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Myanmar

Author(s):
International Monetary Fund
Published Date:
January 2001
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Table 1.Myanmar: Real Gross Domestic Product by Expenditure Category, 1995/96-1999/00
1995/961996/971997/981998/991999/00 Provisional
(In millions of kyats at constant 1985/86 prices)
Consumption51,02752,18453,24853,51856,243
Gross investment16,74318,91320,88924,90728,220
Fixed investment16,20119,88721,48425,03627,349
Public8,0519,6279,7819,8259,840
Private8,15010,26011,70315,21117,509
Changes in stocks542-974-595-129871
Gross domestic expenditure67,77071,09774,13778,42584,463
Net exports of goods and nonfactor services-1,028-559861,0353,671
Exports5,0895,6086,7987,8949,782
Imports6,1175,6635,8126,8596,111
GDP at constant prices66,74271,04275,12379,46088,134
(Percentage change)
Consumption6.42.32.00.55.1
Gross investment28.513.010.419.213.3
Fixed investment28.222.88.016.59.2
Public31.519.61.60.40.2
Private25.125.914.130.015.1
Exports-22.010.221.216.123.9
Imports19.8-7.42.618.0-10.9
Gross domestic expenditure11.14.94.35.87.7
GDP6.96.45.75.810.9
Source: Data provided by the Myanmar authorities.
Source: Data provided by the Myanmar authorities.
Table 2.Myanmar: Real Gross Domestic Product by Expenditure Category, 1995/96-1999/00
1995/961996/971997/981998/991999/00 Provisional
(In millions of kyats, at constant 1985/86 prices)
Consumption523,876701,220987,5131,419,7091,906,136
Gross investment86,12297,051139,964199,308290,019
Fixed investment82,582118,313150,240206,912241,694
Public41,03557,27568,40279,59881,806
Private41,54761,03881,838127,314159,888
Change in stocks3,540-21,262-10,276-7,60448,325
Net exports of goods and nonfactor services-5,269-6,291-7,968-9,241-5,854
Exports5,0335,4886,2907,7009,394
Imports10,30211,77914,25816,94115,248
GDP at market prices604,729791,980 11,119,5091,609,7762,190,301
Net factor income from abroad-689-116-6934-118
GNP at market prices604,040791,864 11,119,4401,609,8102,190,183
(Percentage share in GDP)
Consumption86.688.588.288.287.0
Gross investment14.212.312.512.413.2
Fixed investment13.714.913.412.911.0
Public6.87.26.14.93.7
Private6.97.77.37.97.3
Exports0.80.70.60.50.4
Imports1.71.51.31.10.7
Source: Data provided by the Myanmar authorities.
Source: Data provided by the Myanmar authorities.
Table 3.Myanmar: Gross Domestic Product by Form of Ownership, 1999/00(Provisional)(In percent of sectoral output)
StateCooperativesPrivate
Productive sectors12.31.586.2
Agriculture0.21.997.9
Livestock and fishery0.21.098.8
Forestry47.90.751.4
Energy99.90.10.0
Mining5.61.692.8
Manufacturing and processing26.51.172.4
Power99.90.10.0
Construction61.90.237.7
Services53.83.043.2
Transportation27.31.071.7
Communication100.00.00.0
Financial institutions57.015.927.1
Social and administrative services88.00.811.2
Rentals and other services3.53.393.2
Trade20.42.477.2
Gross domestic product21.82.076.2
Source: Data provided by the Myanmar authorities.
Source: Data provided by the Myanmar authorities.
Table 4.Myanmar: Investment and Saving, 1995/96-1999/00
1995/961996/971997/981998/991999/00 Provisional
(In millions of kyats at current prices)
Gross capital formation86,12297,051139,964199,308290,019
Fixed investment82,582118,313150,240206,912241,694
Public41,03557,27568,40279,59881,806
Private41,54761,03881,838127,314159,888
Change in stocks3,540-21,262-10,276-7,60448,325
National saving83,38394,317135,882195,911288,190
Domestic saving81,48491,732133,059192,815285,381
Net factor income plus
net unrequited
transfers from abroad1,8992,5852,8233,0962,809
Foreign saving 1/2,7392,7334,0823,3971,829
(Percentage share in GDP)
Gross capital formation14.212.312.512.413.2
Fixed investment13.714.913.412.911.0
Public6.87.26.14.93.7
Private6.97.77.37.97.3
National saving13.811.912.112.213.1
Domestic saving13.511.611.912.013.0
Foreign saving 1/0.50.30.40.20.1
Source: Data provided by the Myanmar authorities.

Valued at the official exchange rate.

Source: Data provided by the Myanmar authorities.

Valued at the official exchange rate.

Table 5.Myanmar: Real Gross Domestic Product by Sector, 1995/96-1999/00
1995/961996/971997/981998/991999/00 Provisional
(In millions of kyats at constant 1985/86 prices)
Commodity producing sectors40,45643,05545,24747,48153,223
Agriculture24,76525,69826,48027,41730,296
Livestock and fishery4,5675,1095,4725,9846,989
Forestry740756777802838
Energy154150154236393
Mining7248141,0561,1291,462
Manufacturing and processing6,1926,4766,8007,2228,268
Power660745877830947
Construction2,6543,3073,6313,8614,030
Services11,97912,97214,11615,22416,543
Transportation2,8413,0123,2093,3903,795
Communication8631,0501,3451,5011,665
Financial institutions9981,2161,3911,6281,832
Social and administrative services4,4714,7215,0185,3445,719
Rentals and other services2,8062,9733,1533,3613,532
Trade14,30715,01515,76016,75518,368
Gross domestic product (at constant prices)66,74271,04275,12379,46088,134
(Percentage change)
Commodity producing sectors6.76.45.14.912.1
Agriculture5.53.83.03.510.5
Livestock and fishery3.011.97.19.416.8
Forestry-4.52.22.83.24.5
Energy9.2-2.62.453.666.5
Mining18.512.429.76.929.5
Manufacturing and processing7.64.65.06.214.5
Power6.512.917.7-5.414.1
Construction27.224.69.86.34.4
Services9.38.38.87.88.7
Transportation6.36.06.55.611.9
Communication24.721.728.111.610.9
Financial institutions34.921.814.417.012.5
Social and administrative services6.25.66.36.57.0
Rentals and other services6.26.06.16.65.1
Trade5.74.95.06.39.6
Gross domestic product (at constant prices)6.96.45.75.810.9
Source: Data provided by the Myanmar authorities.
Source: Data provided by the Myanmar authorities.
Table 6.Myanmar; Gross Domestic Product by Sector, 1995/96-1999/00
1995/961996/971997/981998/991999/00 Provisional
(In millions of kyats, at current prices)
Commodity producing sectors422,443558,598773,5871,109,2681,508,000
Agriculture321,550421,233583,437841,2221,143,167
Livestock and fishery36,44048,33869,053100,698158,269
Forestry4,7606,3247,1818,65310,697
Mining (incl. energy)3,1704,8336,4507,89510,922
Manufacturing and processing41,59456,61079,040112,774143,405
Power1,8722,2021,9329912,501
Construction13,05719,05826,49437,03539,039
Services41,92854,11387,976122,913155,751
Transportation17,08825,20150,36676,304100,847
Communication1,6822,1592,9313,7274,424
Financial institutions1,0411,2791,4751,9452,211
Social and administrative services10,78211,48213,29314,62216,449
Rentals and other services11,33513,99219,91126,31531,820
Trade140,358179,269257,946377,595526,550
Gross domestic product (at current prices)604,729791,9801,119,5091,609,7762,193,301
(Percentage share in GDP)
Commodity producing sectors69.970.569.168.968.8
Agriculture53.253.252.152.352.2
Livestock and fishery6.06.16.26.37.2
Forestry0.80.80.60.50.3
Mining (incl. energy)0.50.60.60.50.7
Manufacturing and processing6.97.17.17.06.5
Power0.30.30.20.10.1
Construction2.22.42.42.31.8
Services6.96.87.97.67.1
Transportation2.83.24.54.74.6
Communication0.30.30.30.20.2
Financial institutions0.20.20.10.10.1
Social and administrative services1.81.41.20.90.8
Rentals and other services1.91.81.81.61.4
Trade23.222.623.023.524.1
Source: Data provided by the Myanmar authorities.
Source: Data provided by the Myanmar authorities.
Table 7.Myanmar: Output and Yield of Major Crops, 1995/96-1999/00
1995/961996/971997/981998/991999/00
(In thousands of metric tons)
Output
Paddy17,95317,67616,65417,07819,887
Wheat7887929398
Maize275286308303349
Pulses1,3371,3701,5971,6851,881
Groundnuts593559540562640
Sesame304344296210302
Sunflower1649290189270
Cotton165168164158176
Jute4339333333
Sugarcane3,3424,0425,1365,4305,147
Myanma tobacco4147574246
Virginia tobacco2223252124
Rubber2626272324
(In kilograms per hectare of harvested area)
Yield
Paddy2,9763,0643,0803,1293,220
Wheat8579671,045969933
Maize1,7081,7331,9131,6561,670
Pulses667709781709714
Groundnuts1,1511,1691,2111,1471,141
Sesame336339382298293
Sunflower759754783592565
Cotton509564667545547
Jute915907971892892
Sugarcane (mt per ha)5149504443
Myanma tobacco1,6401,6211,6761,6151,617
Virginia tobacco5,5005,7506,2505,2506,174
Rubber531565563489503
Source: Data provided by the Myanmar authorities.
Source: Data provided by the Myanmar authorities.
Table 8.Myanmar: Harvested Acreage Under Major Crops, 1995/96-1999/00(In thousands of hectares)
1995/961996/971997/981998/991999/00
Paddy6,0335,7685,4085,4586,176
Wheat91908896105
Maize161165161183209
Pulses2,0061,9322,0462,3762,635
Groundnuts515478446490561
Sesame9041,0157747051,030
Sunflower216122115319478
Cotton324298246290322
Jute4743343737
Sugarcane6682103123119
Myanma tobacco2529342629
Virginia tobacco44444
Rubber4946484748
Total10,44110,0729,50710,15411,753
Source: Data provided by the Myanmar authorities.
Source: Data provided by the Myanmar authorities.
Table 9.Myanmar: Production of Selected Minerals by State Economic Enterprises (SEEs), 1995/96-1999/00(In metric tons unless otherwise stated)
1995/961996/971997/981998/991999/00
Tin concentrate49123015411377
Tungsten concentrate1442418435
Tin and tungsten concentrate24283140
Tin, tungsten, and scheelite mixed concentrate1,082779788298291
Refined lead1,5721,8861,9131,8551,716
Zinc concentrate1,6091,5991,3031,236506
Copper ore ('000 long tons)1,0841,024472
Refined silver ('000 ounces)1126511211790
Coal ('000 long tons)35312931105
Gold (troy ounces)7,75712,47513,17910,7428,572
Source: Data provided by the Myanmar authorities.
Source: Data provided by the Myanmar authorities.
Table 10.Myanmar: Supply of Primary Energy, 1995/96-1999/00 1/
1995/961996/971997/981998/991999/00
(In thousands of barrel of crude oil or equivalent)
Commercial primary energy31,24233,69537,84443,36750,648
Crude oil11,27612,14013,82116,78220,698
domestic sales3,4913,0702,9222,7962,828
import7,7859,07010,89913,98617,870
Natural gas 1/8,5619,28410,0619,7269,174
Hydroelectricity 2/1291311417677
(Percentage change)
Commercial primary energy7.912.314.616.8
Crude oil7.713.821.423.3
Natural gas8.48.4-3,3-5.7
Hydroelectricity1.67.6-46.11.2
Source: Data provided by the Myanmar authorities.

Converted at 1 million cubic feet of natural gas = 167.1 barrels of crude oil.

Converted at 1 million kwh = 80.6 barrels of oil.

Source: Data provided by the Myanmar authorities.

Converted at 1 million cubic feet of natural gas = 167.1 barrels of crude oil.

Converted at 1 million kwh = 80.6 barrels of oil.

Table 11.Myanmar: Production, Trade, and Consumption of Oil and Natural Gas, 1995/96-1999/00

(In thousands of barrels) 1/

1995/961996/971997/981998/991999/00
Total production (in crude oil equivalent)13,30513,57614,24423,42740,142
Crude oil4,2773,7873,6323,3783,480
Natural gas (in crude oil equivalent) 2/9,0289,78910,61220,04936,662
Utilization
Domestic consumption 3/20,12021,71024,29226,67830,189
Crude oil11,13711,97113,76916,53520,599
Natural gas (in crude oil equivalent) 2/8,9839,78910,52310,1439,590
Of which
Electricity generation5,8836,6987,0266,9236,285
Trade
Imports of crude oil and products7,7859,07010,89913,98617,870
Exports of oil products (in crude oil equivalent)2412796158
Sources: Data provided by the Myanmar authorities; and Fund staff estimates.

One barrel = 42 U.S. gallons

The conversion factor used is 1 million cu. ft. of natural gas = 167.1 barrels of crude oil (1 million BTUs=1,000 cu. ft. of natural gas).

Including changes in stock.

Sources: Data provided by the Myanmar authorities; and Fund staff estimates.

One barrel = 42 U.S. gallons

The conversion factor used is 1 million cu. ft. of natural gas = 167.1 barrels of crude oil (1 million BTUs=1,000 cu. ft. of natural gas).

Including changes in stock.

Table 12.Myanmar: Domestic Output of Petroleum Products, 1995/96-1999/00(In millions of gallons)
1995/961996/971997/981998/991999/00
Gasoline65.153.277.781.882.0
Diesel fuel116.691.5123.1119.1116.1
Furnace oil27.424.525.725.116.9
Kerosene0.20.30.20.00.0
Aviation fuel17.514.415.714.116.2
Source: Data provided by the Myanmar authorities.
Source: Data provided by the Myanmar authorities.
Table 13.Myanmar: Use of Petroleum Products by Industries, 1995/96-1999/00(In thousands of barrels)
1995/961996/971997/981998/991999/00
Agriculture7846739691,1831,324
Livestock and fishery3935225497696
Forestry331241255324389
Mining311297288260277
Manufacturing and processing541524526473440
Power4383604425531,767
Construction4835621,3211,629724
Transportation1,1111,2101,0259801,025
Other3,6273,5914,0025,0645,870
Total7,6657,4939,05310,96312,512
Source: Data provided by the Myanmar authorities.
Source: Data provided by the Myanmar authorities.
Table 14.Myanmar: Official Retail Prices of Major Petroleum Products, 1995-1999(In kyats per liter; end of period)
19951996199719981999
Gasoline
Official5.55.539.639.639.6
Diesel fuel
Official4.44.435.235.235.2
Furnace oil
Official2.62.62.62.62.6
Kerosene
Official3.33.33.33.33.3
Memorandum items:
Import unit value 1/
Crude oil22.127.025.618.835.3
Diesel oil25.930.926.519.435.5
Imports ('000 barrels)
Crude oil3,5522,7034,7945,0775,003
Diesel oil1,7782,6742,5643,7425,404
Source: Data provided by the Myanmar authorities.

US$ per barrel, c.i.f. basis.

Source: Data provided by the Myanmar authorities.

US$ per barrel, c.i.f. basis.

Table 15.Myanmar: Generation and Consumption of Electricity, 1995/96-1999700(In millions of kilowatt hours)
1995/961996/971997/981998/991999/00
Electricity
Electric generation 1/3,7634,1304,5504,1394,508
Hydroelectricity1,5961,6221,747948959
Steam6359212225653
Gas2,0612,4092,5432,9222,840
Diesel4340484456
Total consumption2,2622,4342,6762,7162,899
Domestic9721,0891,2061,1321,176
Industrial8768769149561,107
Hospitals, offices, schools, etc.340393473537525
Other7476839191
Departmental Use6398139140101
Losses 2/1,4381,5981,7351,2831,508
Memorandum items:
Length of electric power lines of MEPE (miles)12,83413,06613,18117,01517,452
Electric generating capacity (megawatts)9821,0331,0361,0311,172
Of which: Hydroelectric317327328340360
Unit sales price (in kyat)1.31.31.31.54.7
Unit cost (in kyat)0.80.81.12.15.9
Ratio of losses to generation (in percent)38.238.738.131.033.4
Source: Data provided by the Myanmar authorities.

Units generated by the Myanma Electric Power Enterprise (MEPE) only.

Includes losses in generation, transmission, and distribution.

Source: Data provided by the Myanmar authorities.

Units generated by the Myanma Electric Power Enterprise (MEPE) only.

Includes losses in generation, transmission, and distribution.

Table 16.Myanmar: Population and Employment, 1995/96-1998/99(In thousands, unless otherwise specified)
1995/961996/971997/981998/99
Population 1/44,74345,57046,40047,300
Growth rate (in percent)1.91.81.82.0
Total employment17,58717,96418,337
Growth rate (in percent)2.12.12.1
Agriculture11,27211,38111,507
Livestock and fishery388391397
Forestry188188189
Mining116132121
Manufacturing and processing1,4811,5731,666
Construction354378400
Power192126
Transportation and communications441470495
Social services563577597
Administration776835888
Trade1,7151,7461,781
Other274272270
Employment by sector17,58717,96418,337
Public sector 2/1,3781,3811,411
Private sector and cooperatives16,20916,58316,948
Percentage share of total929292
Memorandum item:
Labor force 3/18,76619,24819,743
Urban4,1994,3074,418
Rural14,56714,94115,325
Source: Data provided by the Myanmar authorities.

Data for mid-fiscal year.

Including casual labor.

Estimates based on the Myanmar Labor Force Survey, 1990.

Source: Data provided by the Myanmar authorities.

Data for mid-fiscal year.

Including casual labor.

Estimates based on the Myanmar Labor Force Survey, 1990.

Table 17.Myanmar: Yangon Consumer Price Index 1996/97-2000/01
19992000
Weights1996/971997/981998/99Mar.Jun.Sep.Dec.Mar.June
(1986 = 100; annual average, end of month)
Alt items100.0882.81,182.11,762.21,863.21,902.11,958.82,028.01,967.11,960.3
Food and beverages64.91,052.01,405.52,112.72,240.22,286.92,363.62,459.22,369.22,330.9
Tobacco2.3354.5705.91,113.41,139.81,123.01,130.71,169.2798.7876.8
Fuel and light8.8852.71,023.11,286.01,300.21,292.11,370.91,404.11,470.31,491.1
Clothing7.1534.0718.21,165.11,191.51,224.71,240.31,274.31,334.51,400.9
House tent3.1439.2590.7796.2803.4902.0813.0884.7952.51,331.4
Other13.8473.0682.41,059.81,150.11,181.81,191.61,182.61,139.11,126.3
(12-month percentage change)
All items20.033.949.133.712.49.79.35.63.1
Food and beverages22.833.650.335.213.310.89.95.81.9
Tobacco15.099.157.733.317.28.26.7-29.9-21.9
Fuel and light10.320.025.711.81.34.27.813.115.4
Clothing17.534.562.229.72.58.49.012.014.4
House rent10.834.534.818.67.55.210.818.647.6
Other9.144.355.344.818.85.54.4-1.0-4.7
Source: Data provided by the Myanmar authorities.
Source: Data provided by the Myanmar authorities.
Table 18.Myanmar: Summary Operations of the Nonfinancial Public Sector, 1996/97-1999/00(In billions of kyats)
1996/971997/981998/991999/00
BudgetStaff Est.
Union Government
Receipts53.888.3117.090.9116.5
Tax revenue28.945.952.939.854.6
Transfers from SEEs15.426.943.736.444.4
Other nontax revenue8.813.919.814.117.0
Foreign grants 1/0.61.60.60.50.5
Expenditures 2/76.697.9123.192.6145.3
Current expenditures39.048.063.157.884.7
Wages/Salaries9.38.17.68.18.2
Goods and services9.914.318.618.922.6
Mantainance and repairs10.515.217.117.721.3
Contributions2.42.68.10.814.8
Interest payments6.17.811.712.417.8
Domestic5.87.611.612.117.7
External (due) 1/0.30.20.10.30.1
Other0.80.00.00.00.0
Capital expenditures 3/37.649.960.034.860.6
Current Balance14.840.353.933.131.8
Overall Balance-22.8-9.6-6.1-1.7-28.8
State Economic Enterprises
Receipts114.6185.0242.2284.6315.5
Expenditures143.6232.4328.1333.0386.5
Current127.9214.5309.4318.3365.5
Capital15.717.918.614.821.0
Current Balance-13.3-29.5-67.3-33.7-50.0
Overall Balance-29.0-47.4-85.9-48.4-71.0
Consolidated Accounts
Receipts53.888.3117.090.9116.5
Tax28.945.952.939.854.6
Nontax24.240.763.550.661.4
Grants 1/0.61.60.60.50.5
Expenditures105.6145.3209.0141.0216.3
Current52.477.4130.491.5134.7
Capital53.267.978.749.581.6
Current Balance1.410.9-13.4-0.6-18.2
Overall Balance-51.8-57.0-92.0-50.1-99.8
Financing51.857.092.050.199.8
Foreign loans (net on accrual) 1/-1.3-0.60.8-0.8-0.8
Foreign loans (gross)0.41.12.50.80.8
Amortization due-1.7-1.6-1.7-1.6-1.6
Change in external arrears 1/0.91.31.21.31.3
Interest0.30.20.30.20.2
Principal0.71.10.91.11.1
Domestic financing52.256.290.049.699.2
Domestic bank financing34.844.756.0116.6
Central Bank34.044.451.262.6
Commercial banks0.80.34.854.0
Nonbank financing17.311.634.0-17.4
Sources: Budget Department, Ministry of Finance and Revenue; and Fund staff estimates.

Valued at the official exchange rate.

Excludes off-budget expenditures.

Includes net lending.

Sources: Budget Department, Ministry of Finance and Revenue; and Fund staff estimates.

Valued at the official exchange rate.

Excludes off-budget expenditures.

Includes net lending.

Table 19.Myanmar: Summary Operations of the Nonfinancial Public Sector, 1996/97-1999/00(In percent of GDP)
1996/971997/981998/991999/00
BudgetStaff Est.
Union Government
Receipts6.87.97.35.55.3
Tax revenue3.74.13.32.42.5
Transfers from SEEs1.92.42.72.22.0
Other nontax revenue1.11.21.20.80.8
Foreign grants 1/0.10.10.00.00.0
Expenditures 2/9.78.77.65.66.6
Current expenditures4.94.33.93.53.9
Wages/Salaries1.20.70.50.50.4
Goods and services1.31.31.21.11.0
Mantainance and repairs1.31.41.11.11.0
Contributions0.30.20.50.00.7
Interest payments0.80.70.70.70.8
Domestic0.70.70.70.70.8
External (due) 1/0.00.00.00.00.0
Other0.10.00.00.0
Capital expenditures 3/4.74.53.72.12.8
Current Balance1.93.63.42.01.5
Overall Balance-2.9-0.9-0.4-0.1-1.3
State Economic Enterprises
Receipts14.516.515.017.114.4
Expenditures18.120.820.420.017.6
Current16.219.219.219.116.7
Capital2.01.61.20.91.0
Current Balance-1.7-2.6-4.2-2.0-2.3
Overall Balance-3.7-4.2-5.3-2.9-3.2
Consolidated Accounts
Receipts6.87.97.35.55.3
Tax3.74.13.32.42.5
Nontax3.13.63.93.02.8
Grants 1/0.10.10.00.00.0
Expenditures13.313.013.08.59.9
Current6.66.98.15.56.2
Capital6.76.14.93.03.7
Current Balance0.21.0-0.80.0-0.8
Overall Balance-6.5-5.1-5.7-3.0-4.6
Financing6.55.15.73.04.6
Foreign loans (net on accrual) 1/-0.20.00.10.0
Change in external arrears 1/0.10.10.10.1
Domestic financing6.65.05.64.6
Domestic bank financing4.44.03.55.3
Other2.31.22.2-0.7
Memorandum items:
Union Government balance exclusive of SEE transfers-4.8-3.3-3.1-3.3
SEE balance exclusive of transfers-1.7-3.8-2.6-1.2
Sources: Budget Department, Ministry of Finance and Revenue; and Fund staff estimates.

Valued at the official exchange rate.

Excludes off-budget expenditures.

Includes net lending.

Sources: Budget Department, Ministry of Finance and Revenue; and Fund staff estimates.

Valued at the official exchange rate.

Excludes off-budget expenditures.

Includes net lending.

Table 20.Myanmar: Union Government Revenues, 1996/97-1999/00
1996/971997/981998/991999/00
BudgetStaff Est.
Total revenue and grants53.888.3117.090.9116.4
Tax revenue28.945.952.939.854.4
Taxes on Income9.215.320.914.421.5
Income Tax6.211.116.617.1
Profit tax3.04.24.34.4
Commercial tax9.518.122.717.324.6
Taxes on property use1.01.61.91.51.6
Land tax0.10.10.10.10.1
Extraction of forestry products0.40.70.70.80.8
Fisheries Tax0.40.71.10.70.7
Customs Duties7.88.65.25.05.0
Excise Duties0.10.20.20.20.2
Other1.42.32.01.51.5
Import license fee0.20.20.20.20.2
Motor vehicle tax0.20.81.00.70.7
Stamp duties0.91.30.80.60.6
Nontax revenue24.240.763.550.661.3
Transfers from SEEs15.426.943.736.444.4
Other8.813.920.114.317.2
Registration fees0.10.10.10.10.1
School fees0.40.20.51.21.2
Mechanized Agricultural Department receipts2.21.02.72.42.9
Union Government capital receipts0.80.80.10.40.4
Other Union Government receipts2.97.812.16.07.8
Representative Bodies receipts0.10.10.30.20.2
Public Debt Account receipts0.20.10.10.10.1
State Lottery2.23.74.24.04.5
Foreign grants 1/0.61.60.60.50.5
Total revenue and grants6.S7.97.35.55.3
Tax revenue3.74.13.32.42.5
Taxes on Income1.21.41.30.91.0
Income Tax0.81.01.00.00.8
Profit tax0.40.40.30.00.2
Commercial tax1.21.61.41.01.1
Taxes on property use0.10.10.10.10.1
Customs Duties 2/1.00.80.30.30.2
Other 1/0.20.20.00.00.0
Nontax revenue3.13.64.03.02.8
Transfers from SEEs1.92.42.72.22.0
Other1.11.21.20.90.8
Foreign grants 1/0.10.10.00.00.0
Sources: Budget Department, Ministry of Finance and Revenue; and Fund staff estimates.

Valued at the official exchange rate.

Including excise duties.

Sources: Budget Department, Ministry of Finance and Revenue; and Fund staff estimates.

Valued at the official exchange rate.

Including excise duties.

Table 21.Myanmar: Union Government Expenditure by Functional Classification, 1996/97-1999/001/(In billions of kyats)
1996/971997/981998/991999/00
BudgetStaff Est.
Total expenditure2/76.697.972.192.5145.6
Current expenditure39.048.049.357.884.7
General Services3.35.14.14.65.4
SPDC etc.0.60.90.91.01.1
Home2.42.72.83.13.8
Information0.20.20.30.30.3
Foreign Affairs0.11.20.20.20.2
Defense13.114.716.217.519.3
Economic Services7.210.010.111.815.6
Agriculture and Forestry4.35.05.76.57.9
Industry0.00.00.10.10.1
Mines0.10.10.10.10.1
Transport and Communication;0.20.30.30.40.4
Public Works and Housing1.93.83.13.85.9
Trade0.00.10.10.10.1
Co-operatives0.30.30.30.30.3
Planning and Finance0.40.60.50.60.8
Social Services7.88.99.210.711.8
Education4.95.35.76.57.0
Health1.11.61.31.82.1
Pensions and Gratuities1.61.71.82.02.3
Labour0.00.00.10.10.1
Social Welfare0.20.30.20.30.3
Total interest payments6.17.89.012.417.8
Other current expenditure 3/1.51.50.80.814.8
Capital expenditure37.649.922.834.760.8
Representative Bodies0.30.60.30.71.1
General Services1.51.40.81.12.0
Defense11.315.58.314.218.8
Economic Services15.324.59.613.830.3
Agriculture and Forestry7.08.23.95.09.5
Industry0.00.00.00.00.0
Mines0.00.00.00.00.0
Transport and Communication!1.42.22.22.43.8
Public Works and Housing6.613.93.25.916.4
Planning and Finance0.20.20.20.50.6
Social Services7.46.63.34.57.1
Education5.44.72.33.45.2
Health2.01.91.01.11.9
Other 4/1.91.30.40.31.5
Sources: Budget Department, Ministry of Finance and Revenue; and Fund staff estimates.

On a cash basis, except for interest payments.

Excludes off-budget expenditures.

Includes contributions to international organizations, Reserve Fund, and unallocated expenditure.

Includes net lending.

Sources: Budget Department, Ministry of Finance and Revenue; and Fund staff estimates.

On a cash basis, except for interest payments.

Excludes off-budget expenditures.

Includes contributions to international organizations, Reserve Fund, and unallocated expenditure.

Includes net lending.

Table 22.Myanmar: Union Government Expenditure by Functional Classification, 1996/97-1999/00 1/(In percent of GDP)
1996/971997/981998/991999/00
BudgetStaff Est.
Total expenditure 2/9.78.74.55.66.6
Current expenditure4.94.33.13.53.9
General Services0.40.50.30.30.2
SPDC etc0.10.10.10.10.1
Home0.30.20.20.20.2
Information0.00.00.00.00.0
Foreign Affairs0.00.10.00.00.0
Defense1.61.31.01.10.9
Economic Services0.90.90.60.70.7
Agriculture and Forestry0.50.40.40.40.4
Public Works and Housing0.20.30.20.20.3
Other0.10.10.00.00.0
Social Services1.00.80.60.60.5
Education0.60.50.40.40.3
Health0.10.10.10.10.1
Pensions and Gratuities0.20.20.10.10.1
Labour0.00.00.00.00.0
Social Welfare0.00.00.00.00.0
Total interest payments0.80.70.60.70.8
Other current expenditure 3/0.20.10.10.00.7
Capital expenditure4.74.51.42.12.8
Representative Bodies0.00.10.00.00.1
General Services0.20.10.00.10.1
Defense1.41.40.50.90.9
Economic Services1.92.20.60.81.4
Agriculture and Forestry0.90.70.20.30.4
Public Works and Housing0.81.20.20.40.7
Other0.20.20.20.20.2
Social Services0.90.60.20.30.3
Education0.70.40.10.20.2
Health0.30.20.10.10.1
Other 4/0.20.10.00.00.1
Sources: Budget Department, Ministry of Finance and Revenue; and Fund staff estimates.

On a cash basis, except for interest payments.

Excludes off-budget expenditures.

Includes contributions to international organizations, Reserve Fund, and unallocated expenditure.

Includes net lending.

Sources: Budget Department, Ministry of Finance and Revenue; and Fund staff estimates.

On a cash basis, except for interest payments.

Excludes off-budget expenditures.

Includes contributions to international organizations, Reserve Fund, and unallocated expenditure.

Includes net lending.

Table 23.Myanmar: Sectoral Breakdown of SEEs' Financial Position, 1996/97-1999/00 1/
1996/971997/981998/991999/00 Est.
Agriculture and forestry-5,418-16,422-25,697-21,194
Current balance-4,520-14,500-19,711-17,765
Capital expenditure8981,9225,9863,429
Fisheries and pearls-122-152-60-51
Current balance-1-100-26-23
Capital expenditure121523428
Industrial5645,1181,2741,833
Current balance1,6136,2022,4995,011
Capital expenditure1,0491,0841,2253,178
Minerals-1,909-2,237-790-1,162
Current balance-1,223-1,914-248-41
Capital expenditure6863235421,121
Construction-161-395-2,810-1,665
Current balance144-295-2,647-1,538
Capital expenditure305100163127
Power-1,985-3,784-4,446-4,989
Current balance516366-1,349-885
Capital expenditure2,5014,1503,0974,104
Transport-8,808-7,501-6,196-8,369
Current balance81,69475282
Capital expenditure8,8169,1956,9488,451
Trade council-13,065-26,383-51,206-38,825
Current balance-12,319-25,745-50,927-38,325
Capital expenditure746638279500
Other1,8544,179-3,9702,654
Current balance2,4164,7384,3633,114
Capital expenditure562559393460
Total SEEs
Current balance-13,366-29,554-67,294-50,370
Capital expenditure 2/15,68418,02318,66721,398
Overall balance-29,050-47,577-85,961-71,768
(In percent of GDP)
Total SEEs
Current balance-1.7-2.6-4.2-2.3
Capital expenditure 2/2.01.61.21.0
Overall balance-3.7-4.2-5.3-3.3
Sources: Budget Department, Ministry of Finance and Revenue; and staff estimates.

Current surplus is recorded on a cash basis before payments of interest but after contributions to the Union Government.

Gross capital expenditure excluding capital revenue.

Sources: Budget Department, Ministry of Finance and Revenue; and staff estimates.

Current surplus is recorded on a cash basis before payments of interest but after contributions to the Union Government.

Gross capital expenditure excluding capital revenue.

Table 24.Myanmar: Monetary Survey, 1996-2000 1/
19961997199819992000
MarchMarchMarchMarchJuneSept.Dec.MarchMay
(In millions of Kyats, end-of-period)
Net foreign assets-12,963-12,861-11,289-10,35S-10,252-11,151-10,845-11,533-11,095
Domestic credit229,535297,431382,133485,940506,480550,996585,994634,891653,920
Claims on public sector (net)183,953218,773263,402319,375347,565378,501397,345435,879450,568
Of which: T-bonds held by private banks3891,6082,8448,03034,16550,56059,11063,04063,796
Claims on private sector45,58278,658118,731166,565158,915172,495188,649199,012203,352
Of which: by private banks14,35533,25555,97796,79084,73595,806109,788126,290132,620
Other items (net)-10,4512,221-1,734-4,734-12,688-4,259-12,926-4,871-5,889
Broad money (at official exchange rate)206,130286,791369,124470,852483,542535,569562,224618,484636,933
Narrow money146,733198,401259,121307,523306,986329,272345,765382,573392,825
Of which: Currency outside banks131,730175,528223,249259,894245,735259,132272,769300,001300,150
FECs outside banks100190231208215198282335360
Quasi-money59,35788,350110,003163,329176,556206,297216,459235,911244,108
Of which: FC-denominated deposits5475239169331,0179079481,1151,111
Reserve money160,452207,375249,337300,778290,775302,888320,579366,708372,871
Of which ; Currency in circulation136,430183,782236,854277,886267,921281,270296,471326,519332,743
Broad money (at market exchange rate) 2/219,314304,890411,370527,962544,902597,938625,894691,960712,058
Of which: FECs outside banks and FC deposits13,83118,81243,39358,25162,59263,47464,90074,92676,596
(Annual percentage change)
Domestic credit40.729.628.527.226.629.229.230.733.3
Claims on public sector (net)36.718.920.421.327.934.833.436.540.1
Claims on private sector60-172.650.940.324.018.421.119.520.4
Of which: by private banks210.1131.768.372.940.132.234.430.532.5
Broad Money (at official exchange rate)34.039.128.727.626.529.429.731.433.2
Narrow Money26.435.230.618.719.021.322.624.426.7
Quasi-money57.148.824.548.542.144.743.044.445.4
Of which: FC deposits5.8-4.475.11.912.32.4-0.519.513.5
Reserve money45.629.220.220.616.619.418.721.927.8
Of which: Currency in circulation25.934.728.917.311.713.415.517.521.7
Broad money (at market exchange rate) 2/33.639.034.928.325.225.626.431.132.1
(Contribution to annual growth of broad money, in percent)
Domestic credit43.232.929.528.127.930.130.531.634.2
Claims on public sector (net)32.116.915.615.219.823.622.924.727.0
Claims on private sector11.116.014.013.08.06.57.66.97.2
Broad Money (at official exchange rate)34.039.128.727.626.529.429.731.433.2
Narrow Money19.925.121.213.112.814,014.715.917.3
Quasi-money14.014.17.514.413.715.415.015.415.9
Memorandum items:(In percent)
Broad money multiplier1.281.381.481.571.661.771.751.691.71
Velocity2.932.763.033.423.53
Currency/deposits (broad money)1.81.61.51.21.00.90.90.90.9
FECs+FC deposits/broad money 2/6.36.210.511.011.510.610.410.810.8
FC deposits/total deposits 2/13.711.218.819.017.916.114.615.614.7
Credit to private sector/domestic credit19.926.431.134.331.431.332.231.331.1
Credit by private banks/domestic credit6.411.715.421.623.526.628.832.530.0
Private bank deposits/total deposits25.637.645.956.059.662.064.664.766.6
Sources: Central Bank of Myanmar; and Fund staff estimates.

FEC denotes foreign exchange certificates and FC denotes foreign currency-denominated deposits.

FECs and FC deposits valued at FEC market exchange rate.

Sources: Central Bank of Myanmar; and Fund staff estimates.

FEC denotes foreign exchange certificates and FC denotes foreign currency-denominated deposits.

FECs and FC deposits valued at FEC market exchange rate.

Table 25.Myanmar: Monetary Authorities' Accounts, 1996-2000
19961997199819992000
MarchMarchMarchMarchJuneSept.Dec.MarchMay
(In millions of Kyats, end-of-period)
Foreign assets (net) 1/243-244-231,3271,14939838639
Domestic credit (net)181,280229,003270,837324,003316,447330,709351,027389,160408,666
Claims on central government (net)174,548208,547252,942304,152306,223320,604331,425366,765396,732
Claims on deposit money banks6,73220,45617,89519,85110,22410,10519,60222,39511,934
Other items (net)1,7821,1721,443-359-2,761-4,894-7,433538-2,841
Of which: Capital accounts-1,082-1,681-2,882-4,876-4,876-4,874-4,874-5,285-5,283
Reserve money160,452207,375249,337300,778290,775302,888320,579366,708382,759
Of which: Currency issued136,430183,782236,854277,886267,921281,270296,471326,519336,730
Of which: FECs issued 2/1704016949521,0251,1041,2561,3581,431
Other (nonreserve) liabilities to deposit money banks22,86322,55622,93524,19624,06123,32623,40223,032
Memorandum items:
FECs issued, in millions of Kyats 3/1704016949521,0251,1041,2561,3581,431
FECs in banks702114637448109069741,023
FECs in circulation100190231208215198282335
FECs issued, in millions of US dollars, at official rate 3/2965108150160177200212223
FECs in banks123472117126145155160
FECs in circulation1731363333324552
Sources: Central Bank of Myanmar; and Fund staff estimates.

Comprises foreign assets of the Central Dank of Myanmar and foreign assets of the Myanma Foreign Trade Bank, Myanma Investment and Commercial Bank, and Myanma Economic Bank, with a contra-entry included in Other (nonreserve) liabilities to deposit money banks.

FEC denotes foreign exchange certificates.

Based on the banks' balance sheets.

Sources: Central Bank of Myanmar; and Fund staff estimates.

Comprises foreign assets of the Central Dank of Myanmar and foreign assets of the Myanma Foreign Trade Bank, Myanma Investment and Commercial Bank, and Myanma Economic Bank, with a contra-entry included in Other (nonreserve) liabilities to deposit money banks.

FEC denotes foreign exchange certificates.

Based on the banks' balance sheets.

Table 26.Myanmar: Bank Deposits and Loans, 1996-2000
19961997199819992000
March
(In millions of kyats)
Deposits and savings certificates75,111110,042145,789210,360319,518
Demand and Time deposits18,02025,06741,14458,66596,457
Savings deposits51,64777,69496,265141,560211,484
Savings certificates5,4447,2818,38010,13511,577
Loans (incl SEE)46,872
SEE48
Loans46,82477,066114,526142,301188,721
Cooperatives5,9445,8175,5023,2491,826
Working capital5,9165,7975,4813,2431,826
Term loans28202160
Private sector40,88071,249109,024139,052186,895
Agriculture3,4543,9183,5043,4343,972
Other37,42667,331105,520135,618182,923
Of which: Extended by private banks13,40031,27351,20771,367114,732
(Annual percentage change)
Deposits and savings certificates57.546.532.544.351.9
Demand and Time deposits60.739.164.142.664.4
Savings deposits62.350.423.947.149.4
Savings certificates16.933.715.120.914.2
Loans64.564.648.624.332.6
SEE37.7
Cooperatives2.92.15.440.943.8
Working capital3.22.05.540.843.7
Term loans36.428.65.071.4
Private sector80.274.353.027.534.4
Agriculture122.813.410.62.015.7
Other77.179.956.728.534.9
Of which: Extended by private banks214.4133.463.739.460.8
(Share of total deposits, in percent)
Deposits and savings certificates100.0100.0100.0100.0100.0
Demand and Time deposits24.022.828.227.930.2
Savings deposits68.870.666.067.366.2
Savings certificates7.26.65.74.83.6
(Share of total loans, in percent)
Loans100.0100.0100.0100.0100.0
Cooperatives12.77.54.82.31.0
Working capital12.67.54.82.31.0
Term loans0.10.00.00.00.0
Private sector87.392.595.297.799.0
Agriculture7.45.13.12.42.1
Other79.987.492.195.396.9
Of which: Extended by private banks28.640.644.750.260.8
Source: Central Bank of Myanmar.
Source: Central Bank of Myanmar.
Table 27.Myanmar: Selected Interest Rates, 1996-2000
19961997199819992000
MarchMarchApril
Average inflation (p.a.)21.820.033.949.111.49.2
Central bank rediscount rate12.515.0 1/15.015.012.0 7/10.0 9/
Treasury bills and bonds
Three-month treasury bills4.04.04.04.04.04.0
Three-year treasury bonds10.013.5 1/13.513.510.5 7/8.5 9/
Five-year treasury bonds10.514.0 1/14.014.011.0 7/9.0 9/
Deposit rates
(minimum rates through March 31,1999; maximum rates thereafter)
Call deposits3.06.06.06.05.0 8/4.0 9/
Fixed-term deposits
Three months9.512.0 1/12.012.010.0 7/9.25 9/
Six months10.012.5 1/12.512.510.5 7/9.50 9/
Nine months10.513.0 1/13.013.011.0 7/9.75 9/
Savings bank accounts (passbook)
Basic rate10.012.0 1/12.012.010.0 7/9.0 9/
Savings certificates (maximum rate)
Twelve-month (max 12-year rollover)12.015.0 1/15.015.012.0 7/10.0 9/
Lending rates (maximum rates)
Cooperatives
Working capital loans 2/16.516.516.516.517.0 7/15.0 9/
Term loans15.015.015015.015.0 7/14.5 9/
Private sector
Agriculture
To village banks 3/13.013.013.013.0
To farmers 4/18.018.018.018.017.0 7/15.0 9/
House repair and other loans 5/15.015.015.015.0
Small personal loans36.036.036.036.036.036.0
Overdraft loans 6/17.018.5 1/18.51S.516.0 7/15.0 9/
Working capital loans (state banks) 6/16.518.0 1/18.018.017.0 7/15.0* 9/
Working capital loans (private banks) 6/21.021.017.0 7/15.0* 9/
Term loans 6/14.516.5 1/16.516.514.5 7/14.0 9/
Source: Central Bank of Myanmar.

Effective from April 1, 1996.

Overdrafts are charged an additional 0.5 percent.

Lending rate of the Myanmar Agricultural Development Bank.

Relending rate of village banks.

For government employees, the rate is generally reduced to 5 percent; further, a special program of interest-free housing loans for civil servants was in place during 1990-93.

For financing of domestic and foreign trade of joint ventures and private entrepreneurs.

Effective from April 1, 1999.

Effective from June 1, 1999.

Effective from April 1, 2000; an asterik indicates 13 percent for special projects.

Source: Central Bank of Myanmar.

Effective from April 1, 1996.

Overdrafts are charged an additional 0.5 percent.

Lending rate of the Myanmar Agricultural Development Bank.

Relending rate of village banks.

For government employees, the rate is generally reduced to 5 percent; further, a special program of interest-free housing loans for civil servants was in place during 1990-93.

For financing of domestic and foreign trade of joint ventures and private entrepreneurs.

Effective from April 1, 1999.

Effective from June 1, 1999.

Effective from April 1, 2000; an asterik indicates 13 percent for special projects.

Table 28.Myanmar: Government Treasury Bonds, 1993/94-2000/01(In millions of kyats)
3-year bonds5-year bonds
SalesRedemptionsOutstandingSalesRedemptionsOutstanding
1993/9436.010.0036.016.810.006.81
1994/9546.970.0082.987.330.0014.14
1995/96824.690.00907.6748.650.0062.79
1996/971,898.4535.062,771.06492.060.00554.85
1997/982,423.0947.215,146.941,787.260.002,342.11
1998/9910,684.19821.1715,009.9614,969.556.8117,304.85
1999/005,340.341,898.3618,451.9436,254.707.3353,552.22
2000/01 1/1,253.13529.7719,175.305,305.411.1558,856.48
Source: Central Bank of Myanmar.

As of June.

Source: Central Bank of Myanmar.

As of June.

Table 29.Myanmar: Banking System Loans by Sector, 1996-2000 1/
19961997199819992000
(In millions of kyats, end-March)
Commodity producing sectors13,18422,62035,82747,23966,146
Agriculture3,6254,0973,7824,2076,022
Livestock and fishery2995371,1731,0831,987
Forestry43374196583870
Mining919372,3832,3322,680
Manufacturing and processing7,03112,78120,80828,83042,747
Power00650651691
Construction2,0953,8946,8359,55411,148
Services10,51114,89123,85229,98337,359
Transportation1,0731,7693,7584,4065,713
Communication19268
Financial institutions9191,6973,1671,9782,236
Social and administrative services 2/6,4416,2646,0597,4719,584
Rentals and other services2,0775,15210,86716,12219,818
Trade7,93239,68757,23465,17285,153
Total31,62777,198116,913142,393188,658
(In percent of total)
Commodity producing sectors4229313335
Agriculture115333
Livestock and fishery11111
Forestry00000
Mining01221
Manufacturing and processing2217182023
Power00100
Construction75676
Services3319202120
Transportation32333
Communication00000
Financial institutions32311
Social and administrative services 2/208555
Rentals and other services7791111
Trade2551494645
Total100100100100100
Source: Central Bank of Myanmar.

Includes loans extended by MEB, MICB, MADB, and private commercial banks (MFTB does not extend loans).

Includes housing loans.

Source: Central Bank of Myanmar.

Includes loans extended by MEB, MICB, MADB, and private commercial banks (MFTB does not extend loans).

Includes housing loans.

Table 30.Myanmar: Balance of Payments, 1995/96-1999/00(In billions of U.S. dollars)
1995/961996/971997/981998/991999/00 Provisional
Trade balance-937-1,016-1,280-1,600-1,408
Exports, mainly f.o.b.8959301,0111,1131,132
Imports, mainly c.i.f.1,8321,9462,2912,7132,539
Services, net60-169-317178229
Receipts402485554678482
Payments342654871500253
Interest due7071596762
Private transfers, net460457465490469
Current account, excl. grants-416-728-1,132-931-710
Official grants1321092599176
Nonmonetary capital movements21191338649174
Long-term, net-110-221-8160-128
Disbursements12059171321129
Repayments due230281252261257
Foreign Direct Investment324316421592304
Other capital, net-3-3-2-3-3
Errors and omissions, net53-87-64-174148
Overall balance-20-615-599-365-312
Financing20615599365312
Net International Reserves (- increase)19193-43-6454
Gross reserves (- increase)4593-44-6452
Short-term liabilities-2599002
Net increase in arrears-1153207219214
Memorandum items:
Gross reserves, end-period381288331395343
(in months of total imports)2-2222
Net Reserves, end-period381188232296242
Total debt5,4795,4855,6105,9156,470
External debt to exports of g & nfs44434
External debt arrears 1/1,4801,4551,6081,9132,309
Sources: Data provided by the Myanmar authorities; and Fund staff estimates and projections.

Includes valuation adjustments.

Sources: Data provided by the Myanmar authorities; and Fund staff estimates and projections.

Includes valuation adjustments.

Table 31.Myanmar: Merchandise Exports, 1995/96-1999/00(Value in millions of U.S. dollars; volume in thousand metric tons unless otherwise noted)
1995/961996/971997/981998/991999/00

Provisional
Total exports, mainly f.o.b.896.9928.51,010.81,113.11,131.6
Rice and rice products78.221.36.126.710.5
Unit value220.9228.8215.5221.8195.5
Volume354.093.128.3120.453.7
Teak160.6144.6112.1102.5166.4
Unit value1,369.11,042.5812.3595.3731.1
Volume (000 cubic tons)117.3138.7138.0172.2227.6
Base metals and ores12.55.64.811.820.7
Unit value365.5341.5184.61,445.91,656.0
Volume34.216.426.08.212.5
Pulses and beans241.5215.2225.5181.8188.8
Unit value396.2361.8293.3292.5290.1
Volume609.6594.8768.9621.5650.7
Fish and fish products28.337.246.652.537.4
Unit value820.31,134.11,176.81,126.61,194.9
Volume34.532.839.646.631.3
Hardwood25.922.124.923.843.3
Unit value310.9169.0161.898.0117.9
Volume (000 cubic tons)83.3130.8153.9242.7367.4
Rubber32.028.921.516.112.1
Unit value1,311.51,137.8990.8542.3504.2
Volume (000 cubic tons)24.425.421.729.724.0
Animal feedstuff's4.62.00.40.1
Unit value71.7127.454.8124.4
Volume64.215.77.30.8
Other313.3451.6568.9697.8652.4
Of which: Border trade35.185.7227.1301.6152.6
Source: Central Statistical Organization.
Source: Central Statistical Organization.
Table 32.Myanmar: Imports by Major Categories, 1995/96-1999/00 1/
1995/961996/971997/981998/991999/00

Provisional
(In millions of U.S. dollars)
Imports (mainly c.i.f., customs basis)1,832.01,992.82,291.22,712.62,539.4
Capital goods648.1797.6991.91,178.21,039.9
Construction materials189.8236.1281.1352.2270.1
Machinery141.9251.9407.6465.8543.1
Transportation289.2284.4247.9327.1186.4
Other27.225.255.333.140.3
Intermediate goods422.7515.3538.4667.9438.6
Raw materials358.4447.5456.3522.5305.3
Tools and spare parts63.766.881.7144.8132.9
Fuels0.61.00.40.60.4
Consumer goods761.2679.9760.9866.51,060.9
Food285.3128.2243.2168.5160.3
Durable goods130.8125.999.0150.5205.8
Textiles52.275.9119.2214.0255.1
Medicines3.625.529.938.448.4
Other289.3324.4269.6295.1391.3
(Percentage share in total)
Memorandum items:
Capital goods35.440.043.343.441.0
Intermediate goods23.125.923.524.617.3
Consumer goods41.634.133.231.941.8
Sources: Central Statistical Organization, and Fund staff estimates.

At official exchange rate.

Sources: Central Statistical Organization, and Fund staff estimates.

At official exchange rate.

Table 33.Myanmar: Trade Indices, 1995/96-1999/00
1995/961996/971997/981998/991999/00

Provisional
(1985/86=100)
Exports
Value154.2141.3142.5138.6144.1
Unit value107.9101.591.584.3100.1
Volume142.8139.3155.7164.5177.3
Imports
Value214.5245.2296.8352.7330.1
Unit value 1/168.4208.0240.3247.0249.5
Volume127.4117.9121.0142.8132.3
Terms of trade64.148.837.334.140.1
(Changes in percent)
Exports
Value-4.5-8.40.8-2.74.0
Unit value18.2-5.9-9.9-7.918.7
Volume-22.010.221.216.123.9
Imports
Value31.814.321.018.8-6.4
Unit value 1/3.223.515.50.71.0
Volume19.8-7.42.618.0-7.4
Terms of trade14.7-23.9-23.6-8.617.6
Source: Central Statististical Organization.

On the basis of export unit value indices of trading partners.

Source: Central Statististical Organization.

On the basis of export unit value indices of trading partners.

Table 34.Myanmar: Direction of Trade, 1995/96-1999/00(As percent of total exports and imports)
1995/961996/971997/981998/991999/00
ExportsImportsExportsImportsExportsImportsExportsImportsExportsImports
(Provisional)
Industrial countries13.235.317.434.314.623.116.018.822.017.8
European Community3.06.65.14.06.43.67.02.67.02.9
Of which:
Germany0.73.00.81.11.01.10.80.50.11.0
United Kingdom0.80.51.10.41.50.61.20.61.10.3
Japan5.124.36.920.93.815.34.212.75.19.9
United States4.33.54.77.73.52.33.21.38.03.6
Other0.80.90.71.70.91.91.62.21.91.4
Asia (except Japan)78.864.173.465.278.976.178.081.259.381.3
China3.913.96.19.510.69.411.410.210.710.3
Hong Kong SAR7.11.67.52.75.82.65.13.35.43.5
Indonesia5.93.42.62.71.94.82.97.52.64.1
India20.63416.95.122.64.514.92.512.53.0
Korea1.43.90.93.70.85.51.85.21.29.4
Malaysia2.96.05.65.92.67.03.67.14.67.6
Singapore19.617.718.423.713.231.110.030.611.428.4
Thailand10.612.89.910.111.99.89.812.85.812.5
Other6.81.45.51.89.51.418.52.05.12.5
Africa and Middle East1.00.11.50.31.00.61.60.01.10.5
Other7.00.57.70.25.50.24.40.017.60.4
Memorandum item:
Asia (including Japan)83.988.480.386.182.791.482.293.964.491.2
Source: Central Statistical Organization.
Source: Central Statistical Organization.
Table 35.Myanmar: Border Trade Flows, 1995/96-1999/00 1/(In millions of U.S. dollars)
1995/961996/971997/981998/991999/00

Provisional
Total flows
Exports35.185.7227.1301.6152.6
Imports239.0249.3232.8253.1208.4
China
Exports26.051.092.696.297.1
Imports152.2127.2122.4124.4118.1
Thailand
Exports2.414.257.035.715.2
Imports67.0101.389.3124.477.9
India
Exports1.52.911.01.95.5
Imports17.512.618.74.012.1
Bangladesh
Exports5.217.666.5167.834.8
Imports2.38.22.40.30.3
Source: Central Statistical Organization.

At official exchange rate.

Source: Central Statistical Organization.

At official exchange rate.

Table 36.Myanmar: Exports and Imports by Sector, 1995/96-1999/00(In percent of total)
1995/961996/971997/981998/991999/00

Provisional
Imports100100100100100
Private sector6677717070
Cooperative sector11000
Public sector3322293030
Exports100100100100100
Private sector5365747072
Cooperative sector22220
Public sector4533242828
Source: Central Statistical Organization.
Source: Central Statistical Organization.
Table 37.Myanmar: Services Account, 1995/96-1999/00(In millions of U.S. dollars)
1995/961996/971997/981998/991999/00
Receipts401.8484.8554.3677.9482.2
Nonfactor services383.8478.5546.5663.2472.4
Transportation and insurance5.67.59.117.212.3
Travel188.9209.1176.5224.9213.7
Government services12.110.614.414.814.2
Other177.2251.3346.5406.6232.2
Factor services
Investment income18.06.37.814.79.8
Payments341.5653.8871.1499.8253.4
Nonfactor services271.5314.0375.7223.1144.3
Transportation and insurance35.132.523.930.030.1
Travel19.431.738.526.615.3
Government services14.610.715.915.814.7
Other202.4239.1297.4150.784.2
Factor services due70.070.859.466.562.0
Of which: Actual payment140.426.023.115.222.8
Net receipts60.3-169.0-316.8178.1228.8
Private transfers, net460.2457.2464.8490.3468.9
Source: Central Bank of Myanmar.
Source: Central Bank of Myanmar.
Table 38.Myanmar: Approved and Actual Foreign Direct Investment Inflows, 1995/96-1999/00(In millions of U.S. dollars)
1995/961996/971997/981998/991999/00
Approved 1/Actual 2/Approved 1/Actual 2/Approved 1/Actual 2/Approved 1/Actual 2/Approved 1/Actual 2/
Solely foreign-owned venture453.7210.71,374.6310.5518.7220.532.4126.534.1357.1
Joint venture181.3106.61,031.8267.1316.3290.322.0204.82.72117.1
Other33.20.3407.83.1177.9368.00.0352.321.25130.0
Total668.2317.62,814.2580.71,012.9878.854.4683.658.1304.2
Source: Data provided by the Myanmar authorities.

Projects approved by the Myanmar Investment Commission under the provisions of the 1988 Foreign Investment Law.

Investment actually disbursed on projects approved under the Foreign Investment Law. Foreign direct investment on projects not approved under the Law is excluded from this table, but is included in the authorities' balance of payment accounts.

Source: Data provided by the Myanmar authorities.

Projects approved by the Myanmar Investment Commission under the provisions of the 1988 Foreign Investment Law.

Investment actually disbursed on projects approved under the Foreign Investment Law. Foreign direct investment on projects not approved under the Law is excluded from this table, but is included in the authorities' balance of payment accounts.

Table 39.Myanmar: Foreign Direct Investment by Industry, 1995/96-1999/00(In millions of U.S. dollars)
1995/961996/971997/981998/991999/00
Approved 1/Actual 2/Approved 1/Actual 2/Approved 1/Actual 2/Approved 1/Actual 2/Approved 1/Actual 2/
Agriculture0.00.06.00.05.70.00.00.30.00.2
Manufacturing21.330.6923.529.1319.252.943.395.718.154.6
Oil and gas14.8189.2695.6268.7172.1489.30.0385.85.2198.5
Mining155.810.9178.338.43.363.64.980.716.021.7
Fishery13.12.717.52.35.86.44.87.53.32.4
Hotels and tourism79.270.5114.9182.1274.9172.01.460.215.510.5
Transport118.96.347.925.2106.357.50.029.40.00.6
Real estate251.57.3623.524.7122.225.60.020.60.015.3
Industrial estate12.00.0181.18.50.010.10.00.00.00
Other1.70.025.91.73.41.40.03.40.00.4
Total668.2317.62,814.2580.71,012.9878.854.4683.658.1304.2
Source: Data provided by the Myanmar authorities.

Projects approved by the Myanmar Investment Commission under the provisions of the 1988 Foreign Investment Law.

Investment actually disbursed on projects approved under the Foreign Investment Law. Foreign direct investment on projects not approved under the Law is excluded from this table, but is included in the authorities' balance of payment accounts.

Source: Data provided by the Myanmar authorities.

Projects approved by the Myanmar Investment Commission under the provisions of the 1988 Foreign Investment Law.

Investment actually disbursed on projects approved under the Foreign Investment Law. Foreign direct investment on projects not approved under the Law is excluded from this table, but is included in the authorities' balance of payment accounts.

Table 40.Myanmar: Foreign Direct Investment by Country, 1995/96-1999/00(In millions of U.S. dollars)
1995/961996/971997/981998/991999/00
Approved 1/Actual 2/Approved 1/Actual 2/Approved 1/Actual 2/Approved 1/Actual 2/Approved 1/Actual 2/
Australia1.82.810.11.642.00.40.00.30.01.3
Austria0.00.01.00.00.00.80.00.20.00.0
Bangladesh0.00.00.02.40.00.00.00.00.00.0
Canada3.00.87.50.05.31.50.03.90.00.4
China0.23.123.12.20.50.42.72.60.00.0
Denmark0.00.00.00.00.00.00.00.00.00.0
France0.086.95.471.80.0201.70.090.00.033.0
Germany13.40.015.03.30.00.20.01.50.07.0
Hong Kong SAR0.05.70.013.256.94.78.010.75.713.8
India0.00.00.00.00.00.04.5000.00.0
Indonesia0.00.0210.90.025.47.01.14.81.41.0
Israel0.00.00.00.02.40.00.00.00.00.0
Japan19.40.472.115.626918.98.933.55.118.8
Republic of Korea0.01.49.00.529.76.50.217.14.38.8
Macau0.00.00.00.00.00.00.00.00.00.0
Malaysia157.75.7235.110.6124.85.10.012.00.015.5
The Netherlands0.02.0154.84.40.01.21.00.00.00.5
Panama0.00.00.00.030.50.0-1.48.50.02.5
The Philippines0.03.20.00.4140.00.10.00.00.00.2
Singapore287.455.5611.3175.0270.6279.114.279.14.714.9
Sri Lanka0.00.00.00.60.00.00.00.00.00.0
Thailand10.232.4605.742.6210.432.010.858.016.59.6
United Kingdom160.387.6512.2222.247.5288.64.4203.115.1176.1
United States14.830.2341.014.30.030.60.0158.35.30.8
Total668.2317.62,814.2580.71,012.9878.854.4683.658.1304.2
Source: Data provided by the Myanmar authorities.

Projects approved by the Myanmar Investment Commission under the provisions of the 1988 Foreign Investment Law.

Investment actually disbursed on projects approved under the Foreign Investment Law. Foreign direct investment on projects not approved under the Law is excluded from this table, but is included in the authorities' balance of payment accounts.

Source: Data provided by the Myanmar authorities.

Projects approved by the Myanmar Investment Commission under the provisions of the 1988 Foreign Investment Law.

Investment actually disbursed on projects approved under the Foreign Investment Law. Foreign direct investment on projects not approved under the Law is excluded from this table, but is included in the authorities' balance of payment accounts.

Table 41.Myanmar: External Medium- and Long-Term Public Debt, and Debt Service Payments, 1995/96-1999/00 1/(In millions of U.S dollars)
1995/961996/971997/981998/991999/00
Total debt outstanding
(end of period)5,4795,5035,6475,8826,040
Concessional loans4,8714,3043,9204,0374,391
Bilateral3,6943,1762,8532,9733,300
Of which:
Japan2,8132,3772,1552,2392,607
Germany568514452469399
Multilateral1,1781,1281,0671,0641,091
Of which:
IDA797765719720742
AsDB356343321319328
Suppliers' credit138421360455487
Commercial banks144318406450507
Short-term 2/326445482558655
Debt service payments (cash basis) 3/301191104135105
Amortization1611648011682
Interest payment14027241923
Debt service payments (due) 3/300341312327319
Amortization230272252261257
Interest payment7069596762
Total debt outstanding/exports of goods and nonfactor services4.33.93.63.33.8
Sources: Data provided by the Myanmar authorities, and Fund staff estimates.

Data on debt-service payments may differ from those implied by commitments and arrears data in the balance of payments.

Includes interest arrears and some principal arrears.

Medium- and long-term debt, including Trust Fund loans and excluding arrears on principal repayments.

Sources: Data provided by the Myanmar authorities, and Fund staff estimates.

Data on debt-service payments may differ from those implied by commitments and arrears data in the balance of payments.

Includes interest arrears and some principal arrears.

Medium- and long-term debt, including Trust Fund loans and excluding arrears on principal repayments.

Table 42.Myanmar: External Arrears, 1995/96-1999/00 1/(In millions of U.S. dollars)
1995/961996/971997/981998/991999/00
Stocks2/
Total1,4801,4551,6081,9132,309
Principal1,1531,1091,2261,4541,756
Interest326345382459553
Bilateral2/1,0471,1231,1391,3751,707
Principal8318728831,0651,325
Interest215251256310383
Private creditors2/433332455490513
Principal322238333357372
Interest11194122133141
Sources: Data provided by the Myanmar authorities; and Fund staff estimates.

End of period. Includes valuation adjustments.

Stock figures and flow figures derived from the balance of payments may not be consistent, owing mainly to lags in recording payments and valuation adjustments.

Sources: Data provided by the Myanmar authorities; and Fund staff estimates.

End of period. Includes valuation adjustments.

Stock figures and flow figures derived from the balance of payments may not be consistent, owing mainly to lags in recording payments and valuation adjustments.

Table 43.Myanmar: International Reserves, 1995/96-1999/00(In millions of U.S. dollars)
1995/961996/971997/981998/991999/00
Net international reserves381.1188.4231.7295.7241.4
Assets381.1287.8331.3395.1343.4
Gold91.480.569.964.664.0
SDRs0.30.10.10.70.3
IMF position0.00.00.00.00.0
Foreign exchange289.4207.2261.3329.8279.1
Liabilities0.099.499.699.4102.0
Memorandum items:(In months of merchandise imports)
Gross reserves2.51.81.81.71.6
Net reserves2.51.11.21.41.1
Source: Central Bank of Myanmar.
Source: Central Bank of Myanmar.

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