 26c, 27t
    • Capital markets, 18–19
    • Classification, 213
    • Deficits, fiscal, 5–6, 22, 28
    • Equity markets, crisis of October 1987, 6, 9, 20–21;
      • prices, 21c
    • European Monetary System, 23
    • Exchange rates, effective, 4, 9, 23c, 24c, 25t
    • Fiscal policies, 2–3, 4–6, 5t, 8, 22
    • Group of Seven, 2–3, 4, 6, 22, 36, 37, 42
    • Inflation, 5, 9, 13–14, 14c
    • Interest rates, 6, 7c, 8, 9, 23c, 25t
    • International reserves, 19–21, 22t, 66t, 68t
    • Louvre Accord, 2, 6, 21, 22, 36, 37
    • Monetary aggregates, 6t
    • Output, 6t, 10, 10t, 11
    • Prices, 10t, 14, 14c, 17, 18c;
      • of equities, 21c
    • Purchases from Fund, 54t
    • SDRs, 104t
    • Trade: exports, 16t, 25–28;
      • imports, 16t, 25–28;
      • protectionism, 40, 44;
      • terms of, 9, 16t, 25–28
    • Unemployment, 8, 10, 11c

    INTERIM COMMITTEE

    • Arrears of Fund members, concern over, 56–57
    • Communiqués, 140–50, 44, 49
    • Compensatory financing facility, external contingency mechanism component of, 148
    • Consultations: support for use of indicators and policy interactions in, 42, 43
    • Debt strategy, role in, 44, 57, 146–47
    • Enlarged access policy, recommendations on, 56
    • Enhanced structural adjustment facility, stress on, 147
    • Extended Fund facility, recommendation on, 49
    • Financing innovations noted, 45, 46
    • Indicators, stress on, 42;
      • commodity price indices, 42
    • Quotas, Ninth General Review, 139, 146
    • SDR: allocations and role of, review of, 149
    • Surveillance over exchange rate policies, review of, 42;
      • use of indicators, 42
    • World economic outlook, suggestions on, 36–37, 43

    INTERNATIONAL ACCORDS

    • Louvre Accord, 2, 6, 21, 22, 36, 37
    • Plaza Accord, 22
    • Punta del Este Declaration, 41
    • Tokyo Economic Declaration, 42
    • Toronto Economic Declaration, 3
    • Venice Economic Declaration, 2

    INTERNATIONAL BANK FOR RECONSTRUCTION AND DEVELOPMENT

    • See WORLD BANK

    INTERNATIONAL COOPERATION

    • Canada and the United States, 39
    • Fund’s role in, 32, 47, 84–85
    • Declarations of, 2, 3, 41, 42
    • Fund-Bank collaboration, 41, 48, 50, 51, 75–76, 84–85
    • See also GROUP OF SEVEN, statements by

    INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATIONS

    • Fund relations with, 84–85
    • International Development Association, loans to low-income countries, 47
    • SDR as unit of account for, 78, 78n
    • SDRs, prescribed holders of, 76n, 103t
    • Seminar on policy framework papers, 51

    INTERNATIONAL RESERVES

    • Accumulation, 20, 22t, 52
    • Adequacy, 51–52;
      • safety net, 52
    • Bonds, 19
    • Changes in, 65, 66t, 67, 68t
    • Currency diversification, 67, 68t, 69t, 711
    • Distribution, 66t, 68t
    • Evolution of, 65–67
    • Foreign exchange, 52, 53, 68t, 69t;
      • currency composition, 68t, 69t;
      • official holdings, 66t, 68t;
      • placement of official, 70, 71t
    • Fund-related assets, 65–67, 66t
    • Gold, 66t, 67
    • Holdings: by members, 104t;
      • official, 66t, 68t, 69t;
      • placement of official, 70, 71t
    • Liquidity of, 51–52
    • Relation to trade, 52
    • SDRs as reserve assets, 53, 65–67, 66t

    INTERNATIONAL TRADE

    • Balances, 16, 28, 29c
    • Consultation reports on trade issues, 40–41
    • Debt-to-exports ratio of developing countries, 32c
    • Exchange rate effects on, 4
    • Policies, 40–41;
      • liberalization, 40, 41
    • Prices, 16t, 17, 18, 18c
    • Protectionism, 37, 40, 44
    • Terms of trade, 15, 16t, 29–30, 29c, 30
    • Uruguay Round of multilateral trade negotiations, 8, 40, 41, 85
    • Value, 16t
    • Volume, 1, 15, 16t, 17c, 30

    IRAN, ISLAMIC REPUBLIC OF

    • Exchange arrangements, 87t
    • SDRs, 100t

    IRAQ

    • Exchange arrangements, 87t
    • SDRs, 100t

    IRELAND

    • Article VIII obligations, acceptance of, 107t
    • Balance of payments, 28
    • European Monetary System, 23
    • Exchange arrangements, 87t
    • Exchange rates, effective, 25t
    • SDRs, 100t

    ISRAEL

    • Exchange arrangements, 87t
    • SDRs, 100t

    ITALY

    • Article VIII obligations, acceptance of, 107t
    • Balance of payments, 5t, 26c, 27, 27c
    • Deficit, fiscal, 6
    • Equity prices, 21c(n)
    • European Monetary System, 23, 39
    • Exchange arrangements, 87t
    • Exchange rates, effective, 24c
    • Fiscal policy, 5t, 39
    • Group of Seven, 2–3, 4, 6, 22, 36, 37, 42
    • Inflation, 14c
    • Interest rates, 7c, 39
    • Monetary aggregates, 6t
    • Output, 6t, 10, 10t, 39
    • Prices, 10t, 14, 14c, 39, 21c(n)
    • SDRs, 10Ot;
      • transactions with designation, 77
    • Trade, terms of, 27
    • Unemployment, 11c
    • Voluntary Contribution Accounts, use of, 199, 200

    JAMAICA

    • Article VIII obligations, acceptance of, 107t
    • Exchange arrangements, 87t
    • Extended arrangement with Fund, 92t
    • Purchases from Fund, 90t
    • Repurchases from Fund, 93t
    • SDRs, 100t
    • Stand-by arrangement with Fund, 89t, 182t
    • Supplementary Financing Facility Subsidy Account, beneficiary, 105t, 137t

    JAPAN

    • Article VIII obligations, acceptance of, 107t
    • Balance of payments, 1, 5t, 26, 26c, 27, 27t, 37, 38
    • Borrowing by Fund from, 174
    • Debt conversions, facilitating, 46
    • Equity markets, 20, 21c(n)
    • Exchange arrangements, 87t
    • Exchange rates, 23c;
      • effective, 24c;
      • stability of, 38
    • Fiscal policy, 2, 8, 8n, 9, 38
    • Group of Seven, 2–3, 4, 6, 22, 36, 37, 42
    • Inflation, 14c
    • Interest rates, 6, 7c, 23c, 38
    • International reserves, 68t, 69t
    • Louvre Accord, 2, 6, 21, 22, 36, 37
    • Monetary aggregates, 6t;
      • policy, 37–38
    • Output, 1, 6t, 9, 10t, 11, 37
    • Prices, 10t, 14, 14c;
      • of equities, 20, 21c(n)
    • Role of yen as reserve currency, 68t, 69t
    • SDRs, 100t
    • Supplementary financing facility, 97t
    • Trade: exports, 17, 26;
      • imports, 26;
      • terms of, 26, 37
    • Unemployment, 11, 11c

    JOINT MINISTERIAL COMMITTEE OF THE BANK AND THE FUND ON THE TRANSFER OF REAL RESOURCES TO DEVELOPING COUNTRIES

    • See DEVELOPMENT COMMITTEE

    JORDAN

    • Exchange arrangements, 87t
    • Repurchases from Fund, 93t
    • SDRs, 100t

    KAMPUCHEA, DEMOCRATIC

    • Exchange arrangements, 87t(n)
    • Quota and remuneration, 81n
    • SDRs, 100t
    • Trust Fund, holdings in, 193–94

    KENYA

    • Exchange arrangements, 87t
    • Extended arrangement with Fund, 92t
    • Purchases from Fund, 90t
    • Repurchases from Fund, 93t
    • SDRs, 100t
    • Stand-by arrangement with Fund, 92t, 182t
    • Structural adjustment facility, arrangement with Fund, 98t, 182t
    • Supplementary Financing Facility Subsidy Account, beneficiary, 105t, 137t

    KIRIBATI

    • Article VIII obligations, acceptance of, 107t
    • Exchange arrangements, 87t
    • SDRs, 100t

    KOREA

    • Exchange arrangements, 87t
    • Output, 12
    • Repurchases from Fund, 55, 74, 93t
    • SDRs, 100t

    KUWAIT

    • Article VIII obligations, acceptance of, 107t
    • Exchange arrangements, 87t
    • SDRs, 100t
    • Supplementary financing facility, 97t

    LAO PEOPLE’S DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC

    • Exchange arrangements, 87t
    • SDRs, 100t
    • Technical assistance by Fund, 82

    LEBANON

    • Exchange arrangements, 87t
    • SDRs, 100t

    LESOTHO

    • Exchange arrangements, 87t
    • SDRs, 100t

    LIBERIA

    • Exchange arrangements, 87t
    • Ineligibility to use Fund resources, 57
    • SDRs, 100t
    • Supplementary Financing Facility Subsidy Account, beneficiary, 105t, 137t

    LIBYAN ARAB JAMAHIRIYA

    • Classification by Fund, 213
    • Exchange arrangements, 87t
    • SDRs, 100t

    LIQUIDITY POSITION OF FUND, 56, 74

    LOUVRE ACCORD, 2, 6, 21, 22, 36, 37

    LUXEMBOURG

    • Article VIII obligations, acceptance of, 107t
    • Exchange arrangements, 87t
    • Exchange rates, effective, 25t
    • SDRs, 100t

    MADAGASCAR

    • Exchange arrangements, 87t
    • Purchases from Fund, 90t
    • Repurchases from Fund, 93t
    • SDRs, 100t
    • Stand-by arrangement with Fund, 89t
    • Structural adjustment facility, arrangement with Fund, 98t, 182t
    • Supplementary Financing Facility Subsidy Account, beneficiary, 105t, 137t

    MALAWI

    • Exchange arrangements, 87t
    • Extended arrangement with Fund, 92t
    • Repurchases from Fund, 93t
    • SDRs, 100t
    • Stand-by arrangement with Fund, 89t, 182t
    • Supplementary Financing Facility Subsidy Account, beneficiary, 105t, 137t

    MALAYSIA

    • Article VIII obligations, acceptance of, 107t
    • Equity prices, 21c(n)
    • Exchange arrangements, 87t
    • SDRs, 100t

    MALDIVES

    • Exchange arrangements, 87t
    • SDRs, 100t

    MALI

    • Exchange arrangements, 87t
    • Repurchases from Fund, 93t
    • SDRs, 100t

    MALTA

    • Exchange arrangements, 87t
    • SDRs, 100t

    MARKET BORROWERS

    • See DEVELOPING COUNTRIES

    MAURITANIA

    • Exchange arrangements, 87t
    • Purchases from Fund, 90t
    • Repurchases from Fund, 93t
    • SDRs, 100t
    • Stand-by arrangement with Fund, 89t, 182t
    • Structural adjustment facility, arrangement with Fund, 98t, 182t
    • Supplementary Financing Facility Subsidy Account, beneficiary, 105t, 137t

    MAURITIUS

    • Exchange arrangements, 87t
    • Repurchases from Fund, 93t
    • SDRs, 100t
    • Supplementary Financing Facility Subsidy Account, beneficiary, 105t, 137t

    MEMBERSHIP IN FUND

    • Angola, application of, 72

    MEXICO

    • Article VIII obligations, acceptance of, 107t
    • Bank lending to, 19
    • Equity prices, 21c(n)
    • Exchange arrangements, 87t
    • Extended arrangement with Fund, 92t
    • Financing innovations, 46
    • Output, 12
    • Purchases from Fund, 74, 90t
    • Repurchases from Fund, 55, 93t
    • SDRs, 100t
    • Stand-by arrangement with Fund, 89t

    MIDDLE EAST

    • Balance of payments, 26, 27t
    • Capital formation of developing countries, 13c
    • Classification, 213
    • Debt: and debt-service ratios of developing countries, 33t;
      • outstanding, 217t
    • Exchange rates of developing countries, 25c
    • Living standards of developing countries, 11,13c
    • Output of developing countries, 11, 12t, 13c, 217t
    • Prices of developing countries, 15t, 30
    • Purchases of developing countries from the Fund, 54t
    • Trade: exports, 217t;
      • imports, 17c, 30

    MOROCCO

    • Classification by Fund, 216
    • Exchange arrangements, 87t
    • Extended arrangement with Fund, 92t
    • Purchases from Fund, 90t
    • Repurchases from Fund, 93t
    • SDRs, 100t
    • Stand-by arrangement with Fund, 89t
    • Supplementary Financing Facility Subsidy Account, beneficiary, 105t, 137t

    MOZAMBIQUE

    • Exchange arrangements, 87t
    • Paris Club debt rescheduling agreement, 47
    • SDRs, 100t
    • Structural adjustment facility, arrangement with Fund, 98t, 182t

    NEPAL

    • Exchange arrangements, 87t
    • SDRs, 100t
    • Structural adjustment facility, arrangement with Fund, 98t, 182t

    NETHERLANDS

    • Article VIII obligations, acceptance of, 107t
    • Balance of payments, 6, 28
    • Equity prices, 21c(n) European Monetary System, 23
    • Exchange arrangements, 87t
    • Exchange rates, effective, 25t
    • Inflation, 14
    • Role of guilder as reserve currency, 68t, 69t
    • SDRs, 100t
    • Supplementary financing facility, 97t

    NEW ZEALAND

    • Article VIII obligations, acceptance of, 107t
    • Balance of payments, 6
    • Exchange arrangements, 87t
    • Exchange rates, effective, 25t
    • SDRs, 100t

    NICARAGUA

    • Article VIII obligations, acceptance of, 107t
    • Exchange arrangements, 87t
    • SDRs, 100t

    NIGER

    • Exchange arrangements, 87t
    • Paris Club debt rescheduling agreement, 47
    • Purchases from Fund, 90t
    • Repurchases from Fund, 93t
    • SDRs, 100t
    • Stand-by arrangement with Fund, 89t
    • Structural adjustment facility, arrangement with Fund, 98t, 182t

    NIGERIA

    • Classification by Fund, 213, 216
    • Exchange arrangements, 87t
    • SDRs, 100t
    • Stand-by arrangement with Fund, 89t
    • Supplementary financing facility, 97t

    NON-FUEL EXPORTERS

    • See DEVELOPING COUNTRIES

    NON-OIL DEVELOPING COUNTRIES

    • See DEVELOPING COUNTRIES

    NORWAY

    • Article VIII obligations, acceptance of, 107t
    • Balance of payments, 6, 28
    • Equity prices, 21c(n)
    • Exchange arrangements, 87t
    • Exchange rates, effective, 25t
    • Output, 28
    • SDRs, 100t

    OFFICIAL BORROWERS

    • See DEVELOPING COUNTRIES

    OIL EXPORTING COUNTRIES

    • See DEVELOPING COUNTRIES

    OIL FACILITY

    • Borrowing by Fund for, 95t
    • General resources of Fund, use of, 55c
    • Use of Fund credit, 95t

    OMAN

    • Article VIII obligations, acceptance of, 107t
    • Exchange arrangements, 87t
    • SDRs, 100t

    PAKISTAN

    • Exchange arrangements, 87t
    • Extended arrangement with Fund, 92t
    • Repurchases from Fund, 93t
    • SDRs, 100t
    • Supplementary Financing Facility Subsidy Account, beneficiary, 105t, 137t

    PANAMA

    • Article VIII obligations, acceptance of, 107t
    • Exchange arrangements, 87t
    • Repurchases from Fund, 93t
    • SDRs, 100t

    PAPUA NEW GUINEA

    • Article VIII obligations, acceptance of, 107t
    • Exchange arrangements, 87t
    • SDRs, 100t

    PARAGUAY

    • Exchange arrangements, 87t
    • SDRs, 100t

    PARIS CLUB, 46–47

    PERU

    • Article VIII obligations, acceptance of, 107t
    • Exchange arrangements, 87t
    • Extended arrangement with Fund, 92t
    • Ineligibility to use Fund resources, 57
    • SDRs, 100t
    • Supplementary Financing Facility Subsidy Account, beneficiary, 105t, 137t

    PHILIPPINES

    • Debt conversion, 46
    • Exchange arrangements, 87t
    • Extended arrangement with Fund, 92t
    • Purchases from Fund, 90t
    • Repurchases from Fund, 93t
    • SDRs, 100t
    • Stand-by arrangement with Fund, 89t, 182t
    • Supplementary Financing Facility Subsidy Account, beneficiary, 105t, 137t

    PLAZA ACCORD, 22

    POLAND

    • Exchange arrangements, 87t
    • Paris Club debt rescheduling agreement, 47
    • SDRs, 100t
    • Technical assistance by Fund, 84

    PORTUGAL

    • Exchange arrangements, 87t
    • Output, 12
    • Repurchases from Fund, 55, 93t
    • SDRs, 100t

    PRICES

    • Changes in, 10t, 14, 14c, 17–18
    • Commodity, non-oil primary, 8, 13, 18c
    • Consumer, 14c, 15t
    • Equity, 6, 8, 20–21, 21c
    • Manufactures, 16t
    • Oil, 11, 13, 17, 18c
    • Trade, 16t

    PRIMARY PRODUCT EXPORTERS

    • See DEVELOPING COUNTRIES

    PUBLICATIONS OF FUND, 86, 106t

    PUNTA DEL ESTE DECLARATION, 41

    QATAR

    • Article VIII obligations, acceptance of, 107t
    • Exchange arrangements, 87t
    • SDRs, 100t

    QUOTAS OF FUND MEMBERS

    • Eighth General Review, 67
    • List of members, with quotas, 176t
    • Ninth General Review, 58, 72, 138
    • Payment in SDRs, 67, 99t, 176t
    • Total, 72, 176t

    RESERVE TRANCHE

    • Positions of members, 74, 96t, 172t
    • Purchases by members, 73, 73n, 91t(n), 96t, 169–70

    ROMANIA

    • Exchange arrangements, 87t
    • Repurchases from Fund, 93t
    • SDRs, 100t

    RULES AND REGULATIONS

    • Rule 1–6(4) rate of charge, 112
    • Rule 1–10, rate of remuneration, 112
    • Rule P-9, use of SDRs in payment of Trust Fund loans, 135

    RWANDA

    • Exchange arrangements, 87t
    • SDRs, 100t

    ST. KITTS AND NEVIS

    • Article VIII obligations, acceptance of, 107t
    • Exchange arrangements, 87t
    • Technical assistance by Fund, 83

    ST. LUCIA

    • Article VIII obligations, acceptance of, 107t
    • Exchange arrangements, 87t
    • SDRs, 100t

    ST. VINCENT AND THE GRENADINES

    • Article VIII obligations, acceptance of, 107t
    • Exchange arrangements, 87t
    • SDRs, 100t

    SAO TOME AND PRINCIPE

    • Exchange arrangements, 87t
    • Purchases from Fund, 90t
    • SDRs, 100t

    SAUDI ARABIA

    • Article VIII obligations, acceptance of, 107t
    • Enlarged access policy, borrowing agreement for, 133–34
    • Exchange arrangements, 87t
    • SDRs, 100t
    • Supplementary financing facility, 97t

    SDRs

    • Allocations, 53, 76;
      • net cumulative, 100t;
      • percentage, 104t
    • Assets denomination in, 65, 66t, 67
    • Decisions affecting operations in SDRs, 76n, 135, 137–38
    • Charges, 80–81, 99t, 137–38, 173;
      • rate of, 105t, 137–38
    • Holdings: by Fund, 76, 77;
      • reduction in, 76, 99t;
      • by members, 76, 100t, 104t;
      • in General Resources Account, 100t;
      • of prescribed holders, increase in, 76
    • Interest rate on, 81, 105t
    • Payment of interest by Fund, use in, 77
    • Prescribed holders of, 76, 76n, 103t
    • Purchases from Fund, 99t
    • Purposes, 172, 186
    • Quotas, use in payment of, 67, 99t, 176t
    • Reconstitution, 99t
    • Remuneration paid to Fund members, 99t;
      • rate of, 105t, 137–38
    • Repayment of lenders by Fund, use in, 97t, 99t;
      • of Trust Fund obligations, 135
    • Repurchases from Fund, 93t, 99t
    • Reserves in, 65, 66t, 67, 68
    • Transactions and operations, summary of, 100t
    • Transfers: among participants and prescribed holders, 76, 77, 99t, 100t;
      • by agreement, 77, 99t;
      • to and from General Resources Account, 78, 99t;
      • with designation, 77, 99t
    • Two-way arrangements with participants, 58, 77
    • Uses: currency peg, 78, 87t;
      • loans and settlements, 77, 135;
      • unit of account, 78, 78n;
      • other, 67, 77, 186

    SDR DEPARTMENT

    • Operations, 76–77, 183t, 184t, 186
    • Overdue obligations to, 57t
    • Participants, 73, 100t
    • Prescribed holders, 76, 76n, 103t
    • Reduction in Fund’s holdings, 76
    • Transfers: among participants and prescribed holders, 76, 100t;
      • by agreement, 77;
      • with designation, 77

    SENEGAL

    • Exchange arrangements, 87t
    • Extended arrangement with Fund, 92t
    • Purchases from Fund, 90t
    • Repurchases from Fund, 93t
    • SDRs, 100t
    • Stand-by arrangement with Fund, 89t, 182t
    • Structural adjustment facility, arrangement with Fund, 98t, 182t
    • Supplementary Financing Facility Subsidy Account, beneficiary, 105t, 137t

    SERVICE AND REMITTANCE COUNTRIES

    • See DEVELOPING COUNTRIES

    SEYCHELLES

    • Article VIII obligations, acceptance of, 107t
    • Exchange arrangements, 87t
    • SDRs, 100t

    SIERRA LEONE

    • Exchange arrangements, 87t
    • Extended arrangement with Fund, 92t
    • Ineligibility to use Fund resources, 57
    • Repurchases from Fund, 93t
    • SDRs, 100t
    • Stand-by arrangement with Fund, 89t
    • Structural adjustment facility, arrangement with Fund, 98t, 182t
    • Supplementary Financing Facility Subsidy Account, beneficiary, 105t, 137t
    • Technical assistance by Fund, 82

    SINGAPORE

    • Article VIII obligations, acceptance of, 107t
    • Equity prices, 21c(n)
    • Exchange arrangements, 87t
    • Output, 12
    • SDRs, 100t

    SMALL LOW-INCOME COUNTRIES

    • See DEVELOPING COUNTRIES, OTHER

    SOLOMON ISLANDS

    • Article VIII obligations, acceptance of, 107t
    • Exchange arrangements, 87t
    • Repurchases from Fund, 93t
    • SDRs, 100t

    SOMALIA

    • Exchange arrangements, 87t
    • Ineligibility to use Fund resources, 57
    • Purchases from Fund, 90t
    • Repurchases from Fund, 93t
    • SDRs, 100t
    • Stand-by arrangement with Fund, 89t, 182t
    • Structural adjustment facility, arrangement with Fund, 98t, 182t

    SOUTH AFRICA

    • Article VIII
    • obligations, acceptance of, 107t
    • Classification by Fund, 213, 216
    • Exchange arrangements, 87t
    • Repurchases from Fund, 55, 74, 93t
    • SDRs, 100t

    SPAIN

    • Article VIII obligations, acceptance of, 107t
    • Balance of payments, 6, 11, 28
    • Equity prices, 21c(n)
    • Exchange arrangements, 87t
    • Exchange rates, effective, 25t
    • Output, 28
    • SDRs, 100t

    SPECIAL DRAWING RIGHTS

    • See SDRs

    SPECIAL DRAWING RIGHTS DEPARTMENT

    • See SDR DEPARTMENT

    SRI LANKA

    • Exchange arrangements, 87t
    • Extended arrangement with Fund, 92t
    • Purchases from Fund, 90t
    • Repurchases from Fund, 93t
    • SDRs, 100t
    • Structural adjustment facility, arrangement with Fund, 98t, 182t
    • Supplementary Financing Facility Subsidy Account, beneficiary, 105t, 137t

    STAFF OF THE FUND, 86, 175

    • Article IV consultation reports, 37–40, 43–44
    • Confidentiality of reports, 44, 116
    • Consultations with World Bank staff, 50–51
    • External relations, 85–86
    • Missions of Fund and World Bank, participation in, 51
    • Policy framework papers, 50–51, 76, 81, 115
    • Staff Retirement Plan, 175, 201–12
    • Technical assistance by, 81–84
    • World Economic Outlook exercise, 35, 36, 42, 43;
      • use of indicators in, 42

    STAND-BY ARRANGEMENTS FOR FUND MEMBERS

    • Access limits, 56
    • Borrowed resources, use of, 89t
    • Commitments under, 54t, 73, 89t, 175, 182t
    • In financial year 1987/88, 73
    • Ordinary resources, use of, 182t
    • Summary of, 89t, 91t, 182t

    STRUCTURAL ADJUSTMENT FACILITY

    • Arrangements, 75–76, 98t, 182t
    • Collaboration with World Bank, 75–76
    • Eligibility of members for assistance, 50, 75;
      • China and India, intention not to use, 50, 75
      • Enhanced structural adjustment facility established, 76, 119–33
      • Establishment, 50, 75
      • Policy framework paper, requirement of, 50, 75–76
      • Purposes, 50, 75
      • Resources for, 50, 75
      • Review of, 50, 114–18
      See also ENHANCED STRUCTURAL ADJUSTMENT FACILITYSUB-SAHARAN AFRICA
      • See DEVELOPING COUNTRIES, OTHER
      SUDAN
      • Exchange arrangements, 87t
      • Extended arrangement with Fund, 92t
      • Ineligibility to use Fund resources, 57
      • SDRs, 100t
      • Supplementary Financing Facility Subsidy Account, beneficiary, 105t, 137t
      SUPPLEMENTARY FINANCING FACILITY
      • Borrowing by Fund for, 75, 97t, 174
      • Disbursements, 105t, 137t
      • General resources of Fund, use of, 55c
      • Purchases by members, 105t, 137t
      • Purpose of Subsidy Account, 78, 189
      • Repayments by Fund to lenders, 97t, 181t
      • Repurchases by members, 93t
      • Subsidy Account, 78–79, 105t, 137t;
        • establishment, 78, 189;
        • Executive Board decisions on, 136–37, 137t;
        • investment, 188t;
        • means of subsidy payments, 189;
        • use of SDRs in payment of subsidy, 79, 105t, 137t, 188t
      • Subsidy payments, 105t, 137t, 189
      • Switzerland, lending for, 97t
      • Use of Fund credit, 95t
      SURINAME
      • Article VIII obligations, acceptance of, 107t
      • Exchange arrangements, 87t
      • SDRs, 100t
      SURVEILLANCE OVER EXCHANGE RATE POLICIES
      • Article IV: consultations’ role in, 35–36;
        • modifications to guidelines, 43–44
      • Enhanced surveillance, reviews of, 45;
        • request of Uruguay, 45
      • Executive Board decisions on, 35n, 108–109
      • Executive Board review of, 43–44
      • Indicators, use of, 41–43, 42
      • In financial year 1987/88, 44
      • Multilateral surveillance, strengthening of, 43–44
      • Procedures for, implementation of, 44, 108–109;
        • change in cycle, 109
      • World Economic Outlook exercise’s role in, 35–36, 42–43;
        • commodity price indices, use of, 43
      SWAZILAND
      • Exchange arrangements, 87t
      • Repurchases from Fund, 93t
      • SDRs, 100t
      SWEDEN
      • Article VIII obligations, acceptance of, 107t
      • Balance of payments, 6
      • Equity prices, 21c(n)
      • Exchange arrangements, 87t
      • Exchange rates, effective, 25t
      • SDRs, 100t
      SWITZERLAND
      • Equity prices, 21c(n)
      • Exchange rates, effective, 25t
      • Inflation, 14
      • International reserves, 68t
      • Prescribed holder of SDRs, 76n, 103t
      • Role of franc as reserve currency, 68t
      • SDRs, 100t;
        • prescribed holder of, 76n, 103t
      • Supplementary financing facility, 97t
      SYRIAN ARAB REPUBLIC
      • Exchange arrangements, 87t
      • SDRs, 100t
      TAIWAN PROVINCE OF CHINA
      • Output, 12
      • Reserve accumulation, 19, 31
      TANZANIA
      • Exchange arrangements, 87t
      • Purchases from Fund, 90t
      • Repurchases from Fund, 93t
      • SDRs, 100t
      • Stand-by arrangement with Fund, 89t
      • Structural adjustment facility, arrangement with Fund, 98t, 182t
      • Supplementary Financing Facility Subsidy Account, beneficiary, 105t, 137t
      TECHNICAL ASSISTANCE BY FUND, 81–84THAILAND
      • Exchange arrangements, 87t
      • Repurchases from Fund, 74, 93t
      • SDRs, 100t
      TOGO
      • Exchange arrangements, 87t
      • Purchases from Fund, 90t
      • Repurchases from Fund, 93t
      • SDRs, 100t
      • Stand-by arrangement with Fund, 89t, 182t
      • Structural adjustment facility, arrangement with Fund, 98t, 182t
      • Supplementary Financing Facility Subsidy Account, beneficiary, 105t, 137t
      TOKYO ECONOMIC DECLARATION, 42TONGA
      • Exchange arrangements, 87t
      • SDRs, 100t
      TORONTO ECONOMIC DECLARATION, 3TRINIDAD AND TOBAGO
      • Exchange arrangements, 87t
      • Purchases from Fund, 90t
      • SDRs, 100t
      TRUST FUND
      • Borrowing, 190t, 194
      • Distribution of profits from sale of gold by Fund, 193
      • Loans, 190t, 193
      • Overdue obligations, 56–57, 57t, 193
      • Purpose, 193
      • Resources, change in, 192t
      • Special Disbursement Account, 192
      • Termination, 194
      • See also SUPPLEMENTARY FINANCING FACILITY: Subsidy Account
      TUNISIA
      • Classification by Fund, 216
      • Exchange arrangements, 87t
      • Output, 13
      • Purchases from Fund, 90t
      • SDRs, 100t
      • Stand-by arrangment with Fund, 89t, 182t
      TURKEY
      • Exchange arrangements, 87t
      • Repurchases from Fund, 55, 74, 93t
      • SDRs, 100t
      UGANDA
      • Exchange arrangements, 87t
      • Paris Club debt rescheduling agreement, 47
      • Purchases from Fund, 90t
      • Repurchases from Fund, 93t
      • SDRs, 100t
      • Structural adjustment facility, arrangement with Fund, 98t, 182t
      UNITED ARAB EMIRATES
      • Article VIII obligations, acceptance of, 107t
      • Exchange arrangements, 87t
      • SDRs, 100t
      • Technical assistance by Fund, 83
      UNITED KINGDOM
      • Article VIII obligations, acceptance of, 107t
      • Balance of payments, 5t, 6, 26c, 27t, 28, 39
      • Equity markets, 20, 21c(n)
      • Exchange arrangements, 87t
      • Exchange rates, effective, 24c, 39
      • Fiscal policy, 5t, 6, 38–39
      • Group of Seven, 2–3, 4, 6, 22, 36, 37, 42
      • Inflation, 14, 14c
      • Interest rates, 7c, 39
      • Louvre Accord, 2–3, 4, 6, 22, 36, 37
      • Monetary aggregates, 6t;
        • policy, 38
      • Output, 6t, 10, 10t
      • Prices, 10, 10t, 14c, 28;
        • of equities, 20, 21c(n)
      • Role of pound sterling as reserve currency, 68t, 69t
      • SDRs, 100t;
        • transactions with designation, 77
      • Trade: exports, 28;
        • imports, 28
      • Unemployment, 11, 11c, 38
      UNITED STATES
      • Article VIII obligations, acceptance of, 107t
      • Balance of payments, 1, 22, 25, 37
      • Debt conversions, facilitating, 46
      • Deficit, fiscal, 2, 5, 22, 26, 37
      • Equity markets, 4, 6, 8, 20, 21c(n)
      • Exchange arrangements, 87t
      • Exchange rates, 23c;
        • effective, 24c;
        • stability of, 22, 37
      • Fiscal policy, 5, 5t, 6, 10, 22, 37
      • Group of Seven, 2–3, 4, 6, 22, 36, 37, 42
      • Inflation, 14, 14c, 37
      • Interest rates, 7c, 22, 23c
      • Louvre Accord, 2, 6, 21, 22, 36, 37
      • Monetary aggregates, 6t
      • Output, 10, 10t, 37
      • Prices, 10t, 14, 14c;
        • of equities, 10, 20, 21c(n)
      • Role of dollar as reserve currency, 68t, 69t
      • SDRs, 100t
      • Supplementary financing facility, 97t
      • Trade, 22, 26;
        • exports, 2, 10, 17, 26;
        • imports, 14, 26;
        • terms of, 26;
        • protectionist pressures, 37
      • Use of dollar as currency peg, 87t;
        • as reserve currency, 68t, 69t
      • Unemployment, 11, 11c, 37
      URUGUAY
      • Article VIII obligations, acceptance of, 107t
      • Enhanced surveillance by Fund, request for, 45
      • Exchange arrangements, 87t
      • Repurchases from Fund, 93t
      • SDRs, 100t
      VANUATU
      • Article VIII obligations, acceptance of, 107t
      • Exchange arrangements, 87t
      • SDRs, 100t
      VENEZUELA
      • Article VIII obligations, acceptance of, 107t
      • Enhanced surveillance by Fund, 45
      • Exchange arrangements, 87t
      • Multiyear restructuring agreement, 45
      • SDRs, 100t
      • Supplementary financing facility, 97t
      • Technical assistance by Fund, 83
      VENICE ECONOMIC DECLARATION, 2VIET NAM
      • Exchange arrangements, 87t
      • Ineligibility to use Fund resources, 57
      • SDRs, 100t
      WESTERN HEMISPHERE
      • Balance of payments, developing countries, 27t, 29c
      • Capital formation, developing countries, 13c
      • Debt, developing countries, 8;
        • debt-to-export ratios, 33;
        • and debt-service ratios, 33, 33t;
        • outstanding, 217t
      • Exchange rates, developing countries, 25c
      • Investment, 12
      • Living standards, developing countries, 13c
      • Output, developing countries, 12, 12t, 13c, 217t
      • Prices, developing countries, 15t
      • Purchases from Fund, developing countries, 54t
      • SDRs, holdings of, 67
      • Trade, developing countries: balance, 29c, 30;
        • exports, 17, 217t;
        • imports, 17, 17c
      • Unemployment, 11
      WESTERN SAMOA
      • Exchange arrangements, 87t
      • Repurchases from Fund, 93t
      • SDRs, 100t
      WORLD BANK
      • Financing, role in, 46–47
      • Fund collaboration with, 41, 48, 50, 51, 75–76, 81, 84–85
      • Fund relations with, 51, 75–76, 81, 84
      • SDRs: prescribed holder of, 76n, 103t
      YEMEN ARAB REPUBLIC
      • Exchange arrangements, 87t
      • Repurchases from Fund, 93t
      • SDRs, 100t
      YEMEN, PEOPLE’S DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF
      • Exchange arrangements, 87t
      • Repurchases from Fund, 93t
      • SDRs, 100t
      YUGOSLAVIA
      • Exchange arrangements, 87t
      • Multiyear restructuring agreement, 45
      • Repurchases from Fund, 93t
      • SDRs, 100t
      ZAÏRE
      • Exchange arrangements, 87t
      • Extended arrangement with Fund, 92t
      • Purchases from Fund, 90t
      • Repurchases from Fund, 93t
      • SDRs, 100t
      • Stand-by arrangement with Fund, 89t, 182t
      • Structural adjustment facility, arrangement with Fund, 98t, 182t
      ZAMBIA
      • Exchange arrangements, 87t
      • Extended arrangement with Fund, 92t
      • Ineligibility to use Fund resources, 57
      • SDRs, 100t
      • Stand-by arrangement with Fund, 89t
      • Supplementary Financing Facility Subsidy Account, beneficiary, 105t, 137t
      ZIMBABWE
      • Exchange arrangements, 87t
      • Repurchases from Fund, 93t
      • SDRs, 100t
      You are not logged in and do not have access to this content. Please login or, to subscribe to IMF eLibrary, please click here

      Other Resources Citing This Publication