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Djibouti

Author(s):
International Monetary Fund
Published Date:
March 2004
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Overview

This document consists of two parts. The first part provides statistical information on the main economic sectors, namely the real, fiscal, monetary, and external sectors. This information supplements the data contained in the staff report for the 2003 Article IV consultation. The second part contains a summary of the tax system as of end-December 2002 (Annex).

STATISTICAL APPENDIX
Table 1.Djibouti: Basic Data, 1998–2002
19981999200020012002
I. Economic and Financial Indicators
National income and prices
GDP at current prices (in millions of DF)91,39695,27398,267101,870105,210
GDP at current prices (annual change in percent)2.34.43.13.73.3
GDP at constant prices (annual change in percent)0.12.20.71.92.6
Consumer prices (annual average) 1/2.22.02.41.80.6
(In percent of GDP)
Government finance
Total revenue and grants34.230.931.028.229.4
Revenue25.323.524.423.323.5
Grants8.97.46.65.05.9
Total expenditures33.333.132.829.732.9
Current expenditures26.630.030.127.229.2
Capital expenditures6.63.12.72.53.7
Overall balance (payment order basis)0.9-2.2-1.8-1.4-3.5
Change in arrears (decrease -)-0.81.30.5-0.6-0.7
Overall balance (cash basis)0.1-0.8-1.3-2.0-4.2
Financing-0.10.81.32.04.2
External0.70.50.61.42.7
Domestic-0.90.30.70.61.5
Banks-0.80.30.70.61.5
Nonbank0.00.00.00.00.0
Government domestic arrears (stock) 2/29.729.329.628.927.8
(Change in percent of broad money)
Money and credit
Money and quasi-money8.25.21.17.515.7
Net foreign assets-2.45.7-7.316.115.7
Net domestic assets10.6-0.58.4-8.60.0
Of which
Claims on the central government (net)-1.1-0.21.21.12.8
Claims on nongovernment sector11.02.75.2-8.2-2.9
(In percent)
Interest rates
Lending rates7.0–14.77.0–14.012.1–14.110.8–11.78.5–11.4
Deposit rates2.5–5.12.5–5.13.8–5.02.5–3.21.0–1.5
(In millions of U.S. dollars)
External Sector
Current account-3.3-1.9-39.7-24.9-36.5
Exports59.169.275.475.783.2
Imports239.5251.7270.3254.4283.7
Services and income (net)108.2116.7102.0122.8123.4
Transfers (net)68.962.753.131.140.6
Capital account22.5-1.230.710.234.9
Errors and omissions (including private capital)-26.712.1-9.154.654.7
Overall balance-7.57.9-18.139.953.0
Financing7.5-7.918.1-39.9-53.0
Monetary movements (increase -)6.4-15.821.3-47.6-49.8
Exceptional financing1.17.9-3.27.7-3.2
Of which
Debt rescheduling1.62.52.00.71.6
Memorandum items:
Currency board gross foreign assets
In millions of U.S. dollars64.470.467.670.374.5
Monetary and LOLR cover (in percent)111.8111.7114.9115.8114.9
As a ratio to currency issue1.21.31.21.21.3
In percent of GDP
Current account-0.6-0.4-7.2-4.3-6.2
Overall balance-1.41.5-3.33.09.0
Official external debt (in millions of U.S. dollars) 3/
Before rescheduling337.0336.9369.9373.7395.3
Debt service ratio to
Exports of goods and services 4/
Obligations basis before rescheduling8.39.411.97.68.1
Obligations basis after rescheduling7.58.27.37.37.3
Public sector overdue obligations
In millions of U.S. dollars5.410.97.79.99.4
Exchange rate
Exchange rate (DF/USS) end-of-period177.7177.7177.7177.7177.7
Real effective exchange rate (End-year change in percent; depreciation -)-4.76.79.33.3-8.4
II. Social and Demographic Indicators 5/
Area
23,200 sq km
Of which
0.4 percent arable land
Density
25.8 per sq. km.
Health
Life expectancy at birth (years)46
Infant mortality rate (per thousand live births)115
Population per physician (1991)5,917
Sources: Djibouti authorities; Fund staff estimates; and World Bank World Development Indicators.

For 1998, the consumer price was computed by staff using Djibouti consumption weights applied to selected sub-indices from the French expatriate consumer price index (CPI). Starting 1999, data are based on the official CPI introduced in April 1999.

Arrears data include wage arrears, arrears to private and public suppliers of goods and services, arrears to the pension funds, and arrears to public enterprises.

Public- and publicly-guaranteed debt of the central government, which includes the public enterprise sector.

Exports of locally-produced goods and nonfactor services.

Data refer to the latest figures available for 1994–2000 in World Bank documents.

Sources: Djibouti authorities; Fund staff estimates; and World Bank World Development Indicators.

For 1998, the consumer price was computed by staff using Djibouti consumption weights applied to selected sub-indices from the French expatriate consumer price index (CPI). Starting 1999, data are based on the official CPI introduced in April 1999.

Arrears data include wage arrears, arrears to private and public suppliers of goods and services, arrears to the pension funds, and arrears to public enterprises.

Public- and publicly-guaranteed debt of the central government, which includes the public enterprise sector.

Exports of locally-produced goods and nonfactor services.

Data refer to the latest figures available for 1994–2000 in World Bank documents.

Table 2.Djibouti: Gross Domestic Product by Sector of Origin at Current Prices, 1998–2002
19981999200020012002
(In millions of Djibouti francs)
Primary sector3,0793,3183,5373,8014,065
Secondary sector11,65811,99212,68413,48514,173
Manufacturing2,1922,1482,2342,3452,433
Construction and public works5,3055,5175,8206,1686,462
Water and electricity4,1614,3274,6304,9725,279
Tertiary sector66,32467,99269,62972,66573,881
Commerce and tourism14,26913,12713,52114,24614,852
Transport and communications22,04423,36623,92725,03925,903
Banking and insurance 1/10,77610,99111,37611,94412,393
Public administration17,63418,89919,10719,68418,917
Other services1,6011,6091,6981,7511,815
GDP at factor cost81,06183,30285,85089,95292,119
Net indirect taxes 2/10,33511,97112,41711,91813,091
GDP at market prices91,39695,27398,267101,870105,210
(Change in percent)
Primary sector7.67.86.67.56.9
Secondary sector-0.92.95.86.35.1
Manufacturing-2.0-2.04.05.03.8
Construction and public works15.04.05.56.04.8
Water and electricity-15.34.07.07.46.2
Tertiary sector5.42.52.44.41.7
Commerce and tourism12.0-8.03.05.44.3
Transport and communications25.06.02.44.73.5
Banking and insurance 1/7.02.03.55.03.8
Public administration-15.67.21.13.0-3.9
Other services2.00.55.63.13.7
GDP at factor cost4.52.83.14.82.4
Net indirect taxes-12.415.83.7-4.09.8
GDP at market prices2.34.23.13.73.3
Sources: Djibouti authorities; and Fund staff estimates.

Net of imputed charge for banking services.

Excluding stamp and licence fees.

Sources: Djibouti authorities; and Fund staff estimates.

Net of imputed charge for banking services.

Excluding stamp and licence fees.

Table 3.Djibouti: Gross Domestic Product by Sector of Origin at Current Prices, 1998–2002(In percent of GDP)
19981999200020012002
Primary sector3.43.53.63.73.9
Secondary sector12.812.612.913.213.5
Manufacturing and handicrafts2.42.32.32.32.3
Construction and public works5.85.85.96.16.1
Water and electricity4.64.54.74.95.0
Tertiary sector72.671.470.971.370.2
Commerce and tourism15.613.813.814.014.1
Transport and communications24.124.524.324.624.6
Banking and insurance11.811.511.611.711.8
Public administration19.319.819.419.318.0
Other services1.81.71.71.71.7
GDP at factor cost88.787.487.488.387.6
Net indirect taxes11.312.612.611.712.4
GDP at market prices100.0100.0100.0100.0100.0
Sources: Djibouti authorities; and Fund staff estimates.
Sources: Djibouti authorities; and Fund staff estimates.
Table 4.Djibouti: Supply and Use of Resources at Current Market Prices, 1998–2002(In millions of Djibouti francs)
19981999200020012002
Supply of resources149,456153,460160,803160,649169,204
GDP at market prices91,39695,27398,267101,870105,210
Imports of goods and nonfactor services58,06058,18762,53658,77963,994
Use of resources149,456153,460160,803160,649169,204
Total consumption92,136100,734105,507105,632110,234
Nongovernment70,64075,85380,16881,77883,814
Government21,49724,88125,33923,85426,420
Gross investment13,9588,39312,0578,42410,710
Nongovernment7,8815,4779,4175,8976,790
Government6,0772,9152,6402,5273,920
Exports of goods and nonfactor services43,36144,33343,23946,59248,260
Memorandum items:
National savings8,9866,2074,9694,0074,047
Foreign savings 1/-4,972-2,186-7,063-4,417-6,663
Sources: Djibouti authorities; and Fund staff estimates.

Foreign savings are defined as the current account of the balance of payments including net current transfers from abroad.

Sources: Djibouti authorities; and Fund staff estimates.

Foreign savings are defined as the current account of the balance of payments including net current transfers from abroad.

Table 5.Djibouti: Supply and Use of Resources at Current Market Prices, 1998–2002(In percent of GDP)
19981999200020012002
Supply of resources163.5161.1163.6157.7160.8
GDP at market prices100.0100.0100.0100.0100.0
Imports of goods and nonfactor services63.561.163.657.760.8
Use of resources163.5161.1163.6157.7160.8
Total consumption100.8105.7107.4103.7104.8
Nongovernment77.379.681.680.379.7
Government23.526.125.823.425.1
Gross investment15.38.812.38.310.2
Nongovernment8.65.79.65.86.5
Government6.63.12.72.53.7
Exports of goods and nonfactor services47.446.544.045.745.9
Memorandum items:
National savings9.86.55.13.93.8
Foreign savings-5.4-2.3-7.2-4.3-6.3
Sources: Djibouti authorities; and Fund staff estimates.
Sources: Djibouti authorities; and Fund staff estimates.
Table 6.Djibouti: Agricultural Production, 1998–2002(In tons)
19981999200020012002
Eggplant18333335
Beetroot4101011
Carrot3888
Cauliflower/cabbage5888
Cucumber37710
Melon709494180
Onion100108108138
Watermelon306161180
Red pepper70996
Oranges333
Lemons1,4001,7961,7962,395
Dates140727280
Mangoes800506506674
Other2,2702,2702,964
Source: Djibouti authorities.
Source: Djibouti authorities.
Table 7.Djibouti: Slaughter and Exports of Animals and Skins, 1998–2002
19981999200020012002
Number of animals slaughtered98,85789,22586,01537,534
Sheep and goats72,68364,00760,31726,664
Cattle26,16125,20625,68810,870
Camels1312100
Exports of animals
Sheep and goats600
Cattle1,500
Exports of skins500
Source: Djibouti authorities.
Source: Djibouti authorities.
Table 8.Djibouti: Purchases and Sales of Fish by the Maritime Cooperative, 1998–2002(In kilograms)
19981999200020012002
Purchases256,500266,100280,000278,800253,500
Lobsters20,60019,40020,50020,40018,600
Fish, mollusks, and other shellfish235,900246,700259,500258,400234,900
Sales
Individuals
Fish stores
Exports20,60019,50020,50020,40018,500
Source: Djibouti authorities.
Source: Djibouti authorities.
Table 9.Djibouti: Production and Consumption of Electricity, 1998–2002(In millions of KWH)
19981999200020012002
Production135,045192,226232,215235,262246,783
Number of users27,83827,63629,62830,92031,301
Metered consumption123,660141,379174,922182,870192,417
Industry62,45266,73399,583
Households61,20874,64675,339
Revenue (in millions of DF)5,0555,779
Industry2,657
Households2,398
Source: Djibouti authorities.
Source: Djibouti authorities.
Table 10.Djibouti: Production and Consumption of Potable Water in Urban Areas, 1998–2002(In cubic meters)
19981999200020012002
Production13,92715,44115,45414,22913,525
Metered consumption8,6838,9079,5699,0009,767
Source: Djibouti authorities.
Source: Djibouti authorities.
Table 11.Djibouti: Transportation Activity, 1998–2002
19981999200020012002
Seaport traffic
Passengers (number)7,8697,238
Total merchandise (1,000 tons) 1/1,5312,5502,6814,1294,409
Loaded and unloaded2,2411,2251,4472,7922,981
Oil unloaded, bunkered, or reexported8081,2261,2341,3371,428
Airport traffic
Arrivals and departures
Number of airplanes8,6307,6066,4205,5648,636
Passengers (number) 2/106,34595,149106,33794,590105,405
Freight (in tons)7,2906,0746,2146,3608,038
Postal items (in tons)347346318291
Overall air traffic
Number of traffic units 3/183165198
Percentage change-11.0-13.120.0
Train traffic
Passenger kilometers (in thousands)782773774726570
Merchandise (millions of ton kilometers)202266215216201
Percentage change-3.926.5-19.40.7-6.9
Road vehicles
Net new registration 4/678847744787885
Of which:
Four-wheel vehicles652818
Motor vehicle annual licenses sold
Source: Djibouti authorities.

Sum of loaded and unloaded merchandise and oil traffic.

Sum of passengers arriving and departing, excluding those in transit and military planes.

One unit of traffic equals 1,000 passengers; equals 100 tons of freight; equals 100 tons of postal traffic.

Includes net registration of all new four-wheel vehicles plus motorcycles less changes of registration numbers.

Source: Djibouti authorities.

Sum of loaded and unloaded merchandise and oil traffic.

Sum of passengers arriving and departing, excluding those in transit and military planes.

One unit of traffic equals 1,000 passengers; equals 100 tons of freight; equals 100 tons of postal traffic.

Includes net registration of all new four-wheel vehicles plus motorcycles less changes of registration numbers.

Table 12.Djibouti: Tourism, 1998–2002
19981999200020012002
Number of rooms430.0450.0450.0450.0450.0
Number of beds645.0675.0675.0675.0675.0
Days multiplied by rooms fin thousands)157.0164.0164.0164.0165.0
Days multiplied by beds (in thousands)235.0246.0246.0246.0246.0
Number of tourists (in thousands)20.020.020.021.021.0
Number of nights sold (in thousands)31.732.961.251.177.6
Bed occupancy rate (in percent)13.414.014.020.731.5
Source: Djibouti authorities.
Source: Djibouti authorities.
Table 13.Djibouti: Demand for Employment and Registered Offers at the National Employment Services, 1998–2002
19981999200020012002
New demands1,7402,6152,9822,4192,201
Offers600751828904634
Difference-1,140-1,864-2,154-1,515-1,567
Source: Djibouti authorities.
Source: Djibouti authorities.
Table 14.Djibouti: Government Employment and Wage Bill, 1998–2002
19981999200020012002
Total number of government employees 1/10,04810,10210,16810,2339,721
Percentage change-9.90.50.60.6-5.0
Of which
Interior2,4402,4462,4682,4572,165
Percent of total24.324.224.324.022.3
National education1,5241,6271,7281,8121,875
Percent of total15.216.117.017.719.3
Health9901,0041,005948836
Percent of total9.99.99.99.38.6
Public works326327229215192
Percent of total3.23.22.32.12.0
Agriculture305304319328290
Percent of total3.03.03.13.23.0
Government wage bill (in millions of DF)14,97614,69414,60914,80414,721
Average annual wage (in millions of DF)1.31.31.31.31.4
Source: Djibouti authorities.

Including the army, the police, and contract personnel, but excluding mobilized personnel.

Source: Djibouti authorities.

Including the army, the police, and contract personnel, but excluding mobilized personnel.

Table 15.Djibouti: Public Investment Program, 1998–2002(In millions of Djibouti francs)
19981999200020012002
Primary sector822211326251,730
Agriculture00000
Livestock and fishing821771024821,332
Rural water and power04430143398
Secondary sector2,8412,2517,1851,0933,947
Water23218726201,300
Electricity2,6092,0646,9231,0932,647
Infrastructure6,4804,6225,6553,8173,161
Roads3,5731,474422621422
Port7342,1374,6321,7401,447
Air transport020916941400
Post and telecommunications180669401953386
Construction00000
Urban development1,97313331462506
Social sectors9056,0224,1867351,043
Population and employment160000
Education and training7813,4221,969559662
Health1081,2521,037176356
Social development and women01,2841,037025
Environment0644800
Administration, planning and finance2411,26773484219
Economic management24158465484219
Administrative equipment06838000
Total10,54914,38317,8926,35410,100
Government6,0772,9152,6402,5273,920
Public enterprises4,47211,46815,2523,8276,180
Source: Djibouti authorities.
Source: Djibouti authorities.
Table 16.Djibouti: Consumer Price Index for Djibouti, 1999–2002(March-April 1999=100)
Weights (in percent)Food (36.17)Beverages (0.97)Tobacco (14.41)Clothing and Shoes (2.79)Housing, Water, Gas and Electricity (18.11)Furnishing and Equipment (7.7)Health (1.82)Transports (8.78)Leisure, Spectacles, and Culture (0.39)Education (1.37)Hotels and Restaurants (4.48)Misc. (3.01)Overall Index (100)Percentage Change
Previous month
1999
March–April100.0100.0100.0100.0100.0100.0100.0100.0100.0100.0100.0100.0100
May97.799.597.698.799.9100.3100.6100.5101.499.2100.3100.098.8-1.2
June96.099.199.699.799.8100.1100.6100.0101.099.2100.399.798.5-0.4
July95.8100.494.9100.399.8100.1100.2100.5101.899.2100.398.197.7-0.7
August94.7100.494.398.499.9100.399.4100.6101.099.2101.997.697.3-0.5
September95.599.294.198.499.8100.499.4100.6102.3100.8101.397.597.50.2
October95.798.393.898.1100.0100.399.3100.6102.3102.2101.397.297.60.1
November96.598.795.098.1100.0100.498.4100.6102.3100.8101.396.998.00.4
December97.298.297.4104.3100.0100.397.4100.6101.6100.8101.098.698.80.8
2000
January97.798.1100.2104.3100.0100.497.4100.6104.2100.8101.097.899.30.6
February97.498.5101.3104.4100.0100.397.4100.6104.2100.8101.098.099.40.1
March97.398.7102.0103.2100.4100.597.4100.6104.2100.8102.999.899.70.3
April97.797.8103.498.0100.6100.497.2102.3104.2100.8101.5100.4100.00.3
June98.498.3101.598.1102.7100.996.2110.0102.8100.8100.5101.0101.00.5
July98.798.498.998.3102.7100.597.2110.0103.3100.8100.5101.2100.7-0.3
August98.598.694.097.5101.8100.597.2110.3103.3100.8105.4101.8100.0-0.7
September98.998.391.196.4101.899.797.2109.4102.398.0105.4100.799.5-0.5
October98.297.992.497.3105.699.797.2110.6103.398.0105.4101.0100.30.8
November96.398.7101.695.3105.599.697.2111.8101.498.0105.498.5100.90.6
December96.498.8103.598.1105.599.997.1110.0100.798.0105.497.8101.10.2
2001
January94.996.7111.594.2104.699.696.9110.8101.498.0104.996.2101.40.3
February93.497.1112.894.8104.799.896.4110.8100.798.0106.396.3101.1-0.2
March95.797.5109.993.2104.799.696.4110.898.998.0106.396.5101.50.4
April96.097.1110.992.6104.699.696.5110.298.998.0106.396.4101.70.2
May97.196.2110.792.1104.699.796.0109.998.198.0108.297.7102.10.4
June97.995.9109.990.8105.999.293.1108.998.798.0108.298.1102.30.2
July98.596.1108.990.1106.699.293.1108.497.898.0108.298.2102.40.1
August98.396.5106.390.2107.598.993.1108.497.8102.5108.298–1102.2-0.2
September98.696.8103.691.2107.598.893.1108.497.8102.5108.297.5101.9-0.3
October99.497.2103.091.4107.598.893.1108.497.8102.5108.297.5102.10.2
November99.496.4103.392.7107.598.793.1108.497.8102.5108.296.9102.20.0
December99.897.3104.493.5107.598.993.1108.497.8102.5108.297.0102.50.3
2002
January98.697.2105.094.0107.198.793.0107.097.8100.8106.896.8101.90.4
February97.698.0109.394.7107.098.691.6108.0100.198.0106.896.0102.20.3
March97.396.7111.894.1106.998.691.6108.197.898.0106.896.3102.40.2
April99.795.9108.592.4106.899.193.9107.596.298.0106.894.4102.70.3
May98.697.1106.493.0106.999.693.9109.396.298.0106.895.5102.2-0.4
June98.596.7107.892.9106.999.593.9109.396.298.0106.896.0102.40.2
July98.495.9107.291.1107.099.593.9109.295.498.0106.893–9102.2-0.2
August99.695.8106.391.1107.099.493.9109.295.496.6106.893.5102.40.3
September99.295.3108.291.7107.099.395.6109.395.197.2106.893.8102.60.2
October99.696.1109.393.6107.099.296.2109.297.498.0106.895.4103.10.4
November99.896.9110.096.1107.099.196.2109.297.498.0106.895.7103.30.2
December100.297.2113.698.7106.699.296.2109.196.998.0106.895.5104.00.6
Source: Djibouti authorities.
Source: Djibouti authorities.
Table 17.Djibouti: Government Consolidated Fiscal Operations, 1998–2002 1/(In millions of Djibouti francs)
19981999200020012002
Revenues and grants31,23329,42930,46728,77430,947
Total revenue23,15422,36223,96923,70224,720
Fiscal revenues20,25820,60521,09920,86222,164
Direct taxes9,0738,4698,7809,2489,804
Indirect taxes11,18512,13612,31911,61412,360
Nontax receipts2,8961,7572,8702,8402,556
Official grants8,0797,0676,4985,0726,227
Total expenditures30,40531,49032,20430,21534,660
Current expenditures24,32828,57529,56427,68830,740
Wages and salaries14,97614,69414,60914,80414,721
Materials4,1826,4635,9914,7096,544
Maintenance271365715515606
Transfers2,5123,1953,7623,5334,080
Interest319499463301239
Domestic1401721758917
Foreign179327228212222
Foreign financed development programs2,0683,1794,0243,8263,774
Other current spending0180000
Incremental social programs000775
Investment expenditure6,0772,9152,6402,5273,920
Domestically financed259399531709596
Foreign financed5,8182,5162,1091,8183,324
Overall balance (payment-order basis)828-2,061-1,737-1,441-3,713
Change in arrears (cash payments = -)-7231,272466-605-717
Domestic arrears-7401,482308-631-658
External arrears on interest and other payments0-210-205-25-37
Debt relief on interest payments 2/17036351-23
Overall balance (cash basis)105-789-1,271-2,046-4,430
Financing-1057891,2712,0464,430
Domestic financing-7803206455981,578
Bank financing-7402786455981,578
Nonbank financing-4042000
External financing6754696261,4472,829
Net borrowing6754696261,4472,829
Disbursements1,4248451,0151,8083,494
Amortization payments-749-376-389-361-665
Amortization obligations-473-592-671-526-470
Change in overdue obligations-434216170127-407
Change in nonoverdue obligations0-1,800-1,800-1,8000
Debt relief on principal payments 2/1581,8001,9121,838213
Adjustment23
Memorandum items:
Overall balance before grants
(payment-order basis)-7,251-9,128-8,235-6,513-9,940
Overall balance before grants (cash basis)-7,974-7,856-7,769-7,118-10,657
Domestic balance 3/1,101-2,474-1,569-301-2,128
Revenues23,15422,36223,96923,70224,720
Domestic-financed expenditures22,05324,83625,53824,00326,848
Sources: Djibouti authorities; and Fund staff estimates.

Data for 1998 and later years are not strictly comparable to earlier data, which do not include grants in kind and their current expenditure components.

Includes rescheduling of arrears in external debt payments as of end-October 1999 and external debt payments.

Total revenue (excluding grants) less total domestically-financed current and capital expenditures.

Sources: Djibouti authorities; and Fund staff estimates.

Data for 1998 and later years are not strictly comparable to earlier data, which do not include grants in kind and their current expenditure components.

Includes rescheduling of arrears in external debt payments as of end-October 1999 and external debt payments.

Total revenue (excluding grants) less total domestically-financed current and capital expenditures.

Table 18.Djibouti: Government Revenue, 1998–2002(In millions of Djibouti francs)
19981999200020012002
Total revenue23,15422,36223,96923,70224,720
Tax revenue20,25820,60521,09920,86222,164
Direct taxes9,0738,4698,7809,2489,804
Property tax863717726679648
Licenses1,3171,2811,3841,3961,511
Tax on wages and salaries3,1722,5922,5862,6164,524
Tax on income and profits1,4021,6751,9652,0772,322
Tax on companies1,1011,3281,5171,4631,949
Other (BIC, BNC, and PVI)301347448614373
Tax arrears490524438659475
Patriotic contribution1,8291,6801,6811,79290
Indirect taxes10,33511,28711,40910,57811,462
Domestic consumption taxes6,2646,3307,2676,6037,229
Surcharge on khat2,0702,1802,1852,1072,231
Surcharge on petroleum products1,1171,888808678653
Surcharge on tobacco134134172259317
Surcharge on alcohol474437429381481
Other surcharges276318300282311
Other00248268240
Registration, tags, and stamp duties8508499101,036898
Registration fees and tags442426416536387
Stamp duties408423494500511
Nontax revenue2,8961,7572,8702,8402,556
Estate revenue242361,012894465
User fees3832857731,1771,334
Service revenue741649808274436
Miscellaneous revenue16134277495321
Other1,587553
Sources: Djibouti authorities; and Fund staff estimates.
Sources: Djibouti authorities; and Fund staff estimates.
Table 19.Djibouti: Government Revenue, 1998–2002(In percent of GDP)
19981999200020012002
Total revenue25.323.524.423.323.5
Tax revenue22.221.621.520.521.1
Direct taxes9.98.98.99.19.3
Property tax0.90.80.70.70.6
Licenses1.41.31.41.41.4
Tax on wages and salaries3.52.72.62.64.3
Tax on income and profits1.51.82.02.02.2
Tax on companies1.21.41.51.41.9
Other (BIC, BNC, and PVI)0.30.40.50.60.4
Tax arrears0.50.60.40.60.5
Patriotic contribution2.01.81.71.80.1
Indirect taxes11.311.811.610.410.9
Domestic consumption taxes6.96.67.46.56.9
Surcharge on khat2.32.32.22.12.1
Surcharge on petroleum products1.22.00.80.70.6
Surcharge on tobacco0.10.10.20.30.3
Surcharge on alcohol0.50.50.40.40.5
Other surcharges0.30.30.30.30.3
Registration, tags, and stamp duties0.90.90.91.00.9
Registration fees and tags0.50.40.40.50.4
Stamp duties0.40.40.50.50.5
Nontax revenue3.21.82.92.82.4
Estate revenue0.00.21.00.90.4
User fees0.40.30.81.21.3
Service revenue0.80.70.80.30.4
Miscellaneous revenue0.20.00.30.50.3
Other1.70.6
Sources: Djibouti authorities; and Fund staff estimates.
Sources: Djibouti authorities; and Fund staff estimates.
Table 20.Djibouti: Government Revenue, 1998–2002(In percent of total revenue)
19981999200020012002
Total revenue100.0100.0100.0100.0100.0
Tax revenue87.592.188.088.089.7
Direct taxes39.237.936.639.039.7
Property tax3.73.23.02.92.6
Licenses5.75.75.85.96.1
Tax on wages and salaries13.711.610.811.018.3
Tax on income and profits6.17.58.28.89.4
Tax on companies4.85.96.36.27.9
Other (BIC, BNC, and PVI)1.31.61.92.61.5
Tax arrears2.12.31.82.81.9
Patriotic contribution7.97.57.07.60.4
Indirect taxes44.650.547.644.646.4
Domestic consumption taxes27.128.330.327.929.2
Surcharge on khat8.99.79.18.99.0
Surcharge on petroleum products4.88.43.42.92.6
Surcharge on tobacco0.60.60.71.11.3
Surcharge on alcohol2.02.01.81.61.9
Other surcharges1.21.41.31.21.3
Other0.00.01.01.11.0
Registration, tags, and stamp duties3.73.83.84.43.6
Registration fees and tags1.91.91.72.31.6
Stamp duties1.81.92.12.12.1
Nontax revenue12.57.912.012.010.3
Estate revenue0.11.14.23.81.9
User fees1.71.33.25.05.4
Service revenue3.22.93.41.21.8
Miscellaneous revenue0.70.21.22.11.3
Other6.92.5
Sources: Djibouti authorities; and Fund staff estimates.
Sources: Djibouti authorities; and Fund staff estimates.
Table 21.Djibouti: Government Expenditures, 1998–2002(In millions of Djibouti francs)
19981999200020012002
Total expenditures30,40531,49032,20430,21534,660
Current expenditures24,32828,57529,56427,68830,740
Wages and salaries14,97614,69414,60914,80414,721
Material and supplies4,1826,4635,9914,7096,544
Maintenance271365715515606
Transfers2,5123,1953,7623,5334,080
International organizations1452641,1751,187
Publics entities1931931,6432,486
Scholarships698812960247366
Other2,0452,345124109
Externally financed development programs2,0683,1794,0243,8263,774
Interest on public debt319499463301239
External debt179327283212222
Domestic debt1401721808917
Incremental social program0000775
Other—Adjustment0180000
Capital expenditures6,0772,9152,6402,5273,920
Domestically financed259399531709596
Foreign financed5,8182,5162,1091,8183,324
Functional classification
Current expenditures24,32828,57529,56427,68830,740
General administration10,14611,40110,45110,00711,482
Defense4,0424,0533,9794,0454,500
Social services4,4654,8275,2924,9735,537
Education2,9723,2193,5453,4203,937
Health1,4931,6081,7471,5531,600
Economic services1,0539531,145879734
Agriculture380380420397266
Public works421168258235307
Maintenance work252405467247161
Transfers4,2244,6055,3344,4384,404
Other3982,7363,3633,3464,083
Sources: Djibouti authorities; and Fund staff estimates.
Sources: Djibouti authorities; and Fund staff estimates.
Table 22.Djibouti: Government Expenditures, 1998–2002(In percent of GDP)
19981999200020012002
Total expenditures33.333.132.829.732.9
Current expenditures26.630.030.127.229.2
Wages and salaries16.415.414.914.514.0
Material and supplies4.66.86.14.66.2
Maintenance0.30.40.70.50.6
Transfers2.73.43.83.53.9
International organizations0.20.31.21.1
Publics entities0.20.21.62.4
Scholarships0.80.91.00.20.3
Other2.12.40.10.1
Externally financed development programs2.33.34.13.83.6
Interest on public debt0.30.50.50.30.2
External debt0.20.30.30.20.2
Domestic debt0.20.20.20.10.0
Incremental social program0.00.00.00.00.7
Other—adjustment0.00.20.00.00.0
Capital expenditures6.63.12.72.53.7
Domestically financed0.30.40.50.70.6
Foreign financed6.42.62.11.83.2
Functional classification0.00.00.00.00.0
Current expenditures26.630.030.127.229.2
General administration11.112.010.69.810.9
Defense4.44.34.04.04.3
Social services4.95.15.44.95.3
Education3.33.43.63.43.7
Health1.61.71.81.51.5
Economic services1.21.01.20.90.7
Agriculture0.40.40.40.40.3
Public works0.50.20.30.20.3
Maintenance work0.30.40.50.20.2
Transfers4.64.85.44.44.2
Other0.42.93.43.33.9
Sources: Djibouti authorities; and Fund staff estimates.
Sources: Djibouti authorities; and Fund staff estimates.
Table 23.Djibouti: Government Expenditures, 1998–2002(In percent of total expenditures)
19981999200020012002
Total expenditures100.0100.0100.0100.0100.0
Current expenditures80.090.791.891.688.7
Wages and salaries49.346.745.449.042.5
Material and supplies13.820.518.615.618.9
Maintenance0.91.22.21.71.7
Transfers8.310.111.711.711.8
International organizations0.50.83.93.4
Publics entities0.60.65.47.2
Scholarships2.32.63.00.81.1
Other6.57.30.40.3
Externally financed development programs6.810.112.512.710.9
Interest on public debt1.01.61.41.00.7
External debt0.61.00.90.70.6
Domestic debt0.50.50.60.30.0
Incremental social program0.00.00.00.02.2
Other—adjustment0.00.60.00.00.0
Capital expenditures20.09.38.28.411.3
Domestically financed0.91.31.62.31.7
Foreign financed19.18.06.56.09.6
Functional classification
Current expenditures80.090.791.891.688.7
General administration33.436.232.533.133.1
Defense13.312.912.413.413.0
Social services14.715.316.416.516.0
Education9.810.211.011.311.4
Health4.95.15.45.14.6
Economic services3.53.03.62.92.1
Agriculture1.21.21.31.30.8
Public works1.40.50.80.80.9
Maintenance work0.81.31.50.80.5
Transfers13.914.616.614.712.7
Other1.38.710.411.111.8
Sources: Djibouti authorities; and Fund staff estimates.
Sources: Djibouti authorities; and Fund staff estimates.
Table 24.Djibouti: Financing of Government Consolidated Fiscal Operations, 1998–2002(In millions of Djibouti francs)
19981999200020012002
Financing-1057891,2712,0464,430
Domestic financing-7803206455981,578
Bank financing-7402786455981,578
Currency board230798602579146
Commercial banks-970-52043191,432
Nonbank financing-4042000
External financing6754696261,4472,852
Net borrowing6754696261,4472,852
Disbursements1,4248451,0151,8083,494
Amortization payments-749-376-389-361-642
Amortization obligations-473-592-671-526-470
Change in overdue obligations-434216170127-407
Change in nonoverdue obligations0-1,800-1,800-1,8000
Debt relief on principal payments1581,8001,9121,838213
Adjustment23
Sources: Djibouti authorities; and Fund staff estimates.
Sources: Djibouti authorities; and Fund staff estimates.
Table 25.Djibouti: Financing of Government Consolidated Fiscal Operations, 1998–2002(In percent of total financing)
19981999200020012002
Financing100.0100.0100.0100.0100.0
Domestic financing742.940.650.729.235.6
Bank financing704.835.250.729.235.6
Currency board-219.0101.247.428.33.3
Commercial banks923.8-65.93.40.932.3
Nonbank financing38.15.30.00.00.0
External financing-642.959.449.370.864.4
Net borrowing-642.959.449.370.864.4
Disbursements-1,356.2107.179.988.478.9
Amortization payments713.3-47.7-30.6-17.6-14.5
Amortization obligations450.5-75.1-52.8-25.7-10.6
Change in overdue obligations413.327.413.46.2-9.2
Change in nonoverdue obligations0.0-228.2-141.6-88.00.0
Debt relief on principal payments-150.5228.2150.489.94.8
Sources: Djibouti authorities; and Fund staff estimates.
Sources: Djibouti authorities; and Fund staff estimates.
Table 26.Djibouti: Financing of Government Consolidated Fiscal Operations, 1998–2002(In percent of GDP)
19981999200020012002
Financing-0.10.81.32.04.2
Domestic financing-0.90.30.70.61.5
Bank financing-0.80.30.70.61.5
Currency board0.30.80.60.60.1
Commercial banks-1.1-0.50.00.01.4
Nonbank financing0.00.00.00.00.0
External financing0.70.50.61.42.7
Net borrowing0.70.50.61.42.7
Disbursements1.60.91.01.83.3
Amortization payments-0.8-0.4-0.4-0.4-0.6
Amortization obligations-0.5-0.6-0.7-0.5-0.4
Change in overdue obligations-0.50.20.20.1-0.4
Change in nonoverdue obligations0.0-1.9-1.8-1.80.0
Debt relief on principal payments0.21.91.91.80.2
Sources: Djibouti authorities; and Fund staff estimates.
Sources: Djibouti authorities; and Fund staff estimates.
Table 27.Djibouti: Tax Exemptions, 1998–2002(In billions of Djibouti francs; unless otherwise indicated)
Preferential regime19981999200020012002
Vienna Convention (diplomatic privileges)0.80.81.11.41.0
Public contracts3.22.02.21.13.2
Private investment1.51.25.21.01.2
Free trade zone
French army26.333.921.627.131.8
Others2.62.91.63.25.2
Grants1.11.00.60.70.4
National army of Djibouti0.20.80.20.41.0
Tax code0.61.00.61.51.6
Presidential privileges0.70.20.20.60.5
U.S. army0.00.00.00.01.0
Spanish army0.00.00.00.00.7
Total34.440.731.733.842.4
Excluding French army8.16.810.16.710.6
Memorandum items:
Nominal GDP91.295.398.2101.9105.2
Total revenue23.222.424.023.724.7
Total imports (for domestic use)34.534.236.534.538.7
Total revenue/exemptions ratio0.70.50.80.70.6
Total imports/exemptions ratio1.00.81.21.00.9
Exemptions/nominal GDP ratio0.40.40.30.30.4
Sources: Djibouti authorities, and Fund staff estimates.
Sources: Djibouti authorities, and Fund staff estimates.
Table 28:Djibouti: Petroleum Consumption and Taxation, 1998–2002
19981999200020012002
(In liters)
Consumption
Super9,3475,4943,9705,9605,703
Petrol (kerosene)16,02615,57710,55216,18715,991
Diesel44,20565,01039,02032,25037,592
Other (lubricants)2,1331,7382,0462,838
Aviation fuels42,91312,36028,33633,50965,684
(In millions of Djibouti francs)
Tax revenue2,6062,5942,156
TIC 1/1,2451,0941,107
Surcharge808678653
Redevance 2/553822396
Memorandum items:
Total revenue23,15422,36223,96923,70224,720
Petroleum products imports2,9762,9445,4525,5114,789
Sources: Djibouti authorities and Fund staff estimates.

The TIC on petroleum imports is 33 percent.

Formerly EPH margin.

Sources: Djibouti authorities and Fund staff estimates.

The TIC on petroleum imports is 33 percent.

Formerly EPH margin.

Table 29.Djibouti: Public Expenditure in Social Sectors, 1998–2002
19981999200020012002
(In millions of Djibouti francs)
Social services (total)7,6018,8919,6789,59411,225
Current expenditure6,5988,8919,6789,59411,225
Wages, salaries and materials4,5304,3924,7064,7507,659
Health1,6801,5001,5691,5841,834
Education2,8502,8923,1373,1655,825
Transfers3651,9461,889540
Social programs9861,175240
Student grants365960714300
Foreign-financed programs2,0684,1343,0262,9553,026
Grants for health programs870821750821
Grants for education programs2,0683,2642,2052,2052,205
Capital expenditure1,0031,6402,1132,7952,256
Foreign-financed outlays9631,5752,0082,5151,926
Health270439648609739
Education6931,1361,3601,9061,187
Domestically-financed outlays4065105280330
Health9150140170
Education3150105140160
(In percent of GDP)
Social services (total)8.39.39.89.410.7
Current outlays7.29.39.89.410.7
Wages and materials5.04.64.84.77.3
Health1.81.61.61.61.7
Education3.13.03.23.15.5
Transfers0.42.01.90.5
Foreign-financed programs2.34.33.12.92.9
Capital expenditure1.11.72.22.72.1
Foreign-financed outlays1.11.72.02.51.8
Health0.30.50.70.60.7
Education0.81.21.41.91.1
Domestically-financed outlays0.00.10.10.30.3
Health0.00.00.00.10.2
Education0.00.10.10.10.2
Memorandum item:
GDP at market prices91,39695,27398,267101,870105,210
Sources: Djibouti authorities; and Fund staff estimates.
Sources: Djibouti authorities; and Fund staff estimates.
Table 30.Djibouti: Demobilization and Retirement, 1992–2002(In millions of Djibouti francs; unless otherwise indicated)
19921993199419951996199719981999200020012002Total
Demobilization
Mobilization (number of persons)12,66312,21110,7639,4118,7205,9355,0474,5694,1954,1833,983
Salaries to mobilized troops4,5594,3963,8753,3883,1392,1371,8171,6451,5101,5061,434
Demobilization
Local ressources
Number of persons-4521,4481,352691-----2004,143
Cost-108513478192-----70
Savings-168516492252-----72
France
Number of persons-----2,785-----2,785
Cost-----950-----
Savings-----1,002-----
European Union
Number of persons------88847837412-1,752
Cost------3141691324-
Savings------3201721354-
Total demobilized
Number-4521,4481,3526912,785888478374122008,680
Cost-108513478192950314169132470
Savings-1685164922521781,2161,4591,6471,77472
Retirement
Number of civil servants----------850850
Savings----------486
Memorandum items:
Wage bill (in percent of GDP)23.324.324.024.220.822.016.415.414.914.514.0
Cost of mobilized (in percent of GDP)5.45.34.53.93.52.32.01.71.51.51.3
Sources: Djibouti authorities; and Fund staff estimates.
Sources: Djibouti authorities; and Fund staff estimates.
Table 31.Djibouti: Factors Affecting Changes in Domestic Liquidity, 1998–2002 1/
19981999200020012002
(Flows at end period, in millions of Djibouti francs)
Money and quasi-money3,7352,5505873,9618,868
Currency in circulation-351190-82163818
Demand deposits2,9531,989-2,2825716,052
Time deposits1,1333712,9513,2271,998
Net foreign assets-1,1042,804-3,7808,4678,852
Currency board-1,139311-75179808
Commercial banks352,493-3,0298,3888,044
Net domestic assets4,839-2544,367-4,50616
Domestic credit4,5001,2673,347-3,741-75
Claims on government (net)-509-766455571,578
Claims on nongovernment sector5,0091,3432,702-4,297-1,653
Other items (net)339-1,5211,020-76691
(Change in percent of broad money)
Money and quasi-money8.25.21.17.515.7
Net foreign assets-2.45.7-7.316.115.6
Currency board-2.50.6-1.40.21.4
Commercial banks0.15.0-5.815.914.2
Net domestic assets10.6-0.58.4-8.60.0
Domestic credit9.82.66.4-7.1-0.1
Claims on government (net)-1.1-0.21.21.12.8
Claims on nongovernment sector11.02.75.2-8.2-2.9
Other items (net)0.7-3.12.0-1.50.2
Source: Djibouti authorities.

On the basis of the three operating banks starting in 1998.

Source: Djibouti authorities.

On the basis of the three operating banks starting in 1998.

Table 32.Djibouti: Monetary Survey and Indicators, 1998–2002 1/
19981999200020012002
(In millions of Djibouti francs)
Money and quasi-money49,47152,02152,60856,56965,437
Currency in circulation9,0999,2899,2079,37010,188
Demand deposits18,99720,98618,70419,27525,327
Time deposits21,37521,74624,69727,92429,922
Net foreign assets30,92133,72529,94538,41247,264
Currency board9,78610,0979,3469,42510,233
Commercial banks21,13523,62820,59928,98737,031
Net domestic assets18,55018,29622,66318,15718,173
Domestic credit30,74132,00835,35531,61531,540
Claims on government (net)1,8331,7572,4022,9594,537
Claims on nongovernment sector28,90830,25132,95328,65627,003
Other items (net)-12,191-13,712-12,692-13,457-13,367
(In percentage)
Shares of:
Nonperforming loans (in percent of total loans)26.816.617.823.426.4
Foreign exchange loans (in percent of total loans)4.9
Foreign exchange deposits (in percent of total deposits)62.964.058.157.354.5
Foreign currency liabilities (in percent of in total liabilities)25.524.731.220.620.2
Foreign currency assets (in percent of total assets)
Source: Djibouti authorities.

On the basis of the three operating banks starting in 1998.

Source: Djibouti authorities.

On the basis of the three operating banks starting in 1998.

Table 33.Djibouti: Accounts of the Monetary Authorities, 1998–2002(In millions of Djibouti francs)
19981999200020012002
Foreign assets11,44512,50812,01312,49613,244
Monetary cover 1/9,3539,8399,81910,19210,982
Other foreign assets2,0902,9302,4052,5262,349
SDR holdings70123522196
Reserve position in the Fund-68-273-246-244-283
Claims on government2,1762,9282,8923,2343,177
Claims on commercial banks440000
Assets = liabilities13,66515,43614,90515,73016,421
Reserve money9,55710,0119,93210,46711,409
Currency outside banks9,0999,2899,2079,37010,188
Currency issue 2/9,3539,8399,81910,19210,982
Less: currency held by treasury-10-5-5-5-5
Less: banks’ cash-244-545-607-817-789
Currency with banks244545607817789
Banks’ deposits214177118280432
Foreign liabilities1,6592,4112,6673,0713,012
Government deposits6761,152514319115
Other items (net)1,7731,8621,7921,8731,885
Source: Djibouti authorities.

The monetary cover is equivalent to currency issue.

Includes currency held by the treasury.

Source: Djibouti authorities.

The monetary cover is equivalent to currency issue.

Includes currency held by the treasury.

Table 34.Djibouti: Accounts of Commercial Banks, 1998–2002 1/(In millions of Djibouti francs)
19981999200020012002
Reserves4807437181,0561,221
Foreign assets30,25631,67929,50735,87344,681
Correspondent accounts27,69429,27526,64534,50243,177
Other2,5622,4042,8621,3711,504
Claims on the government653214111741,478
Claims on the economy28,90830,25132,95328,65627,003
Claims on public enterprises2,1142,3091,5401,7581,374
Claims on the private sector26,79427,94231,41326,89825,629
Assets = Liabilities60,29762,88763,28965,65974,383
Demand deposits18,99820,98618,70419,27525,327
Time deposits21,37621,74624,69727,92429,922
Foreign liabilities9,1218,0518,9086,8867,650
Correspondent accounts2,6993,2692,6812,0861,413
Demand deposits1,8632,3823,5222,3373,549
Time deposits2,7491,4782,0131,9881,730
Other1,810922692475958
Government deposits32023387313
Credit from the currency board00000
Other items (net)10,48211,87110,89311,54311,481
Source: Djibouti authorities.

On the basis of the three operating banks starting in 1998.

Source: Djibouti authorities.

On the basis of the three operating banks starting in 1998.

Table 35.Djibouti: Structure of Interest Rates, 1998–2002(In percent per annum)
Time Deposits 1/Lending Rate 2/
Minimum-MaximumMinimum-Maximum
1998
1st quarter3.6–4.15.2–12.9
2nd quarter3.6–4.09.4–12.9
3rd quarter3.6–4.09.6–13.1
4th quarter3.7–4.210.2–12.9
1999
1st quarter3.6–4.010.4–12.5
2nd quarter3.6–4.010.5–12.2
3rd quarter3.7–4.010.6–12.4
4th quarter3.7–4.110.5–12.5
2000
1st quarter3.7–5.010.8–13.1
2nd quarter3.7–5.610.8–13.1
3rd quarter3.7–5.410.8–13.1
4th quarter3.9–4.910.8–13.0
2001
1 st quarter3.8–1.310.8–11.8
2nd quarter3.2–4.110.8–11.4
3rd quarter1.9–2.910.8–11.8
4th quarter1.0–1.610.8–11.8
2002
1st quarter1.0–1.410.8–11.8
2nd quarter1.0–1.410.8–11.8
3rd quarter1.0–1.410.8–11.8
4th quarter1.0–1.58.5–11.4
Source: Djibouti authorities.

The minimum balance for time deposits in Djibouti francs is one million with a minimum term of one month.

Rate applicable to overdrafts of under DF 10 million.

Source: Djibouti authorities.

The minimum balance for time deposits in Djibouti francs is one million with a minimum term of one month.

Rate applicable to overdrafts of under DF 10 million.

Table 36.Djibouti: Balance of Payments, 1998–2002(In millions of U.S. dollars; unless otherwise indicated)
19981999200020012002
Current Account-3.3-1.9-39.7-24.9-36.5
Trade balance-180.3-182.4-194.8-178.7-200.5
Exports, f.o.b.59.169.275.475.783.2
Of which
Locally produced goods13.914.014.414.015.6
Imports, f.o.b.239.5251.7270.3254.4283.7
Of which
For domestic use194.3192.5205.4194.3217.9
Services and income (net)108.2116.7102.0122.8123.4
Credit184.9180.2167.9186.4189.9
Debit-87.2-75.7-81.6-76.3-76.9
Of which
Interest obligations-6.5-5.4-4.7-6.9-7.2
Unrequited transfers68.962.753.131.140.6
Official74.368.460.037.044.4
Private-5.4-5.7-6.9-5.9-3.7
Capital account22.5-1.230.710.234.9
Foreign direct investment3.54.23.32.25.0
Public sector (net)19.1-5.527.47.929.9
Drawings30.78.139.919.740.4
Amortization-12.3-13.1-14.7-11.7-10.6
Errors and omissions (including private capital)-26.712.1-9.154.654.7
Overall balance (deficit -)-7.57.9-18.139.953.0
Financing7.5-7.918.1-39.9-53.0
Monetary movements (increase -)6.4-15.821.3-47.6-49.8
Currency board (net)6.6-1.74.2-0.4-4.5
Assets3.4-6.02.8-2.7-4.2
Liabilities3.24.21.42.3-0.3
Of which
Use of Fund credit3.14.21.32.6-1.0
Commercial banks (net)-0.2-14.017.0-47.2-45.3
Change in overdue obligations (decrease -)-0.55.4-3.22.2-5.5
Change in nonoverdue obligations0.0-10.1-10.1-10.1-0.9
Debt relief1.612.612.110.82.5
Memorandum items:
Imports for domestic use37.835.937.133.936.8
Exports of locally produced goods2.72.62.62.42.6
Current account (including official transfers)-35.1-34.0-35.2-31.2-33.9
Current account (excluding official transfers)-0.6-0.4-7.2-4.3-6.2
Official debt (in percent of GDP) 1/2/65.562.866.965.266.8
Debt service obligations (in percent of locally produced goods and nonfactor services) 2/7.58.27.37.37.3
Currency board gross foreign assets
In millions of U.S. dollars64.470.467.670.374.5
Monetary and LOLR cover (in percent) 3/2.93.22.93.23.1
Commercial bank gross foreign assets
In millions of U.S. dollars170.2178.3166.0201.9251.4
In months of imports 4/7.68.17.19.110.4
Sources: Data provided by the Djibouti authorities; and Fund staff estimates.

Public- and publicly-guaranteed debt.

Obligations after rescheduling.

Ratio of gross foreign assets to currency issue and commercial bank and government deposits.

Imports of goods and nonfactor services for domestic use.

Sources: Data provided by the Djibouti authorities; and Fund staff estimates.

Public- and publicly-guaranteed debt.

Obligations after rescheduling.

Ratio of gross foreign assets to currency issue and commercial bank and government deposits.

Imports of goods and nonfactor services for domestic use.

Table 37.Djibouti: Direction of Trade, 1998–2002 1/(In percent of total)
19981999200020012002
Imports
Industrial countries41.642.536.236.837.0
France11.215.810.216.37.6
Italy8.24.06.23.83.1
Japan3.84.23.62.12.5
Netherlands2.82.83.43.14.4
United Kingdom5.55.85.12.93.3
Others10.110.07.78.616.1
Developing countries56.255.461.460.660.4
Africa9.69.711.313.813.6
Ethiopia8.68.39.710.411.1
Others0.91.41.63.42.5
Asia23.724.126.122.022.4
Taiwan Province of China1.50.91.21.71.8
Singapore1.83.32.31.62.2
Thailand2.71.31.10.60.4
Hong Kong SAR0.40.20.20.20.1
India1.71.61.92.02.2
Others15.616.819.415.815.8
Middle East20.518.521.120.719.7
Bahrain0.00.00.00.00.0
Saudi Arabia15.614.016.217.015.8
Yemen, Republic of2.02.02.11.31.3
Others2.92.52.82.52.6
Other developing countries2.44.12.24.14.7
Other countries2.22.12.42.62.5
Total100.0100.0100.0100.0100.0
Exports
Industrial countries9.319.09.326.73.5
Developing countries90.781.090.773.396.5
Africa57.053.660.148.762.0
Somalia52.749.655.644.957.2
Ethiopia4.13.94.33.54.4
Middle East27.725.428.822.928.5
Yemen, Republic of22.421.123.719.224.5
Saudi Arabia0.90.40.50.00.0
Others6.02.04.63.74.1
Total100.0100.0100.0100.0100.0
Source: IMF, Direction of Trade Statistics.

Based on data of trade partner countries.

Source: IMF, Direction of Trade Statistics.

Based on data of trade partner countries.

Table 38.Djibouti: Imports for Domestic Use Classified by Main Product Groups, 1998–2002(In millions of Djibouti francs)
19981999200020012002
Food and beverages8,9809,9809,93510,02110,335
Tobacco364580363358705
Khat3,0493,3003,4433,4723,458
Minerals134305311322727
Petroleum products2,9762,9445,4525,5114,789
Chemical products1,7641,8811,6571,6821,280
Plastic products339281288286675
Paper products, newspapers, and books680816628644441
Clothing and footwear2,2081,4531,4481,4671,808
Stone, cement, ceramic, and glass products290175120140387
Wood, wood products, and furniture5458871,1731,1811,220
Metals and metal products2,3091,510905928842
Machinery and electric appliances5,7733,4616,5313,7452,875
Vehicles and transport equipment1,9062,8692,0762,0761,998
Other products1602223913611,125
Other transactions247739770755469
Total31,72431,40335,49132,94933,134
Source: Djibouti authorities.
Source: Djibouti authorities.
Table 39.Djibouti: External Public- and Publicly-Guaranteed Debt, 1998–2002(In millions of U.S. dollars; unless otherwise indicated)
19981999200020012002
Medium- and long-term external debt 1/337.0336.9369.9373.7395.4
Bilateral126.5117.299.0102.097.3
Of which
China9.89.89.89.89.8
France6.65.85.24.54.2
Italy48.650.450.4
Spain5.65.65.6
Kuwait30.927.527.521.218.1
Saudi Arabia22.020.922.619.218.2
United Arab Emirates3.02.62.39.99.5
Multilateral210.5219.7270.9271.8298.0
Of which
African Development Fund81.780.580.377.375.6
Arab Fund for Economic and Social Development7.66.25.34.64.2
Arab Monetary Fund1.51.91.91.62.4
European Investment Bank1.61.20.90.60.5
International Development Association54.255.555.252.952.4
International Fund for Agriculture Development2.22.12.01.91.8
Islamic Development Bank8.68.27.97.47.0
OPEC Special Fund4.84.53.93.43.1
Government stock of arrears (end of period)0.33.45.76.85.1
Public enterprises stock of arrears (end of period)65.562.866.965.266.8
Memorandum items:
Total debt as percent of GDP65.762.866.965.266.8
Total debt service in percent of exports of locally produced goods and nonfactor services7.58.27.37.37.3
Average interest rate on total debt (in percent)0.50.60.70.60.6
Source: Djibouti authorities.

Debt of the government and the public enterprise sector, excluding arrears.

Source: Djibouti authorities.

Debt of the government and the public enterprise sector, excluding arrears.

Djibouti: Summary of the Tax System, End-2002(As of December 31, 2002)
TaxNature of TaxExemptions and DeductionsAssessment Base and Rates
1. Taxes on Income, Profits, and Capital Gains
1.1 Individual
– Tax on wages and salariesA progressive monthly tax levied on all wages, benefits, in cash and in kind, and pensions paid in Djibouti. The tax, payable by the employee, is withheld from wages and salaries.Exemptions:

Certain allowances and reimbursements of actual occupational expenses
Monthly cash income rate:

DF 0 – 30,000: 2 percent

DF 30,000–50,000: 15 percent

DF 50,000–150,000: 18 percent

DF 150,000–600,000: 20 percent

over DF 600,000: 30 percent

1.2 Corporate
– Business lump-sum taxLevied on preceding year’s turnover of all natural or legal persons exercising handicraft, commercial, or industrial activities, or liberal professions.Not deductible from taxable income1 percent of turnover but not less than DF 120,000
– Tax on professional earningsLevied by self-assessment on profits and similar income of members of the professions and on the remuneration of business operators with a controlling interest in their companies if the amount of the tax is higher than that on the business lump sum tax.25 percent of profits
– Tax on business profits of individualsLevied by self-assessment on the profits of unincorporated industrial, commercial, or craft enterprises.Exemptions:

Investment income As provided for in Investment Code
25 percent of net taxable annual profits
– Tax on company profitsLevied by self-assessment on the profits of joint-stock companies, cooperatives, and partnerships (including government-owned enterprises, mixed-economy enterprises, and industrial or commercial public enterprises).Exemptions:

Income from real estate As provided for in Investment Code
25 percent of net taxable annual profits
The following three categories of taxpayers are subject to a system of estimated payments pending determination of their assessable profits for purposes of the income and profits tax (see 1.3):

  • Itinerant enterprises;

  • Livestock importers; and

  • Khat importers.

Charchari:

10 percent of c.i.f. price of imported merchandise plus indirect duties Livestock

importers:

DF 800 per sheep or goat DF 1,000 per head of cattle Khat importers:

DF 100 per kilogram of khat
1.3 Other unallocated taxes on income, profits, and capital gains
– Tax on real estate capital gainsLevied on buildings upon transfer and payable by transferrer. Same for land without buildings.Exemptions:

Principal residences Real estate assets of enterprises Sales below DF 100,000
5 percent of net capital gain
2. Taxes on Property
2.1 Recurrent taxes on immovable property
– Real property tax on buildingsAssessed on the annual rental value of the property beginning with the sixth year following the year of building completion. Buildings may be exempted for a maximum often years after completion under the Investment Code.Exemptions:

Public buildings Religious and sports facilities Industrial facilities (Investment Code)
DF 0–1,120,000: 10 percent DF 1,120,001–3,840,000: 20 percent DF 3,840,001–6,720,000:

25 percent

Over DF 6,720,000: 30 percent
Deductions:

20 percent of rental value for amortization, maintenance, and insurance
Exemptions:

Government property Land used for schools, sports, humanitarian, or social welfare purposes
Agricultural land in farming use outside urban areas. Land owed by international organizations, embassies, and consulates of countries
– Real property tax on unbuilt landLevied on unbuilt land, on land under buildings temporarily exempt from the real property tax on buildings during the exemption period, and on vacant land belonging to a building to the extent that it exceeds three times the built-on area.Exemptions:

Government property Properties used for educational, sporting, humanitarian, or social purposes
21 percent of rental value
Developed agricultural land Properties of international organizations, embassies, and consulates
– Garbage removal taxLevied yearly from the owners, users, or principal tenants of real property on the same basis as the real property tax on buildings.Exemptions:

Industrial enterprises Buildings in governmental use Buildings without garbage removal services
4.5 percent of rental value after 20 percent deduction
2.2 Taxes on financial and capital transactions
– Registration dutyPayable on documents under private seal, public civil documents, judicial documents, verbal leases, and transfers inter vivos or causa mortis.Exemptions:

Transactions to which the government is a party Investment Code approvals Miscellaneous (see Registration and Stamp Duty Code)

Embassies
Prorated duty: 5 percent and 10 percent

Fixed duty:

DF 2,000

DF 4,000

DF 6,000
Prorated duty applies to all legal documents involving obligation, release, condemnation, placement, or payment of money or securities, transfers of real and movable property, and insurance premiums.

A fixed duty is collected on all other legal documents.

A progressive duty is payable on transfers inter vivos or causa mortis.
Progressive duty:

See Registration Code schedule
– Recordation dutyLevied on the provisional or definitive grant or the conveyance of real property, and for the registration or cancellation of mortgages. Subrogation of mortgages is not subject to the duty. Definitive grants are subject to prior assessment.Exemptions:

The government Investment Code approvals
Recordation:

DF 200, DF 500, DF 1,000 or DF 5,000 per sheet or act
3. Domestic Taxes on Goods and Services
3.1 Taxes on specific services
– Tax on construction permitsLevied upon filing of applications for construction permits with the ministry of public works, town planning, and housing.Exemptions:

Government buildings Investment Code approvals
1.5 percent of planned construction cost
– Gambling levy30 percent of the gross proceeds from gambling
3.2 Taxes on use of goods or on permission to use goods or to perform activities
– Patent (business license duty)Payable by all persons engaged in an industrial or commercial activity within Djibouti. A special annual patent is levied on industrial, commercial, or agricultural companies head-quartered in Djibouti but operating mainly abroad. The same applies to holding companies and financing companies headquartered in Djibouti. For collection purposes, a distinction is made between the regular patent and the prepaid patent.



The official assessment for the latter is used only to finalize the amount; they apply mainly to business of an itinerant nature (e.g., traveling salesmen).



Excludes the surcharge of 7.5 percent levied for the International Chamber of Commerce and Industry.
Exemptions:

The government and public enterprises

Certain occupations (e.g., midwives, fishermen) As provided for in the Investment Code; the term and conditions of the exemption are set forth in the approval decision.

Importer patents are not required for Transshipment, transit, provisioning, and fueling of ships and aircraft or for reexport.
The patent is made up of a fixed duty and a prorated one, both specified for each industry in the general schedule of

patents.



Fixed duty:

Set for each enterprise carrying out operations subject to the patent. Persons engaged in various kinds of business through a single enterprise pay the patent only on the operations subject to the highest duty, except where the operations are defined as not consistent for purposes of taxation.



Non cumulables (NC); (e.g., an importer’s patent: NC)



Prorated duty: Based on the rental value of the premises, whatever their type, in which the occupations subject to the duty are performed
– License feesPayable for the entire calendar year by all persons authorized to sell beverages. The amount depends on the type of establishment and on its hours and location.
ClassRate
1 A:DF 700,000
1B:DF 580,000
2A:DF 400,000
2B:DF 350,000
3:DF 250,000
4:DF 200,000
5:DF 150,000
6:DF 20,000
7:DF 3,000
8:DF 240,000
– Market taxFor permits to sell at retail in a market.Covered market: DF 10 per day Covered stalls: DF 210 per month Pavilion:

Full place—DF 2,000 per month

Half place—DF 1,000 per month

– Weights and measures dutyAnnual duty levied by the Economic Affairs and Prices Service.DF 100–5,000 per weighing or measuring device
– Drivers’ license and registration feeSpecific fees apply to the issue of drivers’ licenses, registrations, and transfer authorizations.Driver’s license:

Issue: DF 7,000

Change: DF 7,000

Duplicate: DF 5,000

Registration: DF 4,500 per HP (DF 90,000 maximum)

– Differentiated motor vehicle feeLevied on all motor vehicles.
1–4 HPDF 15,000
5–9 HPDF 20,000
10–20 HPDF 25,000
Over 20 HPDF 30,000
– Recreational boat registration feeLevied annually on boat owners in accordance with engine size.Exemptions:

Professional fishermen
DF 500 per actual HP
3.3 Domestic consumption tax (TIC)Levied on all goods imported into and consumed in Djibouti.Exemptions:

Diplomatic privileges Investment Code approval Special agreements Specific decrees or arrêtés
Base: c.i.f. value or reference value
Standard rates (on valeurs mercuriales): 8 percent; 20 percent; 33 percent
Vegetable oil, sugar, food paste, powder milk, and medicines.Rate: 8 percent
– Fruit juice taxLevied on imports of:

Fruit juices Other carbonated flavored beverages Excise
DF 160 per kilogram (net)

DF14 per liter

– Meat inspection taxLevied for inspection of meat and other imported foodstuffs of animal origin.Meat, fish, cheese, yogurt, honey: DF 100 per kilogram Milk, eggs: DF 20 per kilogram
– ToiletriesExciseDF 300 per liter of alcohol content
– PerfumesExciseDF 2,500 per liter of alcohol content
– Mineral water tax and soft drinksLevied on imported mineral water and locally-produced soft drinks.DF 14 per liter
3.4 Excise tax
– Alcohol exciseLevied on alcohol, alcoholic beverages, and similar products.Exemptions:

Denatured alcohol Nondenatured ethanol, 80 or higher, for medicinal use
Table wines: DF 100 per liter Other alcoholic beverages: DF 4,700 per liter of alcohol content

Ad valorem for champagne, brandies and other superior wines: 160 percent of c.i.f. value
– Petroleum products exciseLevied on imported petroleum products.Exemptions:

None except those provided for under international conventions
Regular and premium gasoline: DF 49.5 per liter Diesel: DF 6 per liter Kerosene: DF 0 per liter Lubricants: DF 100 per kilo Jet fuel: DF 5 per liter
– Khat exciseLevied on all qat imports for local consumptionDF561 per kilogram gross weight
– Tobacco exciseLevied on all tobacco imported for domestic consumption54 percent of c.i.f. import value
4. Taxes on International Trade and Transactions
4.1 Export duties
– TIC on reexported tobacco and alcoholLevied on tobacco and alcohol in transit and reexported by sea, or land.Exemptions

Loaded on ships of 200 tons and more Loaded on wagons inside the port area

Accompanied by documentation showing an agreed destination

10 percent of c.i.f. value
4.2 Other taxes on international trade and transactions
– Health certificateIssued at import, export, and transit of livestock on the hoof and of leather and hides.Livestock:

Cattle and camels: DF 1,000 per head Sheep and goats: DF 200 per head

Leather and hides: DF 6,000 per ton

– Nonresident taxLevied on compensation paid to individuals and corporations not domiciled in Djibouti. Taxable compensation consists of:

• remuneration paid for services of any kind rendered or used in Djibouti; and

• royalties received for use of copyright, patents, trademarks, and similar intellectual property.

Exemptions:

International transport operations and related services

Charter and repair of vessels and aircraft used in international transport Equipment installation costs

10 percent of gross compensation
5. Other Duties and Taxes
5.1 Stamp taxes
– Stamp dutyRequired on all civil, judicial, and extrajudicial documents and all legal deeds and writs.

Passports, visas, and alien identity cards are subject to stamp duty.

Exemptions:

Diplomatic corps and international organizations on their leases

Miscellaneous (see Registration and Stamp Tax Code)

DF 500–1,000 per sheet

DF 200–5,000 per contract

Note 1: A 15 percent ad valorem duty applies to insurance

premiums

Note 2: Passports, visas, and alien identity cards: DF 1,500–20,000
Source: Information provided by the Djibouti authorities.

A temporary tax introduced in 1992 to finance exceptional expenditures associated with the general mobilization. It currently applies to all wage earners. For government and public enterprise employees, it is called budget withholding.

Source: Information provided by the Djibouti authorities.

A temporary tax introduced in 1992 to finance exceptional expenditures associated with the general mobilization. It currently applies to all wage earners. For government and public enterprise employees, it is called budget withholding.

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