Journal Issue
Share
Article

Burundi

Author(s):
International Monetary Fund
Published Date:
December 1997
Share
  • ShareShare
Show Summary Details
Burundi: Basic Data
Area27,834 square kilometers
Population
Total (1996)6.3 million 1/
Growth rate2.8 percent 1/
GDP per capita (1996)U.S.$ 114
199219931994199519961997
Prel.Proj.
National accounts(In billions of Burundi francs)
Gross domestic product in nominal terms at factor cost206.1217.3240.2275.2319.8396.9
Primary sector108.3109.9119.3143.3183.9229.4
Secondary sector42.845.952.452.954.273.5
Tertiary sector55.061.568.578.981.894.0
Gross domestic product at current market prices226.2236.7270.1306.9344.2431.0
Imports of goods and nonfactor services65.769.266.668.148.563.4
Total supply of resources = Total use291.9305.9336.6375.0392.7494.5
Exports of goods and nonfactor services19.621.424.032.215.240.6
Domestic demand272.3284.5312.6342.9377.5453.9
Private consumption215.7217.1256.7285.4312.7394.7
Public consumption22.730.332.533.634.537.1
Gross investment33.837.223.523.930.422.2
Of which: gross fixed capital formation32.836.223.424.130.819.4
Resource gap-46.1-47.9-42.6-36.0-33.3-22.9
(Changes in percent)
Gross domestic product and prices
Real GDP (market prices)0.7-5.9-3.7-7.3-8.44.4
GDP deflator6.011.218.522.522.420.0
Consumer price index4.59.714.719.426.415.6
(In billions of Burundi francs)
Central government operations
Revenue and grants57.660.447.953.248.549.1
Revenue38.239.842.244.142.345.6
Grants19.420.75.79.16.13.5
Expenditure and net lending64.268.959.565.170.758.8
Current expenditure33.539.141.944.945.248.2
Capital expenditure and net lending30.829.817.620.225.510.6
Overall deficit (cash basis)
Including grants-6.6-6.2-11.3-10.2-15.6-9.7
Excluding grants-26.0-26.9-17.0-19.3-21.7-13.2
Financing6.66.211.310.215.69.7
Foreign (net)19.412.37.96.35.2-3.2
Domestic (net)-12.8-6.03.44.010.412.9
Banking system-2.4-2.43.73.66.211.2
Other-10.4-3.6-0.30.44.21.7
(As percent of GDP)
Revenue (excluding grants)16.916.815.614.412.310.6
Grants8.68.72.13.01.80.8
Current expenditure14.816.515.514.613.111.2
Capital expenditure and net lending13.612.66.56.67.42.5
Total expenditure and net lending28.429.122.021.220.513.6
Overall deficit (commitment basis)
Including grants-2.9-3.6-4.3-3.9-6.5-4.7
Excluding grants-11.5-12.3-6.4-6.8-8.2-6.1
Money and credit 2/(In billions of Burundi francs)
Foreign assets (net)22.526.137.345.137.039.5
Domestic credit34.635.442.142.055.852.9
Government (net)0.7-2.51.04.610.812.7
Credit to the private sector26.835.137.435.042.638.0
Credit to public enterprises7.12.73.72.42.42.2
Money and quasi-money36.138.752.351.058.658.8
Other items (net)21.122.727.036.134.233.6
(In percent of beginning-of-year broad money)
Net foreign assets20.09.828.915.0-15.9-2.4
Domestic credit-7.32.217.2-0.227.130.9
Net credit to the government-11.1-8.89.06.912.226.7
Credit to the private sector5.323.05.9-4.614.94.8
Credit to public enterprises-1.6-12.22.6-2.50.0-0.6
Money and quasi-money3.17.435.0-2.414.821.4
Balance of payments(In millions of U.S. dollars)
Trade balance-104.8-98.9-91.9-63.1-59.8-19.2
Exports, f.o.b.77.073.980.7112.540.192.8
Of which: coffee48.547.057.289.228.872.7
Imports, f.o.b.-181.8-172.8-172.6-175.6-100.0-112.0
Services (net)-130.0-109.3-88.0-94.0-64.2-56.7
Private transfers (net)12.817.421.415.611.215.3
Official transfers164.9163.4143.8136.156.346.2
Current account (excluding official transfers)-221.9-190.7-158.5-141.4-112.8-60.6
Medium- and long-term official loses (including direct investment)91.547.525.16.27.4-17.0
Other capital 3/-21.0-20.433.31.5-33.80.0
Capital account70.527.158.47.7-26.4-17.0
Overall balance13.4-0.243.72.4-83.0-31.4
Gross official reserves(As percent of GDP, unless otherwise indicated)
In millions of U.S. dollars178.5171.6213.9215.3144.7127.9
In months of imports of goods and nonfactor services6.87.29.89.510.88.5
Exports, f.o.b.7.17.67.59.23.57.5
Imports, c.i.f.-16.7-17.7-16.1-14.3-8.8-9.1
Current account (excluding official transfers)-20.4-19.6-14.8-11.5-9.9-4.9
Overall balance of payments1.20.04.10.2-7.3-2.5
Debt service 4/(In millions of U.S. dollars, unless otherwise indicated)
Debt-service payments40.640.845.359.861.951.7
Amortization24.227.531.744.547.537.8
Interest payments16.413.313.615.314.413.9
Debt-service ratio 5/43.146.347.646.5123.444.6
Of which: use of Fund credit4.06.17.58.019.48.0
Sources: Burundi authorities; and Fund staff estimates and projections.

World Bank development indicators.

Monetary data for 1997 is as of end-March.

Including net short-term capital and errors and omissions.

Scheduled debt service on public and publicly guaranteed debt, including use of Fund credit.

Scheduled debt service as a percentage of receipts of exports of goods and nonfactor services.

Sources: Burundi authorities; and Fund staff estimates and projections.

World Bank development indicators.

Monetary data for 1997 is as of end-March.

Including net short-term capital and errors and omissions.

Scheduled debt service on public and publicly guaranteed debt, including use of Fund credit.

Scheduled debt service as a percentage of receipts of exports of goods and nonfactor services.

Burundi: Social and Demographic Indicators 1/
Population characteristicsBurundiSub-Saharan Africa
Population (1995)
Total (in millions)6.3600
Growth rate (percent)2.82.7
Life expectancy at birth (years)
Overall50.352.0
Men48.6
Women52.1
Crude birth rate (per 1,000)45.243.8
Crude death rate (per 1,000)17.014.8
Infant mortality rate (per 1,000)98.092.0
Education (1996)
Gross primary enrollment rate (percent)43.272.0
Gross secondary enrollment rate (percent)6.024.0
Adult literacy rate (percent)35.043.0
School population
Primary453,746
Secondary (general)56,887
Secondary (technical and teacher education)5,712
Higher education4,379
Health
Physicians (hospitals)329
Hospitals34
Population per physician17,210
Population per nurse4,800
Population per hospital/bed1,5261,316
Access to safe water (percent)37.847.0
Immunization rate (percent)63.052.0
Urban areas (percent)92.0
Rural areas (percent)33.9
Urban population (percent of total)6.830.9
Rural population (percent of total)93.269.1

Most recent estimates available.

Most recent estimates available.

I. Background and Recent Economic Developments1

A. Overview

1. In 1991, Burundi embarked on a comprehensive structural adjustment program aimed at strengthening macroeconomic stability and improving the economy’s supply response. Under the reform program, several macroeconomic and structural measures were implemented in the fiscal, monetary, trade, and exchange areas. However, economic reforms were interrupted by the civil conflict, which started in October 1993 with the assassination of President Ndadaye, the first democratically elected president in Burundi. These events led to a wave of ethnic violence between the two major ethnic groups (Tutsis and Hutus) that caused the killing of more than 150,000 persons and the displacement of about 1 million persons. The civil war has also caused extensive damage to social and economic infrastructure. The social and economic situation was further aggravated by an economic embargo that was imposed on Burundi by neighboring countries following the military coup on July 25, 1996.

2. The civil conflict, combined with the effects of the economic embargo, has taken a heavy toll on the economy over the last four years. As shown in the basic data table, real GDP declined by a cumulative 25 percent during 1993-96. As a result of the drop in domestic production and the shortage of imports, the rate of inflation soared to 26.4 percent in 1996 from 9.7 percent in 1993. The fiscal situation deteriorated sharply, as the overall deficit (including grants) widened to 6.5 percent of GDP in 1996 from 3.6 percent in 1993. Government revenue declined, reflecting the contraction in the tax base as a result of the disruption from the civil war and the depressed economic conditions. Despite the decline in government revenue, however, current expenditure remained high, with military and security outlays absorbing a large proportion of total current outlays. These developments, combined with the cessation of foreign financing flows, led to the emergence of large domestic financing requirements, which were met in large measure through bank financing and the accumulation of domestic and external arrears.

3. The external current account (excluding grants) narrowed significantly during 1993-95, owing mainly to strong international export prices for coffee and subdued demand for imports. This trend continued in 1996 with a further compression of imports stemming from a sharp reduction in project aid and the economic embargo. Despite the narrowing of the external current account (excluding grants), the overall balance of payments shifted from a surplus of 0.2 percent of GDP in 1995 to a deficit of 7.3 percent mainly as a result of a sharp drop in external financial assistance. These developments led to a marked decline in official international reserves and the emergence of a large discount—more than 50 percent—on the exchange rate in the parallel market.

B. Overall Developments in Supply and Demand2

4. In 1996, real GDP declined further by 8.4 percent in real terms and amounted only to 82 percent of the 1993 level, which was the turnaround year (Table 1). The primary sector, which accounts for about 50 percent of total value added, recovered modestly in 1996 after a cumulative decline of about 19 percent in real terms during 1993-95, caused mainly by the dislocation of farmers as a result of the civil war.3 The recovery of agricultural production is attributed mainly to an improvement in the security situation. Despite this recovery, however, primary sector production remained far below the levels achieved before the civil war, and Burundi, which was self-sufficient in food before the war, became dependent on food imports. Value added in the manufacturing sector, which is mainly agricultural based, dropped by 23 percent in real terms in 1996 after a decline of about 34 percent during the 1993-95 period. This decline reflected the weak performance of the agriculture sector, feeble domestic demand, and power and input shortages caused by acts of sabotage and, more recently, the economic embargo. Moreover, a sharp depreciation of the Burundi franc substantially raised production costs. As in previous years, output in the construction sector also declined in 1996—by 8 percent in real terms—mirroring the move toward a virtual standstill in foreign-financed projects. Activities in the private service sector were also severely curtailed by the disruption of trading routes as a result of both the war and the embargo, and the total real value added of the private sector in 1996 amounted to only 60 percent of the 1993 level. However, public services remained broadly unchanged, reflecting especially the growth of spending on security, which offset cuts in other areas of government services.

5. Consumption is estimated to have dropped by 13.9 percent in real terms in 1996, following a decline of 7.6 percent in 1995 (Table 4). The decline was caused mainly by a decrease in private sector consumption stemming, in turn, from the fall in disposable incomes and the increase in economic uncertainty; public sector consumption in constant prices also dropped by 18.8 percent in 1996, reflecting the tightness of public finances. Gross domestic investment, which had already weakened substantially over the past several years because of the social strife, stabilized at a low level of 8.8 percent of GDP in 1996, compared with 15.7 percent in 1993 (Table 3). Public investment, which represents the bulk of domestic investment, increased by some 1 percent in real terms in 1996 after recording a cumulative decline of 38 percent over the 1993-95 period because of the dwindling of foreign financed projects. Private investment was adversely affected by the increase in economic uncertainty and amounted to only 1.4 percent of GDP in 1996, compared with an average of about 3 percent before the civil war.

6. The rate of inflation accelerated during the recent years of conflict, reaching an average level of 26.4 percent in 1996, up from 9.7 percent in 1993 (Table 15). The four factors that contributed to the acceleration of prices were (1) the decline in domestic production, particularly that of foodstuffs, whose prices rose by a cumulative 103 percent during 1993-96; (2) the economic embargo, which led to a limited supply of imported goods, including fuel and health-related products; (3) the depreciation of the Burundi franc; and (4) expansionary financial policies (see below). The rate of inflation accelerated to 45 percent in the 12 months ended May 1997 but slowed in June 1997 to some 35 percent following the partial removal of economic sanctions.

C. Public Sector Policies

Fiscal developments4

7. The deterioration of the fiscal accounts of the government that had started in 1993 with the onset of the civil war continued in 1996.5 The overall fiscal deficit (including grants) rose by about 3 percent of GDP to 6.5 percent in 1996, compared with a deficit of 1.8 percent of GDP envisaged under the original budget (Table 16). This deterioration reflected mainly a drop in revenue collection. Similarly the current primary balance, which is perhaps the most closely controllable fiscal balance of the authorities, recorded a surplus of only 0.6 percent of GDP in 1996, compared with 3.7 percent under the original budget.

8. Total government revenue (excluding grants) dropped to 12.3 percent of GDP in 1996 from about 14.4 percent in 1995, as the tax base contracted and tax collection declined. Revenue from taxes on goods and services, which accounts for some 40 percent of total tax revenue, decreased by about 1.3 percent of GDP, mirroring the weak domestic demand (Table 17).6 Receipts from international trade taxes dropped by 2 percent of GDP because of the decline in imports stemming from the economic embargo and the subdued domestic demand. Income tax collections remained unchanged in terms of GDP in 1996; however, the level was almost 1.5 percent of GDP lower than in 1993. Nontax revenue rose by 1 percent of GDP in 1996 to 2 percent as a result of dividend and profit transfers from the central bank. Foreign grants, which used to amount to some 9 percent of GDP before the civil war, fell to about 2 percent of GDP in 1996 as donors reduced their activities in Burundi to strictly humanitarian interventions.

9. In 1996, government expenditure and net lending, which had dropped by close to 9 percentage points of GDP since 1993, remained broadly in line with the original budget (Table 19). However, there was a shift in the distribution of government outlays, with capital expenditure and nonmilitary current outlays absorbing the brunt of expenditure cuts. Overruns on current expenditure amounted to 0.6 percent of GDP. They stemmed primarily from the wage bill, which rose by about 19 percent in 1996, reflecting not only the effects of wage drift and a general wage increase, but also possibly an expansion of military and security-related personnel.7 Consequently, the share of the wage bill in total current outlays increased to 47.6 percent in 1996, compared with 40 percent in 1995. Expenditure on goods and services edged up slightly compared with the original budget, as the sharp rise in military outlays more than offset a decline in civilian expenditure. Transfers and subsidies declined in 1996, as international relief organizations increased their refugee-related activities outside the budget. Scheduled interest on public sector debt remained unchanged as a proportion of GDP between 1995 and 1996, although it declined by 0.2 percent of GDP from the 1993 level.

10. Capital expenditure was drastically curtailed to 7.5 percent of GDP in 1996, down from 12.4 percent in 1993, because of the abatement of foreign financing. Project lending and capital grants, which amounted to FBu 23.7 billion (10 percent of GDP) in 1993, declined to only FBu 17.4 billion (5 percent of GDP) in 1996.

11. The financing requirement of the deficit (commitment basis) increased to 6.5 percent of GDP in 1996 (compared with about 4 percent in 1995) and was met mainly through domestic borrowing and the accumulation of domestic and external arrears. Correspondingly, domestic arrears rose by FBu 2.6 billion to an estimated overall level of FBu 4.2 billion (some US$14 million, or 1.2 percent of GDP), and external arrears increased by FBu 6.3 billion8(about US$21 million, or 1.8 percent of GDP).9

12. The shift in expenditure priorities adversely affected the social sectors. Government expenditure devoted to education and health sectors decreased from about 5.4 percent of GDP in 1993 to 4.1 percent in 1996. During the same period, military and security-related activities rose to 4.3 percent of GDP from 3.6 percent; total military expenditure absorbed about 21 percent of total government outlays in 1996, compared with some 12 percent in 1993.

13. The budget for 1997 that was issued on January 27, 1997 envisages a reduction in the overall deficit (excluding grants) of about 2 percent of GDP. Total revenue (excluding grants) is projected to decline by about 3.5 percent of GDP to about 9 percent in part because of the lackluster performance of the secondary and services sectors in 1996,10 as well as the projected sharp decline in nontax revenue. The budget does not envisage new tax measures, except for the solidarity tax (Contribution à la Solidarité Nationale), whose yield would amount to almost 1 percent of GDP. In light of the yet unsettled social and political situation, official grants are assumed to remain at the 1996 level in nominal terms. Total government expenditure is foreseen to decrease to 15 percent of GDP from 20.5 percent in 1996. Current outlays are to decline by 1.3 percent of GDP, reflecting mainly cuts in nonmilitary outlays. Capital expenditure is budgeted to be reduced further by 4 percent of GDP to some 3 percent. The public investment program is planned to emphasize priority sectors, such as health and education. Financing of the deficit is expected to be met almost exclusively through borrowing from the banking system, and the 1997 budget foresees that the statutory limit on government advances from the central bank—which was 10 percent of previous year’s revenue—will be raised to a level of 25 percent.

Public enterprises11

14. As of end-1996, there were 54 public enterprises. The government is the majority shareholder of 36 enterprises (Category A) and the minority shareholder of the remaining 18 enterprises (Category B). The activities of the Category A enterprises are concentrated in the coffee and tea sectors, cotton and textile production, and service activities such as banking and hotels, as well as utilities and telecommunications. Category B enterprises are involved mainly in banking activities, beer production, and some manufacturing production. Total turnover of public enterprises amounted to about FBu 49 billion in 1995 (16 percent of GDP) and was dominated by beer production (34 percent) and utilities (19 percent). Public enterprises employed an estimated 8,888 persons in 1995, with most of them working in cotton and textile production, the water and electricity company, and beer production.

15. The net profitability of public enterprises worsened in 1995, as losses rose to about FBu 5.3 billion (1.7 percent of GDP) from FBu 0.6 billion (0.2 percent of GDP) in 1994. The major profit-making entities were the beer, telecommunication, and sugar companies. Public enterprises have made only limited payments of dividends to the government since the mid-1980s. Moreover, as of end-1996, they had accumulated substantial arrears on their debt service on loans on-lent by the government (about FBu 10 billion, or 2.9 percent of GDP) and on taxes (FBu 2 billion, or 0.6 percent of GDP).

D. Money and Banking 12

Developments in monetary and credit aggregates

16. Developments in monetary and credit aggregates since the outbreak of the civil war have been dominated by weak private sector credit and an increase in the government’s domestic financing requirements. The Bank of the Republic of Burundi, which in the past set broad money growth targets below growth rates projected for nominal GDP in order to contain inflationary pressures, was forced to relax monetary policy targets to meet the government’s borrowing requirements. Moreover, the interest rate policy of the central bank was relaxed in order to keep the cost of financing low not only for the government but also for commercial banks,13 whose financial situations had weakened as a result of depressed economic conditions.

17. Broad money growth accelerated to almost 15 percent in 1996, compared with a growth in nominal GDP of 12 percent (Table 31). The expansion of currency in circulation and the increase in time and savings deposits, mainly from public enterprises, were the main sources of growth in broad money. Private sector credit increased by 15 percent of the end-1995 broad money stock; however, this strong growth reflected delays in the repayment of seasonal export credits, mainly to the coffee sector, because of difficulties experienced in exporting goods as a result of the economic embargo. Owing to the worsening of the fiscal accounts, net credit to the government grew strongly over the past three years; by end-1996, its cumulative contribution to broad money growth amounted to more than 34 percent, with a contribution of 12 percent in 1996 alone. The central bank was the main source of credit to the government, not least through special conventions that allowed the government to borrow from the central bank up to 28 percent of the previous year’s fiscal revenue, compared with a statutory ceiling of 10 percent.14 Government borrowing from commercial banks and other financial institutions also rose sharply, and outstanding treasury certificates held by these institutions increased to about FBu 11 billion in 1996 from FBu 4 billion in 1995 (Table 35). Because of the weak export performance and the decline in foreign financial assistance, net foreign assets declined in 1996 by almost 16 percent of the end-1995 broad money stock. Despite the increase in inflation in 1996, domestic nominal interest rates remained stable (Table 37).15 This stability was due mainly to low private sector credit demand and the commercial banks’ unlimited access to the refinancing window of the central bank,16 as well as to the central bank’s policy of keeping the refinancing rate and reserve requirement ratio unchanged.17 These policy measures were adopted to avoid increasing the cost of financing to the banking system, whose financial situation was adversely affected by the depressed economic conditions. Moreover, given that the central bank informally uses the refinancing rate as a reference for treasury bill rates, the refinancing rate was kept unchanged to reduce the cost of borrowing for the government. These developments, together with the acceleration of inflation, resulted in the emergence of large negative real interest rates.

18. Monetary and credit developments for the first quarter of 1997 continued the trends observed in 1996. Broad money grew by 21 percent during the 12 months ended in March 1997. Domestic credit developments were dominated by continued strong growth in government borrowing from the banking system, which accelerated to about 27 percent of the end-March 1996 stock of broad money. In contrast, private sector credit growth remained sluggish, owing to the repayments of bank-financed export credits and the continued weakness of the economy. Domestic interest rates remained substantially negative in real terms.

Banking system developments

19. As noted earlier, the financial situation of the banking system deteriorated in 1996 and through the first quarter of 1997. Weaknesses were evident in a number of financial indicators. For commercial banks, the ratio of nonperforming loans increased to FBu 5.7 billion at end-1996 from FBu 4.8 at end-1995, but the level of nonperforming loans remained at end-March almost unchanged from that of end-1996 level. However, the liquidity situation of commercial banks, which had weakened during 1996, recovered somewhat in the first quarter of 1997. In addition, the capital assets ratio of commercial banks, which had dropped under the influence of the Meridian Bank crisis in 1995, increased from 11.3 percent at end-1996 to 16.6 percent in March 1997.18 Nonperforming loans of nonbank financial institutions declined from FBu 4.9 billion at end-1995 to FBu 4.7 billion at end-1996 before rising to FBu 5.6 billion at end-March 1997. Reflecting these developments and a less forceful provisioning, the capital assets ratio of nonbank institutions also deteriorated over the December 1995-March 1997 period, from 22.4 percent to 18.5 percent.

E. The External Sector19

20. The external current account deficit (excluding grants) narrowed from 11.5 percent of GDP in 1995 to about 10 percent of GDP in 1996, compared with some 20 percent in 1993 (Table 38). This narrowing stemmed mainly from the sharp and unsustainable reduction of imports, which, in turn, was due to the large decline in external financial assistance and, more recently, the effects of the economic embargo.

21. The trade deficit widened slightly as a percentage of GDP in 1996, reflecting a drastic reduction in exports that more than offset the drop in imports. Developments in the export sector were largely dominated by coffee, which accounts for more than 70 percent of total merchandise exports. Coffee exports, which had remained strong in 1994-95 thanks to good weather and strong international export prices, plummeted by more than 50 percent in volume in 1996 because of the adverse effects of the economic embargo. This decline was accompanied by a 31 percent drop in the realized export price for coffee (in U.S. dollar terms), owing in part to a deterioration in the quality of Burundi’s coffee exports caused by the volatile social situation. After remaining rather flat in nominal terms during 1992-95, the value of tea exports also dropped significantly in 1996 to only about one-half of the 1992 level (Table 40). Manufacturing exports, dominated by consumer goods, were adversely affected by power and input shortages. Other exports, such as hides and skins, cotton, and other primary products, also suffered from the various effects of the civil war and the economic embargo.

22. The deficit in the services account declined in 1996 by about US$30 million (2.6 percent of GDP), primarily owing to lower payments on freight and merchandise insurance on imports, as well as on travel-related services. This decrease was also influenced by the sharp decline in payments on external technical assistance that accompanied the civil war and the freezing of project aid. Reflecting the dwindling of foreign official grants, unrequited official transfers amounted to only US$56.3 million (5 percent of GDP), compared with US$136.1 million (11 percent of GDP) in 1995 and US$163.4 million (16.8 percent of GDP) in 1993.

23. The capital account of the balance of payments shifted to a deficit of US$26.4 million (2.3 percent of GDP) in 1996 from a surplus of US$7.7 million (0.6 percent) in 1995. The largest change in the components of the capital account occurred in the item “other capital,” which includes short-term capital, and errors and omissions. The large swing of this item from a surplus of US$1.5 million to a deficit of US$33.8 million appears to capture the net flow of unofficial external transactions after the imposition of economic sanctions. This swing may also reflect some unrecorded capital outflows. In the event, the overall balance of payments recorded a deficit of US$83 million (7.3 percent of GDP) in 1996, compared with a surplus of US$2.4 million (0.2 percent of GDP) in 1995. The deficit of the balance of payments was financed through a substantial drawdown of reserves and a further accumulation of arrears on external debt service.

24. Burundi has over the past several years suffered under a large and rising external debt burden. At end-1996, the outstanding external debt (excluding arrears) stood at US$1.1 billion and represented about 100 percent of GDP (Table 46). At the same time, debt service in percent of exports of goods and services amounted to 123 percent. The structure of external debt in Burundi is heavily weighted toward multilateral debt (mainly from the World Bank and the African Development Bank), which accounts for more than 80 percent of total debt.

25. The official exchange rate is pegged to a weighted basket of currencies of the principal trading partners and adjusted periodically by the central bank in response to domestic and external price developments. During the 1993-96 period, the central bank devalued the official exchange rate in a number of discretionary steps by a cumulative total of about 24 percent. However, despite these measures, the real effective exchange rate appreciated by about 16 percent between January 1993 and June 1996—a month before the imposition of the embargo—mainly owing to Burundi’s inflation differential with its trading partners (Figure 11). During the 12 months ended June 1997, the real effective exchange rate appreciated further by about 27 percent, as the inflation differential between Burundi and its trading partners widened as a result of the effects of the embargo and the expansionary financial policies. Since July 1996, the discount on the official exchange rate soared in the parallel market, sometimes reaching levels well over 50 percent.

II. The Coffee Sector20

A. Overview

1. This chapter describes the coffee sector in Burundi: its importance in the economy, its organization, and the main elements of its reform program. The chapter provides a detailed description of the operators at the stages of production, processing, and marketing of coffee; it also discusses the taxation of the sector, the pricing policy at the level of the producers, and the pricing schedule at the level of the processing of coffee. Finally, the chapter reviews the privatization and the liberalization program of the coffee sector and shows that limited progress was made in these areas.

2. Coffee is the most important cash crop in Burundi.21 During 1990-93, coffee production accounted for 3.2 percent of GDP at constant prices, and coffee exports made up 74 percent of Burundi’s total export receipts. High-altitude arabica coffee is Burundi’s most important export crop. Annual exportable production averaged 35,000 tons during the early 1990s. Burundi also produces some robusta at lower altitudes; however, the production of this lower-quality coffee has tended to decline. In 1991, the total area used for coffee production amounted to about 115,000 hectares, representing about 4 percent of total land area, and the total number of coffee trees was estimated at about 200 million. Arabica is grown on a large number of smallholdings supporting about 50 percent of the rural population, while export grade robusta is grown on industrial plantations. A typical arabica smallholding may contain between 80 and 100 coffee trees. Yields are not particularly high by international standards and vary widely from 300 kilograms to 1,000 kilograms of clean, or export-grade, coffee per hectare, with yield per tree at times as low as 200-260 grams.22 The poor yields reflect low or nonexistent use of fertilizers. For small farmers, coffee revenue typically represents 40 percent to 60 percent of their cash income. For the government budget, revenues from coffee exports have fluctuated widely in the past in response to changes in international prices for coffee. During periods of weak international coffee prices, important budgetary transfers to the coffee sector have been made in support of producer prices and the functioning of processing enterprises.

3. Under a reform program supported by the World Bank and the Caisse Française de Développement (1990-96), the coffee sector has undergone some major structural changes. As a result, coffee extension and crop protection services that used to be carried out by the Office des Cultures Industrielles du Burundi (OCIBU), are now being undertaken by the Ministry of Agriculture. The management and operations of the washing stations were transferred from the regional development companies to five autonomous entities called Sociétés de Gestion des Stations de Lavage (SOGESTALs);23 the management and operations of the hulling factories were transferred from OCIBU to an autonomous entity called Société de Déparchage et de Conditionnement (SODECO). Finally, the assets of the SOGESTALs and SODECO were pooled under an entity called the Service du Patrimoine.

4. The reform program helped to (1) abolish the marketing monopoly of Burundi Coffee Company (BCC) in favor of an auction system directly managed by OCIBU and allowing for the participation of private exporters; (2) narrow the borrowing role of OCfBU by allowing operators in the coffee sector to borrow directly from domestic and foreign financial institutions; and (3) replace the government levy on the coffee sector’s surplus by an export tax. However, two main elements of the reform program, the privatization of the coffee industry and the liberalization of prices for producers and intermediaries, have so far met with only limited success.

5. The civil war that started in 1993 has added to already existing difficulties and inefficiencies, many of which were attributed to the policy of fixing producer prices and to the predominant role of the state in processing and marketing. A major problem has been the lack of supply response to the earlier planting and construction programs, reflected in the stagnation of the coffee production capacity and in falling production trends in the most recent harvesting seasons. Other concerns are the decline in the productivity of coffee holdings and a deterioration in the quality of coffee. In particular, the share of high-quality, “fully washed” arabica dropped from about 64.5 percent of total fully washed production in crop year 1992/93 (May-April) to about 36.9 percent in 1996/97 (Table 8). Similarly, the share of high-quality coffee in the “semiwashed” category dropped from 56.3 percent in 1992/93 to 25.9 percent in 1996/97. The deterioration in productivity and quality has been attributed primarily to poor crop husbandry and inadequate use of inputs, including fertilizers and insecticides, all of which suffered as a result of the civil war.

B. Organization of the Coffee Sector24

The state’s coffee agency (OCIBU)25

6. OCIBU is the regulatory and coordinating authority responsible for formulating government policy and strategy on coffee production, processing, marketing, research, and training.26 OCIBU has been entrusted with the role of developing the coffee sector by assisting coffee growers, organizing planting programs, distributing fertilizers and insecticides to farmers, and maintaining access roads to coffee fields. Its principal functions include the organization and regulation of operations of the coffee industry, the implementation of a payments schedule for every coffee season, the remuneration of services to all operators in the industry in line with a detailed payments matrix, the collection of coffee taxes on behalf of the government, and the management of the stabilization fund for the coffee industry. OCIBU is also responsible for establishing quality standards and classification systems and for monitoring the financial results and performance of the industry. It manages the Service du Patrimoine, which is attached to it. OCIBU used to borrow from commercial banks on behalf of operators in the coffee industry. However, this borrowing role has recently been eliminated, and operators are now allowed to borrow directly from domestic and foreign financial institutions. At the end of the coffee transformation process, OCIBU becomes the ultimate owner of “clean” coffee, which it sells to exporters via an auction system that it manages.

Production stages

7. The arabica coffee industry is structured along the lines of its product flow and consists of two related but distinct product paths: one for semiwashed and one for fully washed coffee. Each path comprises a number of successive steps. For semiwashed coffee, these involve (1) the farmers who grow the coffee, depulp the harvested coffee cherries (by hand or by manual depulpers), and sell the resulting parchment coffee to market traders; (2) the traders who collect and resell the parchment coffee to the SODECO hulling factories; (3) the SODECO factories that hull the parchment coffee into clean exportable coffee and sell it to OCIBU; and (4) OCIBU, which sells the coffee to exporters on the auction market.

8. The fully washed coffee path differs from the semiwashed coffee path in that, in the former path, (1) farmers deliver and sell the coffee cherries immediately after harvesting them to coffee-washing stations operated by the SOGESTALs, and (2) the washing stations then convert the cherries into parchment coffee, which they deliver and sell to the SODECO hulling factories. The fully washed path eliminates the need for the farmers to depulp the cherry and dry the parchment coffee. It also eliminates the intervention of the trader middleman. The two products generally have different end uses: semiwashed coffee is mostly used as bulk while fully washed coffee is mostly used as “blender” to enhance the body and flavor of the bulk product. As a result, fully washed arabica usually sells at a premium over semiwashed arabica or other types of coffees.

9. In order to improve the quality of coffee, the authorities have attempted to increase the share of fully washed coffee in total production by constructing more washing stations. As a result, the share of fully washed coffee increased gradually from low levels to about 65 percent of total arabica production during 1994/95-1995/96 (Table 8). The effort to increase the share of fully washed coffee continues. The number of washing stations, which stood at 133 in 1996, has to increase to about 190 if the production target for fully washed coffee of about 30,000 metric tons a year is to be achieved.

10. As explained above, all washing stations are owned and operated by the SOGESTALs. The services of the SOGESTALs are remunerated according to a fee structure determined by the general payment scheme for the entire coffee industry. As a result of low remuneration and productivity, the SOGESTALs have typically depended on subsidies to cover their operating losses.

11. Two publicly owned hulling factories (SODECO), one in Bujumbura and the other in Gitiga, are responsible for processing the parchment coffee delivered to them by the SOGESTALs and private traders, sorting the green coffee that results from the processing into export-grade coffee, and bagging it for shipment. The processing capacity of SODECO is estimated at a combined 60,000 metric tons for semiwashed and fully washed coffee, by far exceeding recently observed and prospective output. The services of SODECO are also remunerated according to a fee determined by the general payment scheme. To increase competition in the coffee sector, the government has recently licensed two small-scale private hulling companies (SONICOFF and SIVCA), which have now started operations.

12. As part of the restructuring of the coffee sector, the assets of the SOGESTALs, which were previously owned by the regional development companies, and those of SODECO, previously owned by OCIBU, were transferred to a new assets management facility, Service du Patrimoine, which was established as a special organ of OCIBU. The Service du Patrimoine leases the washing stations to the SOGESTALs, and the hulling factories to SODECO. Since the washing stations and the hulling factories were constructed with the help of external loans, the objective of the government will be to ensure that the leasing revenues at least cover the amortization of these loans. In addition to its right to lease, the Service du Patrimoine will also have the authority to sell on behalf of the government the assets of the washing stations and the hulling factories to private investors.

13. Exports of coffee used to be the sole monopoly of the BCC. With the initiation of the auction system in 1993, the BCC lost its monopoly, and private exporters are now participating in the auction system. They have organized themselves into an association called the Association Burundaise des Exportateurs du Café.

Taxation of the coffee sector

14. Prior to the implementation of the coffee sector’s reform program, the government levied a portion of the surplus of the sector. When the coffee industry incurred a deficit, no levies were drawn by the government. Under the reform program, with a view to removing the unpredictability of government revenue from the coffee sector, a coffee export tax was introduced in 1991. The rate for the tax was initially set at 9 percent; however, with the firming up of coffee prices in 1994, it was increased to 31 percent. For the current 1997/98 coffee season, the rate is set at 15 percent.

The coffee sector payments system

15. Currently, the payment to each participant in the coffee chain—from production to marketing at the coffee auctions—is prescribed by a firmly established annual payment matrix, which is referred to as the “grille de rémunération qualitative.” The commission that establishes the matrix includes representatives of government ministries and agencies, as well as of farmers, washing stations, hulling factories, and exporters. It is chaired by OCIBU, which is also responsible for administering the application of this schedule. The matrix is based primarily on projections of production, export prices and sales, and on costs of the intermediaries.

16. The producer price for fully washed coffee was set at FBu 180 per kilogram in 1991/92, and was increased in steps to FBu 290 in 1996/97; it has been set at FBu 350 for the 1997/98 season. However, despite these important nominal increments and the superior quality of Burundi’s arabica, producer prices have typically remained below corresponding prices in neighboring countries and have displayed a low degree of correlation with international coffee prices. In addition, the real producer price fell over the period 1980/81-1996/97. All these developments have eroded the incentives for coffee production at the level of the farmers and have thus undermined the longer-term competitiveness of Burundi as a coffee producer and exporter. Moreover, a not insignificant—and increasing—part of production is regularly being smuggled to neighboring countries, especially during periods of low relative producer prices.

17. The payment system established by OCIBU had on many occasions to be backed up by the active use of exchange rate policy. In particular, at times when coffee export prices were declining unexpectedly or by more than was projected at the time of establishment of the payments matrix, commensurate devaluations of the exchange rate were undertaken to limit the overall deficit of the coffee industry.

18. The payment system has to a certain extent operated as a “stabilization fund.” On the one hand, it receives surplus coffee revenues during years when export proceeds exceed the cumulative remuneration of the operators in the sector, as prescribed by the payment matrix. The excess revenue is then put into deposit accounts in the name and under control of OCIBU. On the other hand, deposits of these accounts are drawn down when sales proceeds do not satisfy scheduled payments. By its statutes, the stabilization fund has to contain a minimum level of reserves equal to FBu 1 billion. However, while the financing of deficits of the coffee sector and the replenishment of the reserves account have been secured either through budgetary transfers or donors’ support, the redistribution of surplus funds remains an unresolved issue. In particular, especially during periods of tight budgetary funds, surpluses have been appropriated by the government at the expense of farmers and other operators in the coffee sector.

19. In common with other administrative pricing systems, the system practiced in Burundi has entailed important disadvantages. First, it has reduced the motivation and incentives to improve efficiency and quality. Second, it has generated high variability in government revenues. Third, the system has at times required an adjustment in the exchange rate in order to dampen wide fluctuations in international coffee prices. Finally, it has led to the emergence of the OCIBU as the system’s main beneficiary.

C. Reform of the Coffee Sector

20. The government has recognized the need for further reform of the coffee sector in general, and the administered payment system in particular. As a result, it has embarked on a new reform strategy that seeks to increase efficiency and will allow a broader role for market signals and mechanisms.

Coffee sector strategy

21. Given the importance of the coffee sector, the government has declared it a “strategic sector.” The government’s objective is to maximize export earnings from the sector by exploiting the country’s comparative advantage as a relatively low-cost producer of high-quality arabica. The major elements of the strategy to achieve this objective are to (1) improve the efficiency at the processing level through private sector involvement, competition and market-based prices, and greater specialization; (2) introduce quality incentives at the producer and transformation level; (3) invest in technology and facilities that enhance the quality of coffee; (4) improve efficiency at the marketing level; and (d) rationalize the regulatory function for the sector through the establishment of a new regulatory authority, the Office du Café. The initial time frame for implementing this strategy was the period covered by the coffee sector project, 1991-95. However, given the protracted delays in carrying out reforms, the time horizon has now been extended to 1999.

Institutional reforms

22. Under the new reform strategy, the involvement of the private sector will be strengthened while the government’s role will be curtailed. Consequently, OCIBU will be transformed into the Office du Café, whose membership will include representatives of all participants in the industry as well as the government. This institutional reform will require OCIBU to relinquish many of its present functions, including price setting and marketing functions. It will also place the principal emphasis of the new Office du Café on the rationalization, coordination, and development functions of OCIBU.

23. The establishment of the Service du Patrimoine has centralized the administration of the government-owned physical assets in the industry. Most of these assets are leased to the SOGESTALs and SODECO. Under the reform program, the Service du Patrimoine is called upon to initiate the sales of government shares to the private sector. The SOGESTALs and SODECO, in turn, will have the critical responsibility of ensuring the proper technical management of the washing stations and the hulling factories, respectively. The SOGESTALs and SODECO have to be operated as autonomous entities on a private enterprise basis, and the government will ensure that they are given all the autonomy needed to operate as efficiently as they would under conditions of private ownership.

Private sector participation in the coffee sector

24. Except for activities connected with the production on small farms, the intermediate handling of semiwashed parchment coffee by market traders, and some transport, all other industrial activities related to arabica coffee are currently fully owned, controlled, and operated by the government or its agencies. It is now accepted that their performance can be improved through a greater degree of competition in the industry, given the built-in inefficiencies of these institutions, which operate simultaneously as monopolies in other activities and as branches of the administration, as well as the inadequacy of the payment system. Under its structural adjustment program, the government has agreed in principle to restructure the industry and open it to private investment. In considering the private sector’s participation, the government felt that (1) access by private investors to industry assets and activities should be introduced gradually; (2) the measures that allow private investors’ access to the industry should include safeguards to prevent abuses; and (3) industry-wide institutional reforms should provide the government with a continued regulatory role over the industry.

25. The privatization of the coffee sector has moved slowly so far. While private exporters are now fully participating in the exporting of coffee and two private companies have been licensed in the coffee hulling activity, the principal measures under the privatization program, which include the sale of part of government shares in the SOGESTALs and SODECO to private investors, have not yet started because the Service du Patrimoine has not been given the necessary legal authority. The delays in the privatization program can be attributed to a number of factors, including the lack of coordination between the Service in Charge of Public Enterprises and the Interministerial Committee on Privatization; delays in enacting the legislative texts that would enable the government to implement its privatization program; the shortage of financial means in the private sector and, thus, of private buyers; and the insufficient incentives persisting under the prevailing remuneration and price-setting policy.

Price liberalization

26. The liberalization of the current pricing system will constitute one of the most important reforms in Burundi’s coffee sector. The new system will convert the current system of fixed producer prices into a floor price system and, thereby, allow for the direct transmission of rising higher international coffee prices to the farmers. The new system is therefore likely to improve their real incomes. More generally, farmers will be paid on the basis of quality differences, market conditions, and increased competition. An eventual removal of floor prices and full liberalization of producer prices is also under consideration. Moreover, the reform of the pricing system will allow the SOGESTALs, SODECO, and private operators to determine their purchase and selling prices within the constraint, initially, of the floor producer price, and to have greater freedom in controlling and recovering their costs and seeking the highest market prices possible. The ownership of clean, exportable, quality coffee will no longer be the monopoly of OCIBU; it could belong to any operator, including farmers, provided that the final products meet the quality standards and classification system set currently by OCIBU, and later by the Office du Café.

27. Similar to the privatization program, price liberalization in the coffee sector has suffered setbacks and, as a result, has not yet been implemented. Consequently, the coffee industry continues to operate according to the payments matrix managed by OCIBU. One of the main reasons for the delay is the argument made by the opponents of liberalization that farmers would not be protected against the bargaining power of some larger operators, such as the washing or the hulling companies, and may end up earning less on their coffee than the floor price. Consequently, supporters of this argument favor the formation of farmers’ associations as a precondition for liberalization. Another reason for delay is the government’s reluctance to relinquish its direct control over the coffee sector, which, in their view, is of strategic importance for the country. However, the pricing system as it now stands is not efficient and has operated in many instances as a disincentive to production.

D. Conclusion

28. Coffee is a key sector in the Burundi economy. Over the past ten years, production has stagnated, and a reform program designed to address the structural problems has drawn to a virtual standstill. In particular, the privatization and price liberalization initiatives have made little, if any, progress, resulting in further delays in the necessary strengthening of coffee production and exports. Similarly, investment plans for enhancing farm yields and coffee quality have not yet been formulated. Burundi’s coffee sector also appears to have lost some of its competitive edge as a result of the liberalization of the coffee sectors in neighboring countries. While the stagnation in the coffee sector has without doubt also been affected by the civil war in the country, a large part of the problem lies in the continued rigidities that reduce the strength and responsiveness of the sector. To promote the healthy development of this sector to its full potential, the government will need to take decisive and timely steps to implement the pending reforms.

Figure 1.Burundi: Real sector, 1992-96

(Annual changes in percent)

Sources: Burundi authorities; and Fund staff estimates.

Figure 2.Burundi: Fiscal indicators, 1992-96

(In percent of GDP)

Sources: Burundi authorities; and Fund staff estimates.

1/ Defined as government revenues minus current expenditures, excluding scheduled interest payments.

Figure 3.Burundi: Central government revenue and expenditure, 1992-96

(In percent of GDP)

Sources: Burundi authorities; and Fund staff estimates.

Figure 4.Burundi: Education and health expenditure, 1992-96.

Sources: Burundi authorities; and Fund staff estimates.

Figure 5.Burundi: Military expenditure, 1992-97

Sources: Burundi authorities; and Fund staff estimates.

Figure 6.Burundi: Money and credit, 1992-96

(Annual changes in percent of beginning-of-year broad money stock)

Sources: Burundi authorities; and Fund staff estimates.

Figure 7.Burundi: Nominal and real interest rates, 1992-96

Sources: Burundi authorities; and Fund staff estimates.

Figure 8.Burundi: The external sector indicators, 1992-96.

(In percent of GDP)

Sources: Burundi authorities; and Fund staff estimates.

Figure 9.Burundi: Composition of trade, 1992 and 1996

(In percent of total value)

Sources: Burundi authorities; and Fund staff estimates.

Figure 10:Burundi: Medium-and long-term official external debt by creditor, 1992 and 1996.

(In percent of total stock outstanding)

Sources: Burundi authorities; and Fund staff estimates.

Figure 11.Burundi: Selected exchange rate indices, January 1990-June 1997

(1990=100; foreign currency per Burundi franc)

Sources: IMF, International Financial Statistics.

1/ Information Notice System multilateral weights based on the geographical pattern of trade and tourism and Including third-market effects in 1988-90 on average.

2/ Based on relative consumer prices.

3/ The ratio of the domestic price index to the weighted average of the partner country indices.

Figure 12.Burundi: Structure of the Coffee Sector

APPENDIX I Burundi: Summary of Exchange and Trade System

(At end-June 1997)

Exchange rate system

1. The Burundi franc was pegged to the SDR until April 1, 1992, when a new foreign exchange system was introduced. Since then, the Burundi franc has been pegged to a basket of currencies that reflects the pattern of Burundi’s international trade. On May 31, 1997, the official exchange rate for the FBu was 339.81 per US$1.

Trade and payments system

2. During the 1992-93 period, Burundi made progress in liberalizing its exchange and trade system. The authority for implementing foreign exchange regulations was delegated to commercial banks, allowing them to hold foreign exchange up to 10 percent of their capital, and to manage freely their foreign assets. Holdings above the ceiling have to be approved by the Bank of the Republic of Burundi. Commercial banks are authorized to buy and sell foreign exchange at rates that they set freely within a spread of 1 percent below and above the central rate quoted by the Bank of the Republic of Burundi.

3. An open general licensing system was established in May 1992. Also, import licenses were replaced by an import declaration for statistical purposes.

4. Export licenses were replaced in May 1992 by an export declaration for statistical purposes, and exporters of nontraditional products were allowed to retain up to 30 percent of their export proceeds.1 In August 1992, a free trade zone was established, granting tax and customs duty exemptions for enterprises that elect to operate under this regime. In addition, at the start of the 1992/93 coffee crop year, coffee exporters were authorized to borrow in foreign exchange.

5. In July 1992, the limits on transfers of foreign nationals’ incomes earned in Burundi were raised, from 60 percent to 70 percent. A higher limit of 80 percent was introduced for expatriates working for firms that have at least 50 percent of their turnover accounted for by exports.

6. In November 1992, banks were authorized to open foreign accounts for enterprises established under the free trade zone regime, to be funded by the surrender of foreign exchange earnings. At the same time, Burundi nationals residing abroad were authorized to hold foreign exchange accounts at Burundi banks to be funded from transfers from their incomes.

7. In December 1995, the two remaining exchange restrictions (namely, limits on the transfer of rental income and on granting of travel allowances) were removed. Therefore, while Burundi continues to avail itself of the transitional arrangements under Article XIV, Section 2, it no longer retains any exchange restrictions thereunder.

APPENDIX II Burundi: Summary of the Tax System, End-December 1996

(All amounts in Burundi francs)



With an overall ceiling of 50 percent of taxable income.
TaxNature of TaxExemptions and DeductionsRates
1.Taxes on income and profits
1.1Tax on companies (Tax Code II, Impôt sur les revenus professionnels, Arts. 27-94).Annual tax on all net profits received by Burundi and foreign companies from Burundi sources. Realized capital gains are included in the profits. The purchase price of the assets may be adjusted so as to exclude gains that result from increases in the general price level. However, gains resulting from revaluation are subject to taxes if these gains are simply stated. Appreciation gains that have materialized are also subject to taxes.Companies benefiting from the Investment Code are taxed accordingly.



Incomes covered by an international convention ratified by Burundi are exempt.



Temporary exemptions for a period of ten years are given to enterprises operating in the free trade zone.
A 45 percent rate of tax on profits is applied. A minimum payment of 1 percent of turnover is levied on enterprises whose earnings are less than the turnover multiplied by a coefficient equal to 0.02222.



After the expiration of the ten-year exemption period, a rate of 15 percent is applied.
Export firms are exempt.



Cooperative companies are exempt.
A 50 percent tax rate on profits gained from exports is levied.
Leasing and hire-purchase companies are exempt during a period spanning up to eight years.
1.2Taxes on individuals
1.2.1On rental income (Tax Code II, Impôt sur les revenus locatifs, Arts. 4-12).Annual schedular tax on rental income obtained from property located in Burundi. It includes the housing indemnity given to employees occupying their own house. Taxable rent corresponds to “gross rent” after making a standard deduction of 20 percent and a deduction of mortgage interest paid to banks. The tax on rental income from property has been transferred to the municipality of Bujumbura (Law No. 1/001 of 2/2/84), and to the Communes (Law No. 1/003 of 1/8/87).Central government, local governments, and decentralized central government units are exempt. Rental is income exempted under international agreement ratified by Burundi. New buildings are exempt up to four years maximum. (Decree Law No. 1/19 of 7/10/78.)
Marginal Tax Rates Income (FBu)Rate (percent)
0 - 200,00020
200,001 - 400,00025
400,001 - 600,00030
600,001 - 800,00040
800,001 - 1,000,00045
1,000,001 - 1,500,00050
1,500,001 and over60
The following exemptions on capital income are granted:
• for a period of three years on new residential buildings;
• for a period of four years on new commercial, industrial, and craft buildings; and
• for a period of two years on new buildings, other than those mentioned above.
1.2.2Capital income (Tax Code II, Impôt mobilier, Arts. 13-26).Annual schedular tax on dividends, interest, and other revenue derived from equity ownership in companies. Distributed income of foreign companies is set on an inclusive basis at 48 percent of all net profits. The tax is withheld at source by the companies.Exemptions are granted under the Investment Code.



Enterprises under the free zone regime are exempt for their lifetime.
20 percent.
1.2.3On other income (Tax Code II, Impôt sur les revenus professionnels, Arts. 27-94).Annual schedular tax on all profits, wage income, income from liberal professions, or any other income, the source of which is an activity on Burundi territory and which is not yet taxed under another schedular tax. Expenses necessary to obtain these incomes and to maintain their regularity are deductible from gross income. Similarly, expenses unrelated to the exercise of the profession, such as travel, medical, and canteen expenses, and contributions to social security are also deductible. For liberal professions, these expenditures are limited to a maximum of 25 percent or FBu 300,000, whichever is higher. Income in kind is included in the tax base. Free housing is valued at 10 percent of the revenues obtained in connection with the activity for which these housing facilities are granted. The tax is withheld at source on salaries above FBu 100,500 per annum.Pensions, royalties, and the allowances that were paid in accordance with the legislation regulating the payment of these funds are exempt. Contractual withholdings for the pension, life insurance, social security, or profit funds are considered as professional expenses and are deductible.



Income covered under international conventions ratified by Burundi is exempt.



Medical expenses and annual-leave-related travel expenses are exempt.



Losses incurred by liberal professions during the past four years are exempt.
Marginal Tax Rates Turnover (FBu) Rate(FBu) Percent
0 - 100,0000
100,001 - 200,00012
200,001 - 300,00015
300,001 - 400,00019
400,001 - 500,00023
500,001 - 600,00027
600,001 - 700,00031
700,001 - 800,00035
800,001 - 900,00040
900,001 - 1,000,00041
1,000,001 - 2,000,00043
2,000,001 - 3,000,00047
3,000,001 - 4,000,00055
4,000,001 and over60
A rate of 1 percent is applied if the individual establishment has realized earnings that are less than the turnover multiplied by a coefficient equal to 0.0222.
For coffee exports, the minimum tax is equal to the turnover figure multiplied by 0.25 percent, instead of 1 percent.
A tax on the earnings of wholesalers of beer and soft drinks is levied on 0.55 percent of the factory price.
Exemptions under the Investment Code apply.



Individual enterprises under the free zone regime are exempt for ten years.
Other Income (FBu)Rate (percent)
Occasional incomes40
End-career allowances 0 - 500,000 500,000+15
Income collected after end of professional activity30
Support to relative: FBu 1,350/person Maximum: 4 persons
Individual export enterprises.50 percent deduction of profits from exports.
2.Taxes on property
2.1Real estate (Tax Code I, Impôt foncier, Arts. 2-38).A specific tax payable by the owner or the person having the use of a property. In November 1983, it was decided to transfer this tax to the local authorities. The tax has been transferred to the Municipality of Bujumbura (Law No. 1/002 of 2/4/84), and to all communes (Law No. 1/003 of 1/8/87).Agricultural land under cultivation or used as pasture for cattle; buildings used by the government or by nonprofit organizations, whether owned by them or rented to them; sports fields; buildings used for religious purposes; and property belonging to individuals with less than FBu 36,000 annual income are all exempt. In addition, buildings can be exempted for four years after their construction is finished. The Investment Code also provides for some exemptions.For built-on property, the following rates apply in Bujumbura and elsewhere:

• FBu 36/m2 for solid-construction buildings

• FBu 24/m2 for semi-solid buildings

• FBu 15/m2 for provisional buildings



For other property, the following rates apply in Bujumbura and elsewhere:

• for areas with minimum equipment, FBu2/m2;

• for areas with medium equipment, FBu 3/m2;

• for highly equipped areas, FBu 4/m2.
2.2Cattle tax (Tax Code IV, Impôt sur le gros bétail, Arts. 1-22)A tax owed by the owners of cattle. FBu 20 per head used to be transferred to the municipalities, but at the beginning of 1979 both the collection and revenue of this tax were handed over to local authorities.None.FBu 200 per head.
3.Taxes on domestic goods and services
3.1Transactions tax (Decree Law No. 1/04 of 1/31/89 and Law No. 1/005 of 4/31/94)Tax applicable only once on imports, manufacturing services, sales of buildings, and business premises. The tax paid earlier is deductible in the case of manufacturing, imports, restaurants, and construction work. However, taxes paid on fixed capital and business expenses are not deductible. Tax credit can be reimbursed.• Exonerations under the Investment Code apply.

• Direct imports by the government, imports of the government’s projects, and imports of the Bank of the Republic of Burundi are exempt. International organizations, embassies, nongovernmental organizations, agricultural and livestock cooperatives, and petroleum products are exempt. Deliveries of water and electricity, some bank and foreign exchange operations, and goods for export or in transit are also exempt.

• Vehicles for commercial transport are exempted.

• Inputs and equipment for agriculture and livestock; receipts of stadiums, transports, and international tariffs are exempt. Medical care, laboratory expenses, and medical biology are also exempt.

• Inputs and equipments of the enterprises operating under the free zone regime for exports are exempted.
7 percent on bank operations, sales of assets, sales of agricultural products, fishing, and livestock.
3.2Excise taxes on beer and soft drinks (OM 540/152 of March 6, 1992 in execution of Decree Law No. 1/02 dated February 8, 1992).An ad valorem tax on the consumption of locally industrially made beverages. Duties on the consumption of imported alcoholic beverages are incorporated in the fiscal import duty.Products intended for export are exempt.Primus Beer: 100 percent ad valorem tax on an ex factory price basis.

Amstel Beer: 30 percent ad valorem tax on an ex factory price basis. Fanta, Coca Cola, Tonic, and other soft drinks: 30 percent ad valorem tax for a 24-bottle case on an ex factory price basis.
A 15 percent rate is applied to the rest. The transaction tax on beer, soft beverages, and tobacco is included in the ad valorem taxes.
3.3Excise tax on tobacco.A tax on the consumption of locally produced tobacco.None.Ad valorem tax at 43 percent on a factory price basis
3.4Vehicle tax (Tax Code I, Impôt sur les véhicules, Arts. 39-54).An annual license on all vehicles.Vehicles owned by the government, by embassies, international organizations, and by approved nonprofit organizations are exempt; hospitals, schools, and handicapped persons are also exempt.
VehiclesLevy
Motorcycles with a cylindrical content of less than 50 cm3FBu 150
Motorcycles with a cylindrical content of more than 50 cm3FBu 500
Cars for recreational purposes (two or four wheels)FBu 2,250
Cars weighing less than 2500 kg.FBu 900
Less than 8 HPFBu 1200
Between 8-10 HPFBu 1500
Over 10 HPFBu 10.5 per kg.
Vehicles of over 2,500 kg. and trailers.
3.5Boat tax (Code des Impôts I, Taxe sur les bateaux et les embarcations, Art. 54 ter.)An annual license on all boats.Boats owned by the Government, by embassies, international organizations, and approved nonprofit organizations.
BoatsRate
Industrial fishing boatsFBu 3,000/m3 of gross gauge
Pleasure boatsFBu 30,000 per boat
Tug boatsFBu 900/m3 of empty gauge
Motor- propelled boatsFBu900/m3 of gross gauge
BargesFBu 500/m3 of net gauge
4.Taxes on international trade
4.1Taxes on importsOnly on imports from Preferential Trade Area (PTA) countries.Goods exempted under Art. 89 of Decree Law 1/58 of 11/12/71 (including luggage of passengers; moving vehicles; inheritances; commercial samples; ritual objects; gifts to the people and to philanthropic work; educational, scientific or cultural objects; archives; and funeral articles, qualify. These exemptions also apply to customs duties (see section 4.1.2.)



Goods imported under the Investment Code are exempt.
PTA tariff.
4.1.1Import duty
Goods imported under international or bilateral agreements are exempt.
Inputs and equipments for agricultural and livestock sectors are exempt.
Transport vehicles are also exempt.
4.1.2Customs dutyLevied on all imports other than those from PTA countries.Goods exempted under Art. 80 of Decree Law No. 1/56 of 11/12/71.
ProductsRate (percent)
Luxury products100
Manufactured goods40
15
Food products12
Intermediary10
Equipment goods
4.1.3Statistical taxThis tax, the proceeds of which are assumed to compensate for the administrative expenditures of assessing and collecting the import duties, is levied on all imports.Imports under diplomatic franchise.4 percent of the c.i.f. value.
4.1.4Petroleum products (OM 540/666 of February 11, 1992)Ad valorem tax on the Bujumbura c.i.f. price.None.
ProductsRate (percent)
Gasoline, regular6
Super40
Heating oil38
Diesel30
Kerosene6
Petrol32
4.2Taxes on exports
4.2.1Export dutyTaxes levied on a range of exports (1,093 tariff positions against 2,333 for the import tariff). The export tariff has one column only. The latest export duty tariff was revised in April 1992.Reimbursement of taxes paid on inputs: Decree Law No. 1/012 of 4/15/88 on export promotion.



Simplified drawback of 10 percent on f.o.b. value of exported goods.
The generally applicable rate is 5 percent. Most export duties are ad valorem. For green coffee, the export tax is 31 percent.
5.Other taxes
5.1Stamp duties (Droits d’enregistrement, Decree Law No. 1/43 of 6/11/70)Fixed duties on certificates of registration and on related registrations. Proportional duties on the establishment and transfer of real property, as well as on mortgages.Government and subordinate agencies are exempt; donations to religious and scientific organizations and the like are exempted from proportional duties.The following rates are applied:

• FBu 500 for the first page;

• FBu 125 for each following page;

• FBu 250 for the registration of a right;

• 100 percent for transfers with reduced rates for direct line relations or those of spouse; and

• 2.5 percent for registration of a mortgage.
Source: Ministry of Finance.
Source: Ministry of Finance.
STATISTICAL APPENDIX
Table 1.Burundi: Real Gross Domestic Product by Sector, 1992–97
199219931994199519961997
Prel.Proj.
(In millions of 1980 Burundi francs)
Primary sector69,18166,31259,50855,91656,73459,154
Food crops55,69254,30044,79744,48445,99648,296
Livestock4,6844,3894,3973,7183,3473,012
Fishing1029696916451
Forestry3,7223,4883,4953,3203,1542,996
Export crops4,9814,0406,7224,3024,1734,799
Secondary sector17,68114,77513,84111,4689,95310,744
Manufacturing6,0875,0604,8384,1683,2163,538
Agricultural processing518431718459445490
Food industries949791703633474522
Textiles and leather products858715635572543598
Other industry3,7623,1242,7832,5041,7531,928
Handicrafts4,6503,7203,5342,3782,2592,485
Construction5,6304,9544,5584,1933,8584,051
Mining and energy1,3141,041911729619671
Tertiary sector36,54335,68634,54833,04229,27529,823
Public services20,72321,17921,43320,79020,58220,582
Transportation and communications3,4303,1452,8432,7582,4652,620
Commerce10,4609,5928,6717,9774,7865,088
Other services1,9311,7711,6011,5171,4421,532
GDP at factor cost123,405116,773107,896100,42695,96199,721
Indirect taxes, net of subsidies11,95710,61714,80913,3648,3159,094
GDP at market prices135,363127,390122,705113,790104,277108,815
(Annual percentage change)
Primary sector3.0-4.1-10.3-6.01.54.3
Food crops3.6-2.5-17.5-0.73.45.0
Secondary sector3.0-16.4-6.3-17.1-13.28.0
Manufacturing9.1-16.9-4.4-13.9-22.810.0
Construction-1.5-12.0-8.0-8.0-8.05.0
Tertiary sector1.6-2.3-3.2-4.4-11.41.9
Public services2.32.21.2-3.0-1.00.0
Commerce0.8-8.3-9.6-8.0-40.06.3
GDP at market prices0.7-5.9-3.7-7.3-8.44.4
Sources: Burundi authorities; and Fund staff estimates.
Sources: Burundi authorities; and Fund staff estimates.
Table 2.Burundi: Nominal Gross Domestic Product by Sector, 1992–97
199219931994199519961997
Prel.Proj.
(In millions of Burundi francs, unless otherwise indicated)
Primary sector108,298109,909119,349143,313183,858229,376
Food crops85,73688,69290,103115,509151,971188,962
Livestock9,4769,40511,44111,74513,77114,653
Fishing812769859921967917
Forestry3,2493,2263,9384,0414,1464,657
Export crops9,0257,81713,00711,09713,00320,187
Secondary sector42,83245,86152,35752,90854,20873,533
Manufacturing20,29820,77724,03225,75824,94634,393
Agricultural processing1,4631,4022,7302,1872,6523,656
Food industries10,81810,97011,67613,13512,34417,018
Textiles and leather products1,7791,8452,1102,4432,9013,999
Other industry6,2386,5607,5167,9937,0509,719
Handicrafts10,6949,76010,6638,1898,86912,227
Construction9,95013,66615,99117,38418,58424,457
Mining and energy1,8901,6581,6721,5771,8092,456
Tertiary sector54,98061,51468,53878,94881,75194,028
Public services31,58736,44439,83241,72843,70644,144
Transport and communications8,3068,94210,03813,07615,77920,691
Commerce10,52511,23413,14417,49714,69819,274
Other services4,5624,8945,5256,6477,5689,920
GDP at factor cost206,111217,284240,244275,169319,817396,937
Indirect taxes, net of subsidies20,08019,39229,80631,72824,36434,100
GDP at market prices226,191236,676270,050306,897344,181431,037
(growth rate, in percent)6.54.614.113.612.125.2
(In percent of total GDP)
Primary sector47.946.444.246.753.453.2
Food crops37.937.533.437.644.243.8
Secondary sector18.919.419.417.215.717.1
Manufacturing9.08.88.98.47.28.0
Construction4.45.85.95.75.45.7
Tertiary sector24.326.025.425.723.821.8
Public services14.015.414.713.612.710.2
Commerce4.74.74.95.74.34.5
Memorandum item:
Implicit GDP deflator (1980=100) at market prices167.1185.8220.1269.7330.1396.1
(annual change, in percent)6.011.218.522.522.420.0
Sources: Burundi authorities; and Fund staff estimates.
Sources: Burundi authorities; and Fund staff estimates.
Table 3.Burundi: Supply and Use of Resources at Current Market Prices, 1992–97
199219931994199519961997
Prel.Proj.
(In millions of Burundi francs at current prices)
GDP at market prices226,191236,676270,050306,897344,181431,037
Resource gap 1/-46,060-47,858-42,560-35,976-33,323-22,866
Imports of goods and nonfactor services 1/65,69869,23966,58968,13848,50563,422
Exports of goods and nonfactor services 1/19,63821,38124,02932,16215,18240,556
Gross domestic expenditure272,251284,534312,610342,873377,504453,903
Consumption238,423247,339289,111319,007347,144431,733
Public22,71530,28032,45933,57834,47437,069
Private 2/215,708217,059256,652285,429312,670394,664
Investment33,82837,19523,49923,86530,36022,170
Fixed investment32,82236,19323,44624,06430,76919,431
Public26,48229,34619,76620,64525,92811,861
Private6,3406,8473,6803,4194,8417,570
Changes in stocks1,0061,00253-199-4092,739
Gross domestic savings-12,232-10,663-19,061-12,110-2,963-696
Government savings4,744630283-752-2,992-2,586
Private savings-16,976-11,293-19,344-11,358291,890
(In percent of GDP)
Resource gap-20.4-20.2-15.8-11.7-9.7-5.3
Imports of goods and nonfactor services29.029.324.722.214.114.7
Exports of goods and nonfactor services8.79.08.910.54.49.4
Gross domestic expenditure120.4120.2115.8111.7109.7105.3
Consumption105.4104.5107.1103.9100.9100.2
Public10.012.812.010.910.08.6
Private95.491.795.093.090.891.6
Gross investment15.015.78.77.88.85.1
Fixed investment14.515.38.77.88.94.5
Public11.712.47.36.77.52.8
Private2.82.91.41.11.41.8
Changes in stocks0.40.40.0-0.1-0.10.6
Gross domestic savings-5.4-4.5-7.1-3.9-0.9-0.2
Government savings2.10.30.1-0.2-0.9-0.6
Private savings-7.5-4.8-7.2-3.70.00.4
Sources: Burundi authorities; and Fund staff estimates.

As recorded in the balance of payments.

Calculated as residual.

Sources: Burundi authorities; and Fund staff estimates.

As recorded in the balance of payments.

Calculated as residual.

Table 4.Burundi: Supply and Use of Resources at Constant Market Prices, 1992–97
199219931994199519961997
Prel.Proj.
(In millions of Burundi francs, at 1990 constant prices)
GDP at market prices204,997192,924185,828172,327157,919164,793
Resource gap 1/-31,885-31,808-32,054-29,527-18,353-17,703
Imports of goods and nonfactor services 1/52,12948,28043,91544,65425,71028,564
Exports of goods and nonfactor services 1/20,24416,47211,86115,1287,35710,861
Gross domestic expenditure236,882224,732217,881201,854176,272182,495
Consumption209,509198,126201,906186,587160,636172,819
Public19,96024,25522,66819,64015,95214,838
Private189,549173,871179,238166,948144,684157,981
Investment 2/27,37326,60615,97515,26715,6369,676
Public21,42920,99113,43713,20713,3535,177
Private, including changes in stocks5,9445,6142,5382,0602,2834,500
(Percentage change)
GDP at market prices-5.9-3.7-7.3-8.44.4
Imports of goods and nonfactor services-7.4-9.01.7-42.411.1
Exports of goods and nonfactor services-18.6-28.027.5-51.447.6
Gross domestic expenditure-5.1-3.0-7.4-12.73.5
Consumption-5.41.9-7.6-13.97.6
Public21.5-6.5-13.4-18.8-7.0
Private-8.33.1-6.9-13.39.2
Investment-2.8-40.0-4.42.4-38.1
Public-2.0-36.0-1.71.1-61.2
Private, including changes in stocks-5.5-54.8-18.810.897.1
Memorandum items:(Price deflators; 1990 = 100)
Consumer price index113.8124.8143.2171.0216.1249.8
Investment price index 2/123.6139.8147.1156.3194.2229.1
Export price index 1/97.0129.8202.6212.6206.4373.4
Import price index 1/126.0143.4151.6152.6188.7222.0
GDP deflator110.3122.7145.3178.1217.9261.6
(Percent change of price deflators)
Consumer price index4.59.714.719.426.415.6
Investment price index15.013.15.26.324.218.0
Export price index-14.733.856.14.9-2.980.9
Import price index17.713.85.70.623.617.7
GDP deflator6.011.218.522.522.420.0
Sources: Burundi authorities; and Fund staff estimates.

As recorded in the balance of payments.

Calculated as residual.

Sources: Burundi authorities; and Fund staff estimates.

As recorded in the balance of payments.

Calculated as residual.

Table 5.Burundi: Saving and Investment, 1992–97
199219931994199519961997
Prel.Proj.
(In millions of Burundi francs at current prices)
Net factor services-2,845-2,674-2,904-3,247-4,239-3,710
Private current transfers2,6764,2285,4073,9013,4055,355
External current account 1/-46,229-46,304-40,057-35,321-34,157-21,221
Official capital transfers34,34939,68236,33333,99917,03416,170
Official current transfers21,15826,88231,73327,99911,03412,670
Official capital transfers13,19112,8004,6006,0006,0003,500
External current account 2/-11,880-6,622-3,724-1,322-17,123-5,051
Gross domestic saving-12,232-10,663-19,061-12,110-2,963-696
Gross national saving8,75717,77315,17516,5437,23713,619
Gross investment (including stocks)33,82837,19523,49923,86530,36022,170
(Ratios; in percent)
Gross domestic saving/gross investment-36.2-28.7-81.1-50.7-9.8-3.1
Gross national saving/gross investment25.947.864.669.323.861.4
Gross investment/GDP15.015.78.77.88.85.1
Gross national saving/GDP3.97.55.65.42.13.2
External current account/GDP 1/-20.4-19.6-14.8-11.5-9.9-4.9
External current account/GDP 2/-5.3-2.8-1.4-0.4-5.0-1.2
Memorandum item:
Nominal GDP226,191236,676270,050306,897344,181431,037
Sources: Burundi authorities; and Fund staff estimates.

Excluding official transfers.

Including official transfers.

Sources: Burundi authorities; and Fund staff estimates.

Excluding official transfers.

Including official transfers.

Table 6.Burundi: Key Coffee Sector Indicators, 1980/81–96/97 1/
1980/811985/861990/911991/921992/931993/941994/951995/961996/97
Prel.
Production (green coffee; metric tons)18,83132,38934,89134,20637,21522,99141,29325,51625,833
Fully washed9,09913,00314,6009,75826,70816,38116,721
Semiwashed24,81120,74421,92912,73914,2788,7668,948
Robusta981459686494307369164
Total area (hectares)115,000
Yield per hectare (green coffee)297.4
Value added/GDP2.43.03.43.23.02.23.02.31.5
Exports of coffee (US$ million)58.295.252.572.648.547.099.793.575.4
Exports of coffee/total exports87.683.872.380.462.764.580.780.776.3
Taxes on coffee/total taxes15.418.60.04.21.30.812.620.43.3
Taxes on coffee/GDP1.92.60.00.70.20.12.13.40.4
Producer price (FBu/kg.)118125175
Fully washed (FBu/kg.)180180204204275290
Semiwashed (FBu/kg.)175175180180240260
Overall surplus or deficit of the coffee sector (FBu million)-1,055-2,165-2,45674110,5356001,348
Memorandum items:
World market prices 2/
Cents/lb128193856470149149120170
Index (1990=100)144216957178167168135191
Producer price index (1990/91=100) 3/
Nominal6774100103103117117157165
Real 4/135108100999089757972
Sources: Burundi authorities; and Fund staff estimates.

The coffee crop year extends from May 1 to April 30.

Last year of Burundi season; e.g., for 1991 season, the 1991 price is reported. Prices are for mild coffee, i.e., including arabica.

For fully washed coffee.

Deflated by the consumer price index for Burundi. Price indices are for the second year of the season; e.g., for 1990/91, the year 1991 is taken to be 100.

Sources: Burundi authorities; and Fund staff estimates.

The coffee crop year extends from May 1 to April 30.

Last year of Burundi season; e.g., for 1991 season, the 1991 price is reported. Prices are for mild coffee, i.e., including arabica.

For fully washed coffee.

Deflated by the consumer price index for Burundi. Price indices are for the second year of the season; e.g., for 1990/91, the year 1991 is taken to be 100.

Table 7.Burundi: Illustrative Allocation of Arabica Coffee Receipts Among Producers, Intermediaries, and Stabilization Fund, 1992/93–1996/97 1/
1992/931993/941994/951995/961996/97
(In Burundi francs per kilogram of coffee, unless otherwise indicated)
1. Producer prices
Parchment coffee price
Semiwashed coffee price175.0180.0180.0240.0260.0
Fully washed coffee price180.0204.0204.0275.0290.0
Green coffee price221.8236.0236.0334.0367.5
2. Transportation charges4.95.06.112.317.3
3. Production and processing charges59.891.392.568.1136.0
Intermediaries47.284.088.163.6131.5
Wholesalers12.67.34.44.54.5
Humidity bonus0.00.00.00.00.0
4. OCIBU levies27.235.034.770.261.8
5. Green coffee cost price ex factory (1+2+3+4)313.7367.3369.3484.6582.5
6. Export costs and charges32.026.8216.485.8112.0
Transport and handling20.30.00.00.00.0
Commissions0.80.00.00.00.0
Other export costs0.30.00.00.00.0
Export taxes10.626.8216.485.8112.0
7. Green coffee cost price at port of exports (5+6)345.7394.1585.7570.4694.5
8. Average green coffee selling price 2/277.9427.2843.2594.5746.9
9. Profit or loss (-) (8-7)-67.833.1257.524.152.3
10. Total exportable green coffee (in metric tons)36,22622,37540,91424,90025,756
11. Global profit or loss (-) (9x10) (in millions of Burundi francs)-2,45674110,5356001,348
Producer prices for arabica parchment coffee(U.S. dollars per kilogram)
Burundi0.840.740.710.960.86
Kenya1.211.342.032.451.92
Rwanda1.130.801.651.381.39
Tanzania0.690.521.481.241.47
Uganda0.410.641.681.200.89
Memorandum items:(Units as indicated)
World market price (cents/lbs)
Ratio of producer price to export price (percent)
Semiwashed coffee price63.042.121.340.434.8
Fully washed coffee price64.847.824.246.338.8
Green coffee price79.855.228.056.249.2
Real producer prices (1980/81=100) 3/
Washed coffee price87.982.471.880.268.7
Fully washed coffee price87.990.879.189.374.5
Green coffee price88.085.374.488.276.8
Coffee exports volume index (1990/91=100)117.172.3132.380.583.3
Source: Office des Cultures Industrielles du Burundi (OCIBU).

Based on the allocation schedule for the coffee crop year (annual échelle mobile), (May 1-April 30).

Determined as an average rate, on the basis of actual payments in Dar es Salaam in relation to exportable coffee output.

Deflated by the consumer price index.

Source: Office des Cultures Industrielles du Burundi (OCIBU).

Based on the allocation schedule for the coffee crop year (annual échelle mobile), (May 1-April 30).

Determined as an average rate, on the basis of actual payments in Dar es Salaam in relation to exportable coffee output.

Deflated by the consumer price index.

Table 8.Burundi: Arabica and Robusta Coffee Production, 1992/93–1996/97 1/(In metric tons)
1992/931993/941994/951995/961996/97
Est.
Arabica fully washed14,6009,75826,70816,38116,721
F.W. Super 2/6,1052,19575623222371
F.W. Extra 2/3,3173,0605,58637263803
F.W.H.T./Courant 14,1352,1048,08949835086
F.W. Courant 21,51110,03633053374
F.W.4./Brisure9925271364360367
F.W.5./Triage and Brisures51314877
F.W. Stock/H. Normes4716851720
Arabica semiwashed21,92912,73914,2788,7668,948
W.02 3/7,3871,22477410801102
W.3A 3/4,9662,4642,12411881213
W.3B4,3724,3445,40533653435
W.HTM/3C2,7703,6525,12117821819
W.4/Brisure2,132760594198202
W.5/Triage and Brisures85259260
W.H. Normes2173611531177
Total arabica36,52922,49740,98625,14725,669
Robusta686494307369164
Total coffee production37,21522,99141,29325,51625,833
Source: Office des Cultures Industrielles du Burundi (OCIBU).

The coffee crop year extends from May 1 to April 30.

High-quality, fully washed arabica.

High-quality washed arabica.

Source: Office des Cultures Industrielles du Burundi (OCIBU).

The coffee crop year extends from May 1 to April 30.

High-quality, fully washed arabica.

High-quality washed arabica.

Table 9.Burundi: Cotton Production, Consumption, Exports, and Prices, 1992–97 1/(In units indicated)
199219931994199519961997
Est.
Production
Area under cultivation (hectares)6,3318,4916,0676,1704,0703,400
Imbo
North1,6791,7331,9509051,140606
Center9641,3501,051760338154
South2,5272,9832,1932,228740640
Extension (Nyanza-Lac)2132974131140
Mosso9482,1288322,2441,8382,000
Number of farmers19,16522,27917,40920,90414,11914,926
Production of seed cotton (tons)5,3748,8134,9154,5932,6053,100
First quality5,2958,6174,8114,5532,5263,008
Second quality79196104407992
Yield (kilograms per hectare)8491,038810744640912
Ginning coefficient (percent)40.340.740.041.040.140.0
Production of cotton fiber (tons)2,1683,5881,9671,8811,0451,240
First quality2,1343,5111,9261,8641,0291,215
Second quality347741171625
Production of seeds (tons)3,1145,0902,8472,6291,5041,798
Consumption and exports (tons)
Domestic consumption of cotton fiber1,4341,1209468721,0341,200
First quality1,4341,1148458579571,200
Second quality0610115770
Exports of cotton fiber7831,7833,6658931510
First quality7831,7833,6658931510
Second quality000000
Stocks of cotton fiber (end-of-year)2,6393,318663673639679
First quality2,6003,250610657639654
Second quality39685316025
Consumption of seeds
Oil factory (RAFINA)2,4894,5392,4232,2781,2441,550
Seeds542499374285220250
Animal feed82525066400
Prices (Burundi francs per kilogram)
Local price of cotton fiber
First quality 2/269.0255.0349.4452.0498.0520.0
Second quality190.0190.0211.6278.0400.00.0
Export price of cotton fiber 3/4/
First quality 2/324.6372.4496.0537.00.0
Second quality0.00.00.00.00.00.0
Producer price of seed cotton
First quality50.055.060.065.075.080.0
Second quality30.030.030.035.045.050.0
Equivalent producer price of cotton fiber
First quality123.0135.0150.0160.0187.0200.0
Second quality74.074.074.088.0112.0125.0
Sale price of seeds to RAFINA9.015.014.014.015.015.0
Memorandum items:
Producer price/export price of cotton fiber (first quality; percent)41.640.332.334.8
Real producer price index of seed cotton (first quality) 5/94.894.990.382.2
Sources: Compagnie de Gérance Cotonnière (COGERCO); and Complexe Textile de Bujumbura (COTEBU).

Based on contracts signed by COTEBU.

Average annual price.

Prices are f.o.b. Dar es Salaam or Mombasa; since 1984, cotton has been exported at ex factory prices.

In 1991-92, there was no export of cotton.

Deflated by the consumer price index (1985=100).

Sources: Compagnie de Gérance Cotonnière (COGERCO); and Complexe Textile de Bujumbura (COTEBU).

Based on contracts signed by COTEBU.

Average annual price.

Prices are f.o.b. Dar es Salaam or Mombasa; since 1984, cotton has been exported at ex factory prices.

In 1991-92, there was no export of cotton.

Deflated by the consumer price index (1985=100).

Table 10.Burundi: Tea Production, Exports, Stocks, and Prices, 1992–97(In units indicated)
199219931994199519961997
Est.
Production
Area planted (hectares)8,1896,2076,7177,2077,5607,798
Family holdings (hectares)6,2994,2774,7175,1975,5505,788
Industrial blocks (hectares)1,8901,9302,0002,0102,0102,010
Wastage factor (percent)4.74.74.85.04.94.8
Production of green leaves (tons)28,25326,15633,13735,21128,10031,318
Yield (kilograms per hectare)3,4504,2144,9334,8863,7174,016
Production of dry green leaves (tons)5,9525,5206,8646,9855,7156,506
Teza1,3921,4171,6471,7169981,500
Rwegura1,9951,9582,3132,0321,7611,900
Tora1,0668271,0521,1921,1281,350
Ijenda1,4511,0951,4801,6731,7121,756
Buhoro48223372372116
Exports (tons) 1/5,6515,7606,0087,0794,4086,000
Of which
Private sales1,8631,5501,3761,4809871,800
Stocks (end of period; tons)1,2348251,5701,2612,2681,700
Prices (Burundi francs per kilogram)
Producer price
Planters262626333333
Pickers (industrial blocks)668999
Average unit export price 2/396454452408504550
Less
Commercial freight 3/51658590120200
Export price (f.o.b. Bujumbura)345389367318384350
Source: Office du Thé du Burundi (OTB).

The quantities refer to tea leaving Bujumbura.

Calculated on the basis of sales contracts or auction prices.

Transport and other commercial costs.

Source: Office du Thé du Burundi (OTB).

The quantities refer to tea leaving Bujumbura.

Calculated on the basis of sales contracts or auction prices.

Transport and other commercial costs.

Table 11.Burundi: Capacity and Production of the Manufacturing Industries, 1992–97
ProductUnit of measurement199219931994199519961997 1/
BeerHectoliters1,161,5511,188,6071,382,6701,404,2121,227,921241,704
PrimusHectoliters1,007,3871,044,3721,187,0581,148,948997,188195,749
AmstelHectoliters154,164144,235195,612255,264230,73345,955
Carbonated beveragesHectoliters159,914179,300201,400219,746179,07927,418
FlourTons6,6191,7936694723670
BiscuitsTons34000
MilkMillions of liters22111
Dairy productsKilograms66,88184,99540,13200
Cotton seed oilLiters340,500329,200279,900211,450234,6009,700
SugarTons17,30113,91612,26815,30017,7560
Animal feedTons2,3603,2812,4431,9092,339427
Cigarettes 2/Cartons47,56953,44258,45852,24844,9863,153
PaintTons1,010790591529407142
InsecticidesTons2,0292,6883,8852,4062,4180
OxygenCubic meters28,62020,46333,63629,11926,1956,558
AcetyleneKilograms6,0654,6714,7053,2791,8710
PolyethyleneKilograms397,093349,109292,847267,247240,2058,564
MattressesUnits28,13526,64250,22529,50529,5870
Plastic casesUnits22,02148,90450,40949,0932,977
Household soapTons2,5924,8415,2925,2623,111527
Toilet soapTons41738840930625997
Pharmaceutical productsMillions of FBu24928427224329477
Matches 3/Cartons42,04524,87013,37411,5442560
BottlesTons5,2703,4875,1063,7042,4631,001
BlanketsUnits196,212242,669248,438137,708116,24556,202
FabricsMillions of meters955451
ShoesPairs450,567405,24874,89010,00000
P.V.C. tubesTons25722818821411326
CementTons000000
Fibro-cement productsTons3,2751,9427995662490
Corrugated metal sheetsTons1,9421,2475648600
Steel rodsTons22537930728511825
Toilet paperTons0931418860
Bottle capsMillions of units25625828327427223
Batteries 4/Cartons36,18034,97028,86714,453
Cardboard boxesTons218173287154
Source: Bank of the Republic of Burundi.

First quarter 1997.

Cartons of 10,000 cigarettes except Kiyago, which is in cartons of 5,000 cigarettes.

Cartons of 1,000 boxes.

Cartons of 240 batteries.

Source: Bank of the Republic of Burundi.

First quarter 1997.

Cartons of 10,000 cigarettes except Kiyago, which is in cartons of 5,000 cigarettes.

Cartons of 1,000 boxes.

Cartons of 240 batteries.

Table 12.Burundi: Energy Production, Imports, and Consumption, 1992–97
199219931994199519961997 1/
Electricity (in thousands of kilowatt-hours)(In units indicated)
Production99,543101,31782,67572,56295,07618,044
Imports47,27047,68464,06423,2413,85414,243
Ruzizi I8,71012,75016,59611,6933,8198,580
Ruzizi II38,56034,93447,46811,548355,663
Consumption140,018142,398142,05496,758100,78533,173
Of which
Industry39,74834,23938,10931,99325,200n.d.
Domestic rate (FBu/kilowat-hours)161616191919
Petroleum products
Consumption (tons)44,20354,52170,49654,98044,4214,543
Imports (tons)60,28156,01267,69156,04942,0892,140
Of which
Gasoline22,89519,54823,39617,19614,559560
Diesel fuel22,41921,21826,82327,34621,7491,258
Stocks at end of period (tons)6,0457,5364,7315,8003,4471,065
Unit value of imports (FBu thousands/ton) 2/98106108119130193
Import value (FBu millions) 2/5,4735,7827,3206,6745,488414
(Annual changes in percent)
Electricity
Production-1.21.8-18.4-12.231.0
Imports39.50.934.4-63.7-83.4
Consumption2.91.7-0.2-31.94.2
Of which
Industry3.3-13.911.3-16.0-21.2
Petroleum products
Consumption3.223.329.3-22.0-19.2
Imports-8.3-7.120.9-17.2-24.9
Stocks at end of period-21.724.7-37.222.6-40.6
Unit value of imports (FBu)-10.08.21.910.29.2
Import value (FBu)4.35.626.6-8.8-17.8
Sources: Régie de Distribution d’Eau et d’Electricité (REGIDESO); and Société d’Entreposage de Produits Pétroliers (SEP), cited in the Quarterly Bulletin of the Bank of the Republic of Burundi

First quarter 1997.

Customs data.

Sources: Régie de Distribution d’Eau et d’Electricité (REGIDESO); and Société d’Entreposage de Produits Pétroliers (SEP), cited in the Quarterly Bulletin of the Bank of the Republic of Burundi

First quarter 1997.

Customs data.

Table 13.Burundi: Retail Prices of Petroleum Products, 1992–97(Burundi francs per liter)
1992199319941995 1/19961997
End-March
Super gasoline 2/135140140160350350
Kerosene 3/125130130142165165
Diesel fuel 4/125130130145320320
Source: Ministry of Commerce and Industry, Ministerial Ordinances.

As of December, 23, 1995.

The price of gasoline for 1996 was successively set at FBu 190/liter on July 15, 1996; FBu 270/liter on September 20, 1996; and FBu 350/liter on November 7, 1996.

The price of kerosene for 1996 was set at FBu 165/liter on July 15,1996.

The price of diesel fuel for 1996 was set successively at FBu 170/liter on July 15, 1996; FBu 240/liter on September 20, 1996; and FBu 320/liter on November, 1996.

Source: Ministry of Commerce and Industry, Ministerial Ordinances.

As of December, 23, 1995.

The price of gasoline for 1996 was successively set at FBu 190/liter on July 15, 1996; FBu 270/liter on September 20, 1996; and FBu 350/liter on November 7, 1996.

The price of kerosene for 1996 was set at FBu 165/liter on July 15,1996.

The price of diesel fuel for 1996 was set successively at FBu 170/liter on July 15, 1996; FBu 240/liter on September 20, 1996; and FBu 320/liter on November, 1996.

Table 14.Burundi: Minimum Wages, 1976–97
19761982198819931994199519961997
Sep. 29May 5Apr. 30Proj.
(In Burundi francs per day)
Urban areas 1/88140160160160160160160
Rest of the country88105105105105105105105
(In real terms; September 1976 = 100) 2/
Urban areas 1/100.070.157.137.933.027.621.918.2
Rest of the country100.052.637.524.821.718.114.412.0
(In U.S. dollars) 3/
Urban areas 1/1.071.561.140.660.630.640.530.46
Rest of the country1.071.170.750.430.420.420.350.30
Memorandum items:
Consumer price index (September 1976=100)100.0227.0318.3480.3551.0657.7831.4997.7
Exchange rate FBu/US$ (period average)82.390.0140.4242.8252.7249.8302.8350.0
Source: Ministry of Labor and Social Affairs, Ministerial Ordinances.

Bujumbura and Gitega.

Deflated by the consumer price index (September 1976 = 100).

Converted using period-average exchange rates.

Source: Ministry of Labor and Social Affairs, Ministerial Ordinances.

Bujumbura and Gitega.

Deflated by the consumer price index (September 1976 = 100).

Converted using period-average exchange rates.

Table 15.Burundi: Consumer Price Index for Households in Bujumbura, 1980–97
FoodClothingHousing, Heating, LightFurniture 1/HealthTransportCulture, Education, Leisure 1/OtherGeneral IndexChange of General Index 2/
(January 1980 = 100)
Weights55.313.216.74.010.8100.0
198098.4110.7101.1111.6100.1101.2
1981108.3120.8122.8126.7111.8113.512.2
1982116.0125.1133.1124.2113.4120.15.9
1983125.4128.3131.6126.5153.8129.98.2
1984142.5137.4146.3137.0200.5148.514.3
1985153.7127.4149.0145.7200.7154.23.8
1986142.7140.8144.1150.4270.2156.81.7
1987141.6166.1149.4157.7337.3167.97.1
1988152.2168.4156.4163.2336.7175.44.5
1989180.5182.0171.3177.5336.7195.911.7
1990193.9198.0181.6190.4354.7209.67.0
1991207.0221.6193.8210.1407.4228.59.0
(January 1991 = 100)
Weights52.65.427.44.90.75.41.91.7100.0
199297.9109.5105.2109.8100.5100.0115.7112.3101.84.5
1993113.5135.3105.1111.8106.2100.5120.0116.3111.79.7
1994133.7136.0119.2140.9137.4101.4123.4127.4128.214.7
Q1127.7135.1108.1116.2109.4100.8121.2116.3120.310.7
Q2134.3136.3111.8123.5109.4100.9123.7126.8125.412.7
Q3134.7134.2129.8156.7165.4102.0124.5132.4132.621.7
Q4137.9138.2127.0167.3165.4102.0124.1134.2134.313.8
1995160.4157.0148.0153.7166.8102.0134.2153.8153.019.4
Q1153.4144.5128.4145.5165.4102.0129.8147.2142.718.7
Q2163.8154.6138.6152.2165.4102.0132.0152.2151.921.1
Q3161.9160.7159.7159.0165.4102.0135.5155.2157.418.7
Q4162.5168.2165.3158.1170.8102.0139.4160.7159.919.0
1996199.0199.3192.1170.3210.2176.4155.5172.7193.426.4
Q1174.2178.3182.7161.7177.3162.2143.4163.1174.822.4
Q2186.4183.2182.8165.0195.2162.2143.8168.4181.619.6
Q3208.0194.3197.5170.8228.1180.0143.5170.4199.726.9
Q4227.4241.4205.3183.5240.3201.4191.2188.9217.436.0
1997
Q1246.4276.6214.5187.1223.3206.7194.5196.1232.132.8
January245.9238.9205.0180.8239.3197.2191.5212.5227.031.6
February242.5290.4218.5179.3211.9206.7197.1195.6231.333.9
March250.9300.5220.1201.1218.7216.3194.9180.1238.032.9
Q2270.2334.6219.7199.4251.4216.3194.9203.3250.638.0
April250.1355.6216.7200.0249.8216.3195.4193.9240.433.6
May288.9335.7219.7199.6252.2216.3194.0208.5260.344.9
June271.5312.4222.7198.5252.2216.3195.2207.4251.135.4
Source: Institut de Statistiques et des Etudes Economiques du Burundi.

Data for these components of the consumption basket have been collected only since 1992, when the structure of this basket was modified.

Average percent changes for annual data; year-on-year percent changes for quarterly and monthly data.

Source: Institut de Statistiques et des Etudes Economiques du Burundi.

Data for these components of the consumption basket have been collected only since 1992, when the structure of this basket was modified.

Average percent changes for annual data; year-on-year percent changes for quarterly and monthly data.

Table 16.Burundi: Central Government Consolidated Operations, 1992–97
1992199319941995199619961997
Budg.Budg.
(In billions of Burundi francs)
Revenue and grants57.660.447.953.264.048.544.1
Revenues38.239.842.244.150.942.338.1
Tax revenue32.834.638.941.543.635.436.5
Income tax8.910.68.49.49.110.68.0
Taxes on goods and services14.815.317.719.021.616.917.9
Taxes on international trade8.58.312.512.811.67.510.3
Other tax revenue0.50.40.30.31.40.40.3
Nontax revenue5.45.23.32.77.37.01.6
Grants19.420.75.79.113.16.16.0
Current grants6.27.91.13.17.10.10.0
Capital grants13.212.84.66.06.06.06.0
Expenditures and net lending64.268.959.565.170.370.764.2
Current expenditure33.539.141.944.942.945.251.1
Salaries14.816.317.418.119.621.524.6
Civilian9.711.011.511.512.613.313.4
Military5.05.25.96.67.08.211.2
Goods and services8.08.410.412.612.213.017.1
Civilian5.55.16.18.27.36.68.2
Military2.53.34.34.44.86.48.8
Transfers and subsidies6.65.25.87.06.35.95.6
Public administrations5.13.94.34.44.54.44.5
International organizations0.30.30.20.20.20.20.2
Households1.21.01.32.41.51.40.9
Interest payments4.13.73.64.34.84.83.8
Domestic1.00.80.71.00.81.01.0
Foreign3.12.92.93.34.03.82.8
Extrabudgetary/exceptional0.05.64.72.90.00.00.0
Capital expenditure26.529.319.820.629.225.914.4
Domestic resources2.55.64.15.312.48.53.9
Project lending10.810.911.19.310.811.44.4
Capital grants13.212.84.66.06.06.06.0
Net lending4.30.4-2.1-0.4-1.8-0.5-1.3
Current balance (excluding grants)4.70.60.3-0.88.0-2.9-13.0
Overall balance (including grants)-6.6-8.5-11.7-11.9-6.2-22.2-20.1
Overall balance (excluding grants)-26.0-29.1-17.4-21.0-19.4-28.4-26.1
Net change in arrears0.02.30.31.7-1.58.91.8
External 1/0.01.01.86.3
Domestic0.0-0.7-0.12.6
Overall balance (including grants; cash basis)-6.6-6.2-11.3-10.2-7.7-13.3-18.3
Financing6.66.211.310.27.713.318.3
Foreign (net)19.412.37.96.36.05.20.7
Drawings23.517.112.812.413.612.64.4
Amortization-4.1-4.8-4.9-6.1-7.6-7.4-3.7
Domestic-12.8-6.03.44.01.88.117.6
Banking sector-2.4-2.43.73.62.46.219.8
Nonbank sector-10.4-3.6-0.30.4-0.61.9-2.2
Financing gap0.00.00.00.00.00.00.0
Memorandum items:(In percent of GDP)
Revenue, excluding grants16.916.815.614.414.812.38.8
Tax revenues14.514.414.413.512.710.37.9
Current expenditures14.816.515.514.612.513.111.8
Current balance2.10.30.1-0.22.3-0.8-3.0
Current primary balance3.91.81.41.23.70.6-2.1
Capital expenditure11.712.47.36.78.57.53.3
Total expenditure and net lending28.429.122.021.220.420.514.9
Education4.64.23.83.43.53.32.7
Health1.21.31.00.70.80.80.5
Military expenditure3.33.63.73.63.44.34.6
Overall balance (including grants)-2.9-3.6-4.3-3.9-1.8-6.5-4.7
Overall balance (excluding grants)-11.5-12.3-6.4-6.8-5.6-8.2-6.1
Overall balance (including grants; cash basis)-2.9-2.6-4.2-3.3-2.2-3.9-4.2
Domestic financing (net)-5.7-2.61.31.30.52.44.1
Foreign financing (net)8.65.22.92.01.71.50.2
Sources: Ministry of Finance; and Fund staff estimates.

Accumulation of external arrears concerns debt obligations that were authorized for payment but were not actually paid. It does not include debt obligations that became due but were not authorized for payment.

Sources: Ministry of Finance; and Fund staff estimates.

Accumulation of external arrears concerns debt obligations that were authorized for payment but were not actually paid. It does not include debt obligations that became due but were not authorized for payment.

Table 17.Burundi: Central Government Revenue, 1992–97
199219931994199519961997
Prel.Budg.
(In billions of Burundi francs)
Tax revenue32.834.638.941.535.436.5
Tax on income and profits8.910.68.49.410.68.0
Individual3.43.34.13.94.94.4
Corporate4.64.63.94.95.43.5
Other0.92.70.40.50.30.1
Tax on property0.20.20.20.20.20.2
Taxes on goods and services14.815.317.719.016.917.9
Transaction tax8.58.46.77.16.17.5
Excise tax6.16.710.711.910.810.4
Other taxes on goods and services0.20.10.40.00.00.0
Taxes on international trade8.58.312.512.87.510.3
Import duties7.77.76.97.75.98.0
Export duties0.70.45.44.91.32.2
Of which: coffee0.50.35.34.71.22.0
Other0.10.10.10.10.30.1
Other tax revenue0.30.20.10.10.20.1
Nontax revenue5.45.23.32.77.01.6
Dividends and profits3.52.82.61.96.00.8
Administrative receipts0.91.70.50.30.40.4
Other nontax revenue0.90.70.20.50.60.3
Total revenue38.239.842.244.142.338.1
(In percent of total revenue)
Tax revenue85.887.092.294.083.695.9
Tax on income and profits23.426.719.921.225.121.0
Tax on property0.50.50.50.50.50.5
Taxes on goods and services38.938.442.043.139.947.1
Taxes on international trade22.220.929.628.917.727.1
Other tax revenue0.90.50.10.20.40.2
Nontax revenue14.213.07.86.016.44.1
(In percent of GDP)
Tax revenue14.514.614.413.510.38.5
Tax on income and profits4.04.53.13.13.11.9
Tax on property0.10.10.10.10.10.0
Taxes on goods and services6.66.56.66.24.94.2
Taxes on international trade3.73.54.64.22.22.4
Other tax revenue0.10.10.00.00.00.0
Nontax revenue2.42.21.20.92.00.4
(Annual percentage change)
Tax revenue3.73.614.521.3-14.73.2
Tax on income and profits5.018.7-20.914.313.4-24.8
Tax on property-31.3-5.121.49.90.4-6.2
Taxes on goods and services4.1-0.534.36.0-11.16.2
Taxes on international trade-0.3-1.351.147.9-41.437.8
Other tax revenue54.7-15.0-96.332.259.2-62.8
Nontax revenue25.77.3-43.3-17.5162.2-77.4
Memorandum item:
Nominal GDP (in FBu billion)226.2236.7270.1306.9344.2431.0
Source: Ministry of Finance.
Source: Ministry of Finance.
Table 18.Burundi: Import Duty Exemptions, 1994–97(In millions of Burundi francs, unless otherwise specified)
Beneficiaries
Diplomatic missionsGovernmentNon-government organizationsInvestmentsOther ExemptionsTotal ExemptionsTotal ImportsExemptions/ Imports Ratio (percent)
1994 January
January41469475197786
February15217221322649
March3586551622701,301
April128279222242673
May66450301300847
June100564241297986
July2839237315951,875
August926773203581,159
September629834303481,436
October78592186293521,237
November1027161932631,103
December72533195219848
Total1,5347,0134701203,76312,90060,46821.3
1995
January1446351863861,189
February307404140206931
March1364404343861,009
April1151,2885605492,008
May126449471220843
June813884719247782
July69302680373812
August1621,03212812671,590
September225203370256721
October2471761191274817
November
December
Total1,6125,317577323,16410,70251,06121.0
1996
January1252249913858354,95016.9
February1605488702831,0784,72322.8
March25253031174591,2894,82626.7
April1326068961851,0175,71417.8
May1612043805569592,83733.8
June662973555139164,43420.7
July713233254999303,95823.5
August25121821813102,73311.3
September04021056744715.1
October118807410173813.7
November335208712765919.2
December26400014120784424.5
Total1,0212,987525343,2697,83636,86121.3
1997
January716110952652,07912.7
February161302111022711,27621.2
March1128518201405192,55620.3
April89134740513482,32814.9
Total (January-April, 199722551027723891,4028,23917.0
Source: Ministry of Finance, Direction des Douanes.
Source: Ministry of Finance, Direction des Douanes.
Table 19.Burundi: Economic Classification of Government Expenditure, 1992–97
199219931994199519961997
Prel.Budg.
(In billions of Burundi francs)
Total expenditure and net lending64.268.959.565.170.764.2
Current expenditure33.539.141.944.945.251.1
Salaries14.816.317.418.121.524.6
Civilian9.711.011.511.513.313.4
Military5.05.25.96.68.211.2
Goods and services8.08.410.412.613.017.1
Civilian5.55.16.18.26.68.2
Military2.53.34.34.46.48.8
Transfers and subsidies6.65.25.87.05.95.6
Public administrations5.13.94.34.44.44.5
International organizations0.30.30.20.20.20.2
Households1.21.01.32.41.40.9
Interest payments4.13.73.64.34.83.8
Domestic1.00.80.71.01.01.0
Foreign3.12.92.93.33.82.8
Extrabudgetary/exceptional expenditure0.05.64.72.90.00.0
Capital expenditure26.529.319.820.625.914.4
Domestic resources2.55.64.15.38.53.9
Project lending10.810.911.19.311.44.4
Capital grants13.212.84.66.06.06.0
Net lending4.30.4-2.1-0.4-0.5-1.3
Receipts-2.0-2.2-3.3-1.1-1.7-1.3
On-lending6.32.61.10.71.20.0
(In percent of total expenditure)
Total expenditure and net lending100.0100.0100.0100.0100.0100.0
Current expenditure52.156.870.468.964.079.6
Salaries23.023.629.227.830.438.4
Of which: military7.87.69.810.211.617.4
Goods and services12.412.217.519.318.426.6
Of which: military3.84.87.26.89.113.8
Transfers and subsidies10.37.59.810.78.48.7
Public administrations8.05.67.36.76.27.0
International organizations0.50.40.40.30.20.4
Households1.81.42.13.71.91.3
Interest payments6.45.46.16.66.95.9
Domestic1.51.11.11.51.41.6
Foreign4.94.34.95.15.44.3
Extrabudgetary/exceptional expenditure0.08.17.94.40.00.0
Capital expenditure41.242.633.231.736.722.4
Domestic resources3.88.26.88.212.16.1
Project lending16.915.818.714.316.16.9
Capital grants20.518.67.79.28.59.4
Net lending6.70.6-3.6-0.6-0.7-2.0
Receipts-3.1-3.2-5.5-1.6-2.4-2.0
On-lending9.73.81.91.01.70.0
(In percent of GDP)
Total expenditure and net lending28.429.122.021.220.514.9
Current expenditure14.816.515.514.613.111.8
Salaries6.56.96.45.96.25.7
Interest payments1.81.61.31.41.40.9
Other current expenditure6.48.17.77.35.55.3
Capital expenditure11.712.47.36.77.53.3
Memorandum item:
Nominal GDP226.2236.7270.1306.9344.2431.0
Source: Ministry of Finance.
Source: Ministry of Finance.
Table 20.Burundi: Expenditure on Health and Education, 1992–97
199219931994199519961997
Prel.Budg.
(In billions of Burundi francs)
Total expenditure59.968.561.765.571.265.4
Education and health13.012.912.912.514.114.0
Education10.49.910.110.411.511.6
Health2.63.02.82.12.62.3
Current expenditure33.539.141.944.945.251.1
Education and health11.811.611.711.212.713.0
Education9.69.19.49.510.910.7
Health2.22.52.31.71.92.3
Capital expenditure26.529.319.820.625.914.4
Education and health1.21.31.21.31.41.0
Education0.80.70.80.90.60.9
Health0.40.50.50.40.80.0
Memorandum items:(In percent of total expenditure)
Total expenditure
Education and health21.718.821.019.119.921.4
Education17.314.416.415.916.217.8
Health4.44.44.63.23.73.6
(In percent of GDP)
Total expenditure26.528.922.821.320.715.2
Education and health5.75.44.84.14.13.2
Education4.64.23.83.43.32.7
Health1.21.31.00.70.80.5
Memorandum items:
Nominal GDP226.2236.7270.1306.9344.2431.0
Source: Ministry of Finance.
Source: Ministry of Finance.
Table 21.Burundi: Military Expenditure, 1992–97
199219931994199519961997
Prel.Budg.
(In millions of Burundi francs, unless otherwise specified)
Salaries5,0225,2495,8526,6138,19211,178
Goods and services2,4503,3304,2744,3986,4388,841
Light equipment, food, clothing and health care1,3821,6821,9432,0953,7454,385
Equipment and maintenance 1/9131,4501,5742,0052,4404,305
Other155198758298254151
Total7,4728,57910,12611,01014,63020,019
Military salaries/total salaries (percent)343234373845
Military spending on goods and services/total spending on goods and services (percent)314041354952
Total military expenditure/total current expenditure (percent)222224253239
(In percent of total expenditure and net lending)
Military salaries7.87.69.810.211.617.4
Military spending on goods and services3.84.87.26.89.113.8
Total military expenditure11.612.417.016.920.731.2
(In percent of GDP)
Military salaries2.22.22.22.22.42.6
Military spending on goods and services1.11.41.61.41.92.1
Total military expenditure3.33.63.73.64.34.6
Sources: Burundi authorities; and Fund staff estimates.

Maintenance of vehicles and infrastructure.

Sources: Burundi authorities; and Fund staff estimates.

Maintenance of vehicles and infrastructure.

Table 22.Burundi: Functional Structure of Government Operating and Capital Expenditure, 1995–97 1/
1995 (Actual)1996 (Actual)1997 (Budget)
CurrentCapitalTotalCurrentCapitalTotalCurrentCapitalTotal
(In millions of Burundi francs)
General services29,9647,05037,01436,6306,77343,40341,3773,92645,303
Presidency2,3291942,5232,2331222,3552,0801682,248
National Assembly
Prime Minister’s Office6804251,1056162464064132673
Ministry of Development Planning and Reconstruction127182309171154325158168326
Ministry of External Relations and Cooperation2,243762,3195,720405,7601,903401,943
Ministry of Defense10,09042710,51713,6248413,70820,1994820,247
Ministry of Interior and Security6281,2011,8291,0283,4704,4981,3901,7863,176
Ministry of Finance11,6264,37215,99810,6962,80413,50012,2031,41913,622
Ministry of Justice1,127341,1611,346231,3691,4931651,658
Ministry of Communication7057678172841769765100865
Ministry of Public Service3656342844811459520520
Ministry of Institutional Reforms444420202525
Social services12,5361,52914,06513,4291,52614,95513,5531,08214,635
Ministry of Secondary and Higher Education5,7013616,0626,058676,1255,9442976,241
Ministry of Primary Education3,7515824,3334,8135645,3774,7946055,399
Ministry of Human Rights and Women81401211164115711865183
Ministry of Health1,7163862,1021,8707772,6472,286482,334
Ministry of Labor, Handicraft, and Training373875463985483987
Ministry of Rehabilitation and Reinsertion915921,0072051121621728
Ministry of Youth and Sports335303653212734834221363
Economic services1,9776,7238,7002,0048,36210,3662,0263,3535,379
Ministry of Agriculture and Livestock6002,2262,8266263,0223,6486092,1792,788
Ministry of Communal Development140436576143276419135221356
Ministry of Commerce, Industry and Tourism869251,01110675385911645161
Ministry of Energy and Mining1106037131589311,089142102244
Ministry of Transport, Post, and Telecommunications4374168532839021,18530932341
Ministry of Public Works and Equipment4201,6932,1134792,0222,501505268773
Ministry of the Territory and Environment184424608209456665210506716
Central government (total) 2/44,47715,30259,77952,06316,66168,72456,9568,36165,317
Civil administration33,75913,67447,43337,41113,10750,51835,3676,52741,894
Military administration10,7181,62812,34614,6523,55418,20621,5891,83423,423
Memorandum items:(In percent of total expenditure in corresponding category)
General services67.446.161.970.440.763.272.647.069.4
Social services28.210.023.525.89.221.823.812.922.4
Economic services4.443.914.63.850.215.13.640.18.2
Civil administration75.989.479.371.978.773.562.178.164.1
Military administration24.110.620.728.121.326.537.921.935.9
(In percent of GDP)
General services9.82.312.110.62.012.69.60.910.5
Social services4.10.54.63.90.44.33.10.33.4
Economic services0.62.22.80.62.43.00.50.81.2
Civil Administration11.04.515.510.93.814.78.21.59.7
Military Administration3.50.54.04.31.05.35.00.45.4
Nominal GDP (in billions of FBu)306.9306.9306.9344.2344.2344.2431.0431.0431.0
Source: Budget documents.

Excludes debt service.

Because of classification problems, the exclusion of some government agencies, and the incomplete imputation of all expenditure by ministry, the totals in this line do not correspond to totals in Table 19.

Source: Budget documents.

Excludes debt service.

Because of classification problems, the exclusion of some government agencies, and the incomplete imputation of all expenditure by ministry, the totals in this line do not correspond to totals in Table 19.

Table 23.Burundi: Structure of Central Government Employment and Salaries, 1996
Number Employed 1/Annual Salaries
StatutoryContractualTotalStatutoryContractualTotal
(In millions of Burundi francs)
General services2,5122,2074,7194,2837,27411,557
Presidency7631939556468524
National Assembly2213215436180216
Prime Minister’s Office6273331114
Ministry of Development Planning and Reconstruction5286044953
Ministry of External Relations and Cooperation10843151641153794
Ministry of Defense2,2445,9498,193
Ministry of Interior and Security7245521,276322286608
Ministry of Finance38725964623880318
Ministry of Justice1,0098091,818622122744
Ministry of Communication7815528
Ministry of Public Service11137148661177
Ministry of Institutional Reforms101323628
Social services17,0834,06121,1447,1867767,962
Ministry of Secondary and Higher Education4,3376725,0092,3251152,440
Ministry of Primary Education10,78898411,7723,8612174,078
Ministry of Human Rights and Women6975144331346
Ministry of Health1,5921,7213,3138313221,153
Ministry of Labor, Handicraft, and Training62339532637
Ministry of Rehabilitation and Reinsertion1215278311
Ministry of Youth and Sports22356178496101197
Economic services1,0222,1333,155571336907
Ministry of Agriculture and Livestock4091,0901,499211132344
Ministry of Communal Development8330113421355
Ministry of Commerce, Industry, and Tourism893812752860
Ministry of Energy and Mining971042017826104
Ministry of Transport, Post, and Telecommunications25231256215375
Ministry of Public Works and Equipment17553571010290192
Ministry of the Territory and Environment144105249651479
Central government (total)20,6178,40129,01812,0408,38620,426
Civil administration20,6178,40129,0189,7962,43712,233
Military administration2,2445,9498,193
Source: Ministry of Finance.

As of end-December 1996.

Source: Ministry of Finance.

As of end-December 1996.

Table 24.Burundi: Size, Composition, and Gross Salaries of the Civil Service, 1981–96
Size of Civil Service 1/Composition and Gross Salaries 2/3/Difference in total size 3/
StatutoryContractualTotal 3/TeachersNonteachersStatutory (Teachers & nonteachers)ContractualTotal civil service
NumberSalariesNumberSalariesNumberSalariesNumberSalariesSize 3/Salaries
19819,64111,06320,704
198210,24011,46521,705
198311,3869,99121,3777,9791,6795,2241,19713,2032,87610,28197923,4843,8552,107
198412,1528,56720,7198,6791,8705,3821,32814,0613,1988,66685522,7274,0532,008
198513,3458,07321,4189,5512,1255,8081,48215,3593,6068,24383623,6024,4432,184
198612,8858,10220,9879,0172,4416,1391,66015,1564,1018,24389223,3994,9922,412
198713,6438,39822,0419,6642,6076,3651,72916,0294,3378,55691824,5855,2542,544
198816,9958,48025,47510,1873,0776,7572,00516,9445,0838,70397125,6476,054172
198917,3648,76826,13211,8143,5116,9862,22418,8005,7369,0121,10027,8126,8361,680
199018,5358,94127,47612,8834,2047,6732,61120,5566,8149,2301,21129,7868,0262,310
199119,6948,64028,33413,3224,4687,8772,70521,1997,1728,6401,17329,8398,3461,505
199219,8238,50128,32413,8965,1447,7792,87221,6758,0168,5011,20730,1769,2231,852
199320,4398,16828,60714,5406,0598,1453,18622,6859,2458,3611,27131,04610,5162,439
199420,0588,32628,38414,2676,3938,3453,27122,6129,6638,3261,31730,93810,9812,554
199520,1598,67628,83514,6666,2658,2643,16522,9309,4308,6761,48431,60610,9142,771
199620,6478,15828,80515,1256,4848,5083,33023,6339,8148,1581,50531,79111,3202,986
Sources: Ministry of Finance; and Ministry of Public Service.

The source for these series is the Ministry of Finance.

The source for these series is the Ministry of Public Service, gross salaries are in millions of Burundi francs.

The large differences between the two sources’ totals for the size of the civil service, as well as for the number of statutory and contractual workers, remain to be explained; they demonstrate the need for more accurate information and a better management of the civil service and the government payroll.

Sources: Ministry of Finance; and Ministry of Public Service.

The source for these series is the Ministry of Finance.

The source for these series is the Ministry of Public Service, gross salaries are in millions of Burundi francs.

The large differences between the two sources’ totals for the size of the civil service, as well as for the number of statutory and contractual workers, remain to be explained; they demonstrate the need for more accurate information and a better management of the civil service and the government payroll.

Table 25.Burundi: Flows of On-lending to, and Repayments by, Public Enterprises, 1993–97(In millions of Burundi francs)
19931994199519961997
Budg.
On-lending to public enterprises2,5871,1331,2584051,939
REGEDESO846402732188774
ONATEL9231231303367
OCIBU762425331184523
OTB43116
COGERCO5249
Other enterprises152575
Repayments by public enterprises2,1713,2591,7891,7031,271
REGIDESO28086120
ONATEL80734311286186
OCIBU370734149231523
OTB7093
COGERCO5056449952
SOSUMO8567043511,087503
SIP45
SINELAC328
NOVOTEL926420
BCC13167
Other enterprises878
Source: Ministry of Finance.
Source: Ministry of Finance.
Table 26.Burundi: Outstanding Stock of Payments Arrears, 1994–96(In billions of Burundi francs)
199419951996
Est.
Ordinary budget2.2684.73615.567
Salaries0.0000.0000.079
Subsidies0.0000.0000.068
Domestic debt0.0000.0000.233
External debt1.0453.75612.314
Suppliers1.2230.9812.874
Investment budget0.4460.5810.989
Salaries0.0000.0000.060
Suppliers0.4460.5810.929
Total stock of outstanding arrears2.7145.31716.556
Domestic arrears1.6691.5614.242
External arrears1.0453.75612.314
Source: Ministry of Finance.
Source: Ministry of Finance.
Table 27.Burundi: Outstanding Arrears on External Debt, 1994–96(In millions of U.S. dollars)
199419951996
PrincipalInterestTotalPrincipalMerestTotalPrincipalInterestTotal
Multilateral debt1.91.63.54.93.68.510.95.216.1
IDA0.20.10.30.20.10.30.40.30.7
African Development Bank1.10.71.82.41.64.01.81.02.8
African Development Fund0.50.71.21.11.52.61.61.93.5
European Union0.00.00.00.10.10.10.80.41.3
European Investment Bank0.00.00.00.00.10.10.00.20.2
Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries0.00.00.00.00.00.02.00.22.2
Arab Bank for Economic for Economic Development in Africa0.00.00.01.00.31.33.40.84.3
FIDA0.20.10.20.00.00.00.70.20.9
Arab League0.00.00.00.10.00.10.20.00.2
UNDP0.00.00.00.00.00.00.10.10.1
Bilateral debt0.40.30.73.71.35.013.44.317.7
France (Caisse Française de Développement)0.00.00.00.80.00.82.61.74.3
Abu Dhabi0.00.00.00.00.00.00.50.10.6
Chine0.00.00.02.30.02.36.10.06.1
Saudi Arabia0.00.00.00.00.00.01.60.42.0
Kuwait0.40.20.60.60.20.82.60.73.3
Japan0.00.10.10.01.11.10.01.41.4
Italy (Mediocredito)0.00.00.00.00.00.00.00.00.0
Other debt 1/0.00.00.00.00.00.02.81.64.4
Total flow of arrears2.41.84.28.64.913.527.211.038.2
Source: Ministry of Finance.

This item is introduced to account for discrepancies between overall stock of external arrears and its components by creditor.

Source: Ministry of Finance.

This item is introduced to account for discrepancies between overall stock of external arrears and its components by creditor.

Table 28.Burundi: Domestic Public Debt by Creditor and by Instrument, 1992–97(End of period; in billions of Burundi francs)
199219931994199519961997 1/
Domestic public debt by creditor 2/15.613.813.616.126.028.3
Banking sector13.912.812.611.221.323.1
Central Bank11.79.38.79.512.712.1
Ordinary advances0.00.00.40.01.30.0
Special advances9.38.47.66.96.15,5
Exceptional advances0.60.40.20.00.00.0
Particular advances0.00.00.02.14.96.5
Advances (AfDB capital)0.10.10.00.00.00.0
Treasury certificates1.60.40.40.50.40.1
Commercial banks0.42.42.51.78.611.0
Investment bonds0.00.00.00.00.00.0
Treasury certificates0.32.32.51.78.611.0
Consortium advances (SOSUMO)0.10.10.00.00.00.0
CAMOFI1.20.00.00.00.00.0
Advances0.30.00.00.00.00.0
Treasury bonds0.60.00.00.00.00.0
Investment bonds0.10.00.00.00.00.0
Treasury certificates0.20.00.00.00.00.0
Consortium advances (SOSUMO)0.10.00.00.00.00.0
CCP0.51.11.40.00.00.0
Other financial establishments0.50.40.10.10.10.2
Treasury bonds0.10.10.10.10.10.1
Treasury certificates0.20.20.00.00.00.1
Consortium advances (SOSUMO)0.10.10.00.00.00.0
Other loans0.10.00.00.00.00.0
Nonfinancial sector1.20.60.94.84.65.0
Treasury bonds0.30.00.00.00.00.0
Treasury certificates1.00.60.31.81.62.1
Other loans0.00.00.63.03.02.9
Domestic public debt by instrument15.613.813.616.126.028.3
Treasury bonds1.00.10.10.10.10.1
Investment bonds0.10.00.00.00.00.0
Treasury certificates3.33.53.23.910.713.3
Advances of the central bank10.08.98.39.112.012.0
Other loans1.21.32.13.03.22.9
Source: Bank of the Republic of Burundi.

As of end-March 1997.

AfDB is the African Development Bank; CCP is Centre des Chèques Postaux; for full names of other enterprises, see Table

Source: Bank of the Republic of Burundi.

As of end-March 1997.

AfDB is the African Development Bank; CCP is Centre des Chèques Postaux; for full names of other enterprises, see Table

Table 29.Burundi: List of Public Enterprises, 1996 1/
AcronymName of EnterpriseReform ObjectiveTarget DateStatus of reform
Fully owned public enterprises
AIR BURUNDIAir BurundiPrivatize1994Pending
BCCBurundi Coffee CompanyNone
CAMOFICaisse de Mobilisation et de FinancementNone
COGERCOCompagnie de Gérence CotonnièrePrivatize1992Invitation to bid
COTEBUComplexe Textile de BujumburaPrivatize1992Performance contract
ECOSATEncadrement des Constructions Sociales et Aménagement des TerrainsNone
FDCFonds de Développement CommunalNone
FOSIPFonds de Soutien à l’Investissement PrivéNone
IN ABUImprimerie Nationale du BurundiPrivatize1993To be privatized by 1997
ONAPHAOffice National PharmaceutiquePrivatize1992To be privatized by 1998
ONATELOffice National des TélécommunicationsPrivatize1997Management to be privatized by 1997
ONATOUROffice National de la TourbePrivatizePending
OPHAVETOffice Pharmaceutique VétérinairePrivatizeTo be privatized by 1997
OTBOffice du Thé du BurundiPrivatizeManagement to be privatized
OTRACOOffice des Transports en CommunPrivatizeManagement to be privatized
REGIDESORégie de Distribution d’Eau et d’ElectricitéPrivatizeManagement to be privatized by 1999
SIPSociété Immobilière PubliqueNone
SOFIDHARSociété de Financement et Développement de l’Habitat UrbainNone
SRDISociété Régionale de Développement de 1’IMBONone
SRD RUMONGESociété Régionale de Développement de RumongeNone
Mixed ownership 2/
ALCOVITAliments Composés VitaminésPrivatize1992To be privatized by 1997
APEEAgences de Promotion des Echanges ExtérieursNone
BANCOBUBanque Commerciale du BurundiNone
BBCIBanque Burundaise pour le Commerce et l’InvestissementNone
BCBBanque de Crédit de BujumburaPrivatizeInvitation to bid
BNDEBanque Nationale pour le Développement EconomiqueNone
BPBBanque Populaire du BurundiNone
BRARUDIBrasseries et Limonaderies du BurundiPrivatize1994Merged
BUMINCOBurundi Mining CompanyNone
EPBExploitation du Port de BujumburaPrivatize1998Pending
FNGFonds National de GarantieNone
FPHUFonds de Promotion de l’Habitat UrbainNone
HPBHuilerie de Palme du BurundiPrivatize1993Pending
NOVOTELHotel NovotelNone
OCIBUOffice des Cultures Industrielles du BurundiRestructure
SBFSociété Burundaise de FinancementNone
SERSociété d’Exploitation de la Ferme RandaLiquidatePending
SHTBHotel Source du NilPrivatizeManagement to be privatized by 1998
SOBUGEASociété Burundaise de Gestion PortuairePrivatize1994Invitation to bid
SOCABUSociété d’Assurances du BurundiPrivatize1993Invitation to bid
SODECOSociété de Déparchage et de CommercialisationPrivatize1997Pending
SOGEMACSociété de Gestion du Marché Central de BujumburaNone
SOGESTAL NGOZISociété de Gestion des Stations de Lavage de NgoziPrivatizePending
SOKINABUSociété d’Exploitation de Quinquina du BurundiPrivatizePending
SOSUMOSociété Sucrière du MossoPrivatize1992Invitation to bid
SRD KAYANZASociété Régionale de Développement de KayanzaNone
SRD KIRIMIROSociété Régionale de Développement de KirimiroNone
SRD KIRUNDOSociété Régionale de Développement de KirundoNone
SRD MUMIRWASociété Régionale de Développement de MumirwaNone
TELECELTéléphonie Cellulaire du BurundiNone
UCARUnion Commerciale d’Assurances et de RéassurancesPrivatize1993Pending
UPCUsine de Produits en CotonPrivatize1994Pending
VERRUNDIVerrerie du BurundiPrivatize
Source: Service Chargé des Entreprises Publiques (SCEP)

Following the definition under the new public enterprise code promulgated on March 6, 1996 (loi no 1/002); situation as of May 26, 1996.

For government shares, see Table 30.

Source: Service Chargé des Entreprises Publiques (SCEP)

Following the definition under the new public enterprise code promulgated on March 6, 1996 (loi no 1/002); situation as of May 26, 1996.

For government shares, see Table 30.

Table 30.Burundi: Main Economic Indicators of Public Enterprises, Fiscal Years 1994 and 1995 1/
No.Public enterprisesEquity Capital (In millions of FBu)Equity Participation (In percent)Number of Regular StaffFY 1994FY 1995
TurnoverNet profitTurnoverNet profit
(In millions of FBu)(In millions of FBu)
Majority state participation
1AIR BURUNDI299100771,492261219
2ALCOVIT2199024146-12140-5
3APEE14452150-29-37
4BANQUE POPULAIRE7289565348-95321-239
5BBCI33079653648349-2
6BCC25100192,703-642,3347
7CAMOFI55810042484-196590-196
8COGERCO891001801,7442884931
9COTEBU2,5001001,4741,800-1,0251,906-547
10ECOSAT10100507309-156
11FDC5001005301
12FNG326871332-7313-79
13FOSIP409100
14FPHU40983283557535552
15IN ABU62100110110-37101-36
16NOVOTEL498509054729531-35
17OCIBU PATRIMOINE1821002
18ONAPHA105100633394132739
19ONATEL5971006364,0907595,368887
20ONATOUR5410084809767
21OPHAVET101001231-328-10
22OTB2,4281008003,063-7932,963-959
23OTRACO427100270328-21239-326
24REGIDESO1,4421001,1084,675-9924,000-4,737
25SBF86067396887-266850
26SIP400100611002165-69
27SOBUGEA469015255835733416
28SODECO27682151
29SOFIDAR300100
30SOGESTAL KIRIMIRO5068
31SOGESTAL MUMIRWA3082
32SOSUMO2,145993601,7063462,563396
33SOURCE DU NIL761651004094420324
34SRDI351009891168311
35SRDI RU1004-1680-105
36VERRUNDI1,832661766174733-294
Subtotal19,0846,72628,026-2,04526,690-6,353
B.Minority state participation
37BANCOBU33014181,91412,325126
38BCB400171942,111466
39BNDE7404361712-6174520
40BRARUDI-BRAGITA506411,10514,28894916,486826
41BUMINCO52648180-470-49
42EPB350433663686441390
43HPB116492572-1
44OCIBU SOCIAL773586
45SE RANDA16235
46SOCABU180391481,4211311,42180
47SOGEMAC2040241502616926
48SOGESTAL KAYANZA3014
49SOGESTAL KIRUNDO3148
50SOGESTAL NGOZI5127
51SOKINABU1051741017-47
52TELECEL BURUNDI5624016333-11330-66
53UCAR150195438373582
54UPC1051943128-501543
Subtotal4,4412,16221,8161,47522,4801,011
Total23,5258,88849,842-57049,171-5,342
Source: Office in charge of public enterprises.

Direct or indirect equity participation of government in public enterprises.

Source: Office in charge of public enterprises.

Direct or indirect equity participation of government in public enterprises.

Table 31.Burundi: Monetary Survey, December 1992–March 1997
199219931994199519961997
Dec.Mar.
(In billions of Burundi francs)
Net foreign assets22.526.137.345.137.039.5
Central bank22.925.635.743.531.635.3
Deposit money banks-0.40.51.61.75.44.2
Net domestic assets13.512.715.05.921.619.3
Domestic credit34.635.442.142.055.852.9
Net credit to the government0.7-2.51.04.610.812.7
Central government7.85.49.110.816.817.3
Treasury10.99.112.017.020.722.8
Other central government-3.1-3.7-3.0-6.3-3.9-5.6
Other government-7.1-7.9-8.1-6.2-6.0-4.6
Credit to the economy33.937.841.137.445.040.2
Credit to public enterprises7.12.73.72.42.42.2
Credit to the private sector26.835.137.435.042.638.0
Other items (net)-21.1-22.7-27.0-36.1-34.2-33.6
Money and quasi-money36.138.752.351.058.658.8
Money27.630.239.640.043.243.2
Currency in circulation12.914.419.119.524.023.5
Demand deposits14.715.820.620.519.219.5
Quasi-money8.58.512.711.115.315.6
Memorandum items:(In percent of beginning-of-year broad money, unless otherwise specified) 1/
Net foreign assets20.09.828.915.0-15.9-2.4
Net domestic assets-16.9-2.46.1-17.430.723.8
Domestic credit-7.32.217.2-0.227.130.9
Net credit to the government-11.1-8.89.06.912.226.7
Central government-6.7-6.79.53.311.9
Credit to the economy3.810.88.5-7.114.94.2
Credit to public enterprises-1.6-12.22.6-2.50.0-0.6
Credit to the private sector5.323.05.9-4.614.94.8
Money and quasi-money3.17.435.0-2.414.821.4
Velocity of money 2/6.36.15.26.05.9
Source: Bank of the Republic of Burundi.

Percentage changes for March 1997 are computed based on the stock of broad money as of end-March 1996.

Defined as GDP over broad money.

Source: Bank of the Republic of Burundi.

Percentage changes for March 1997 are computed based on the stock of broad money as of end-March 1996.

Defined as GDP over broad money.

Table 32.Burundi: Summary Accounts of the Bank of the Republic of Burundi, 1992–97(In millions of Burundi francs; end of period)
199219931994199519961997 1/
Foreign assets42,215.545,374.352,812.159,836.646,630.649,901.3
Of which
Reserve position in Fund1,908.62,131.82,106.82,422.42,711.12,747.9
SDR holdings 2/349.9184.751.219.136.95.3
Gold holdings196.3219.3216.7249.2276.9262.6
Credit to the government11,885.29,169.68,698.210,503.612,442.512,072.0
Ordinary 3/0.00.0438.10.01,332.20.0
Special 4/9,345.88,446.97,615.56,873.86,106.25,536.9
Exceptional 5/600.0400.0200.00.00.00.0
Particular 6/0.00.00.00.00.00.0
African Development Bank subscription87.058.029.00.00.00.0
Postal deposit account0.00.00.00.00.00.0
Treasury certificate advances1,852.4264.7415.61,469.884.155.1
Other advances0.00.00.02,160.04,920.06,480.0
Credit to banks550.03,354.72,528.02,145.69,239.36,525.4
Credit to other financial institutions1,615.51,487.0633.91,371.8761.21,222.1
Credit to official entities25.025.025.025.025.025.0
Credit to the private sector324.6420.6419.71,486.11,562.51,657.7
Other assets3,468.02,999.33,398.12,605.82,650.03,001.9
Total assets = Liabilities60,083.862,830.568,525.077,976.573,311.174,407.4
Reserve money16,797.217,616.822,292.522,114.126,346.326,692.4
Currency outside banks13,281.914,724.019,839.920,132.024,762.924,469.2
Deposits by banks2,524.91,774.41,803.21,365.71,211.71,605.5
Deposits by other financial institutions65.126.46.313.031.5146.0
Deposits by other official entities925.01,091.7641.9563.1295.9456.6
Other monetary liabilities0.30.30.340.344.315.1
Government deposits7,417.48,302.77,713.810,837.07,305.98,747.5
Central government6,249.07,271.66,077.48,207.75,462.27,329.4
Government agencies1,141.3999.31,443.52,568.31,700.61,215.8
Local administration27.131.8192.961.0143.1202.3
Import deposits1,123.31,019.2842.01,163.5540.41,178.9
Foreign liabilities3,871.33,663.72,687.72,266.91,978.11,844.9
Medium- and long-term foreign borrowing 7/15,434.816,152.414,798.014,573.013,529.713,293.9
SDR allocation4,460.94,982.54,924.15,661.96,336.76,422.6
Other liabilities10,978.911,093.215,266.921,360.117,274.016,227.2
Source: Bank of the Republic of Burundi.

Through end-March.

Gold valued at SDR 35 per fine troy ounce.

Ordinary advances are extended to the government to cover ordinary budget operations; their level cannot exceed 10 percent of the previous year’s current revenue.

Special advances are extended to finance selected projects. They have a maturity often years. Before 1982, they carried no interest. They are not included in the amount equal to 10 percent of the previous year’s current revenue that limits ordinary advances.

Exceptional advances were introduced in 1982 to consolidate at the end of each year the outstanding amounts of ordinary advances that were not repaid.

Particular advances are short-term loans.

Includes borrowing from the Fund.

Source: Bank of the Republic of Burundi.

Through end-March.

Gold valued at SDR 35 per fine troy ounce.

Ordinary advances are extended to the government to cover ordinary budget operations; their level cannot exceed 10 percent of the previous year’s current revenue.

Special advances are extended to finance selected projects. They have a maturity often years. Before 1982, they carried no interest. They are not included in the amount equal to 10 percent of the previous year’s current revenue that limits ordinary advances.

Exceptional advances were introduced in 1982 to consolidate at the end of each year the outstanding amounts of ordinary advances that were not repaid.

Particular advances are short-term loans.

Includes borrowing from the Fund.

Table 33.Burundi: Summary Accounts of Deposit Money Banks, 1992–97(In millions of Burundi francs; end of period)
199219931994199519961997 1/
Foreign assets1,541.32,553.24,733.04,760.27,876.96,763.5
Reserves2,472.51,930.22,242.11,327.61,721.42,239.9
Cash349.2284.0766.5638.7788.4988.5
Deposits with the central bank 2/2,123.31,646.21,475.6688.9933.01,251.4
Total credit33,638.238,422.345,137.641,134.251,434.648,658.8
Credit to the government1,661.72,465.15,105.66,741.98,767.311,313.2
Commercial banks444.12,428.35,084.66,740.58,765.911,313.2
Caisse Centrale de Mobilisation et de Financement (CAMOFI)1,217.636.821.01.41.40.0
Caisse d’Epargne du Burundi (CADEBU)0.00.00.00.00.00.0
Credit to the economy31,976.535,957.240,032.034,392.342,667.337,345.6
Commercial banks29,748.433,261.136,880.230,690.338,336.437,345.6
Credit to public enterprises 3/5,804.31,602.02,760.41,331.51,684.82,204.6
Credit to the private sector23,844.031,556.534,021.729,161.535,715.133,982.7
Credit to other financial institutions100.1102.698.1197.3936.51,158.3
CAMOFI2,228.12,696.13,151.83,702.04,330.9
CADEBU0.00.00.00.00.00.0
Total deposits28,082.728,728.937,707.832,822.337,273.136,551.0
Government deposits6,432.86,567.96,464.53,638.04,203.63,200.9
Nongovernment deposits21,649.922,161.031,243.329,184.333,069.533,350.1
Demand deposits13,178.513,614.118,584.618,118.217,724.717,798.1
Time and savings deposits8,471.48,546.912,658.711,066.115,344.815,552.0
Refinancing from the central bank516.23,262.62,595.81,550.49,215.26,647.3
Foreign liabilities1,902.22,035.53,198.03,091.12,477.32,535.3
Commercial banks1,861.61,969.43,154.93,048.02,448.3235.3
CAMOFI40.666.143.143.129.029.0
Capital and reserves5,536.87,449.58,690.88,630.012,158.411,830.4
Other items (net)1,614.31,129.2-39.71,282.2-91.198.2
Source: Burundi authorities.

Through end-March.

Excluding Caisse d’Epargne du Burundi.

Including shares in the capital of public enterprises.

Source: Burundi authorities.

Through end-March.

Excluding Caisse d’Epargne du Burundi.

Including shares in the capital of public enterprises.

Table 34.Burundi: Summary Accounts of Burundi Development Bank (BNDE), Burundi Financing Company (SBF), Caisse Centrale de Mobilisation et de Financement (CAMOFI), and Société de Gestion Financière (SOGEFI) 1992–97(In millions of Burundi francs; end of period)
199219931994199519961997 1/
BNDE
Credit to the economy6,527.07,223.77,706.58,021.48,631.18,025.9
Of which: Private Sector5,353.06,565.96,711.77,395.88,168.77,591.0
Other assets1,000.0734.41,237.41,787.92,329.82,243.0
Assets = Liabilities7,527.07,958.18,943.99,809.210,960.910,268.9
Liabilities to other financial institutions847.01,091.0104.2160.2904.3146.1
Foreign liabilities2,895.03,812.64,495.95,117.05,222.05,278.5
Capital and reserves1,835.01,967.42,230.72,669.53,217.53,281.9
Other liabilities1,950.01,087.12,113.11,862.51,617.11,562.4
SBF
Reserves23.070.023.334.453.896.9
Credit to the economy4,675.04,572.04,266.04,715.65,116.94,875.5
Of which: private sector3,509.83,829.43,547.53,799.14,382.64,162.9
Other assets1,389.31,427.51,345.31,291.71,216.41,215.3
Assets = Liabilities6,087.66,069.95,634.66,041.76,386.56,187.7
Capital and reserves1,062.01,169.01,025.5911.81,139.01,160.6
Other liabilities5,025.64,900.94,609.15,129.95,247.55,027.1
SOGEFI 2/
Foreign assets0.012.612.815.515.3
Credit to the economy328.0374.4511.0865.6910.6
Of which: private sector328.0339.1482.9802.0847.0
Other assets243.8228.0422.8145.3176.9
Assets = Liabilities571.8615.0946.91,026.41,102.8
Capital and reserves132.7128.8243.2370.7485.6
Other liabilities439.4486.2703.4655.7617.2
CAMOFI 3/18.1
Foreign assets1.4
Credit to government4,029.0
Of which: private sector
Other assets1,054.7
Assets = Liabilities5,104.0
Government deposits752.8
Nongovernment deposits1,349.0
Capital and reserves-255.0
Foreign liabilities29.0
Other liabilities3,228.2
Source: Burundi authorities.

Through end-March.

SOGEFI was created in 1992.

CAMOFI was reclassified as a nonbank financial institution in early 1997.

Source: Burundi authorities.

Through end-March.

SOGEFI was created in 1992.

CAMOFI was reclassified as a nonbank financial institution in early 1997.

Table 35.Burundi: Outstanding Amount of Treasury Certificates, 1992–97 1/(In millions of Burundi francs; period average, unless otherwise specified)
199219931994199519961997 2/
One month2,382.12,619.01,985.91,687.14980.78650.3
Three months976.9881.01,173.72,245.95772.15786.2
Total3,359.03,500.03,159.63,933.010,752.814,436.5
Variation (net)1,859.6141.0-340.4773.46,819.83,683.7
Outstanding treasury certificates (in percent of stock of broad money at beginning of period)9.09.68.17.521.1
Source: Bank of the Republic of Burundi.

These figures do not include treasury certificates sold by the central bank in the open market, which amounted to FBu 2.3 billion as at end-September 1995.

Through end-March.

Source: Bank of the Republic of Burundi.

These figures do not include treasury certificates sold by the central bank in the open market, which amounted to FBu 2.3 billion as at end-September 1995.

Through end-March.

Table 36.Burundi: Distribution of Credit to the Economy, 1992–95
1992199319941995 1/
(In millions of Burundi francs, unless otherwise specified
Short term28,759.930,709.535,757.634,994.5
In percent of total68.265.770.070.2
Of which
Agricultural activities439.9413.1476.7434.5
Industrial activity3,668.04,665.34,623.84,140.3
Trade14,875.011,915.013,391.615,803.6
Of which: coffee exports5,904.91,294.33,313.73,519.5
Medium term6,696.28,145.77,261.56,261.0
In percent of total15.917.515.412.6
Of which
Agricultural activities355.3305.2170.4118.2
Civil engineering9,275.01,435.61,595.21,693.5
Industrial activity1,563.21,783.61,730.91,081.2
Trade860.4941.91,091.5968.8
Transport and transit867.0802.7608.0443.2
Long term6,695.87,866.27,443.38,618.4
In percent of total 2/15.916.814.617.3
Of which
Agricultural activities295.3299.3296.1288.3
Civil engineering3,554.73,579.53,641.55,132.4
Other services118.8157.3299.970.2
Trade165.3307.9574.9413.0
Total 3/42,151.946,721.451,062.449,873.9
(In percent of total by activities)
Agricultural activities2.62.21.81.7
Civil engineering and other services10.913.612.715.8
Industrial activities12.418.816.914.9
Trade37.728.229.534.5
Transport and transit2.13.52.82.5
Source: Bank of the Republic of Burundi.

Up to August 1995.

Includes credit provided by commercial banks and other financial institutions.

Source: Bank of the Republic of Burundi.

Up to August 1995.

Includes credit provided by commercial banks and other financial institutions.

Table 37.Burundi: Structure of Interest Rates, 1992–97(In percent per annum)
199219931994199519961997 1/
Lending rates
Short-term loans17.016.916.415.915.415.7
Export credits13.88.88.610.112.012.1
Cash-flow credits18.017.817.916.816.616.8
Medium-term loans15.215.816.115.415.315.5
Housing construction16.216.716.916.616.416.6
Other medium-term loans14.815.515.914.814.915.2
Long-term loans13.514.114.615.015.015.1
Housing construction13.413.413.414.013.612.2
Other long-term loans13.514.214.815.315.115.3
Rediscount rate of the central bank11.010.010.010.010.010.0
Deposit rates
Demand deposits2.42.22.44.33.84.5
Passbook savings8.08.08.08.08.18.0
Time deposits
Less than 1 month9.49.09.39.08.78.6
Up to 12 months10.510.210.19.59.19.0
Up to 24 months10.512.212.512.18.68.6
More than 24 months11.511.511.812.98.58.5
Advance-notice deposits
Up to 1 month6.15.46.56.36.46.8
Up to 12 months5.55.55.57.59.67.5
Savings bonds
Up to 1 month11.39.18.5
Up to 12 months10.610.911.29.89.39.4
More than 12 months11.011.011.2
Source: Bank of the Republic of Burundi.

Through end-March.

Source: Bank of the Republic of Burundi.

Through end-March.

Table 38.Burundi: Balance of Payments, 1992–96(In millions of U.S. dollars, unless otherwise specified)
19921993199419951996
Trade balance-104.4-98.9-91.9-63.1-59.8
Exports, f.o.b.77.473.980.7112.540.1
Of which: coffee48.547.057.289.228.8
Imports, f.o.b.-181.8-172.8-172.6-175.6-100.0
Services (net)-130.0-109.3-88.0-94.0-64.2
Nonfactor services (net)-116.3-98.3-76.5-81.0-50.2
Factor services (net)-13.7-11.0-11.5-13.0-14.0
Private transfers (net)12.817.421.415.611.2
Current account (excluding official transfers)-221.5-190.7-158.5-141.4-112.8
Official transfers164.9163.4143.8136.156.3
Current account (including official transfers)-56.6-27.3-14.7-5.3-56.6
Capital account70.527.158.47.7-26.4
Direct investment0.60.3-0.11.40.0
Medium and long-term official loans (net)90.947.125.24.87.4
Disbursement112.770.450.840.346.2
Amortization-21.8-23.3-25.6-35.5-38.8
Other capital 1/-21.0-20.433.31.5-33.8
Overall balance13.8-0.243.72.4-83.0
Financing-13.40.2-43.8-2.483.0
Changes in net foreign assets (increase -)-13.40.2-47.9-11.858.3
Of which: net Fund credit18.6-4.2-6.2-9.1-8.7
Change in arrears (increase +)0.00.04.19.424.7
Financing gap0.00.00.00.00.0
Memorandum items:
Trade balance (in percent of GDP)-9.7-10.1-8.6-5.1-5.3
Current account (in percent of GDP)
Excluding grants-20.4-19.6-14.8-11.5-9.9
Including grants-5.3-2.8-1.4-0.4-5.0
Gross reserves
In millions of U.S. dollars178.5171.6213.9215.3144.7
In months of imports of goods and nonfactor services6.87.29.89.510.8
Net reserves (in months of imports of goods and nonfactors services)3.74.16.66.97.3
Debt outstanding (in percent of GDP)91.5106.7103.896.2103.4
Debt service (in percent of exports of goods and nonfactors services) 2/43.146.347.646.5123.4
Exchange rate
(FBu/U.S.$, period average)208.3242.8252.7249.8302.8
Coffee export price (cents/lb.)55.772.1123.9133.890.4
Sources: Burundi authorities; and Fund staff estimates and projections.

Includes private loans, shoit-term capital, and errors and omissions.

Debt service actually paid in percent of exports of goods and nonfactor services amounted to 43.3 percent in 1994, 39.2 percent in 1995, and 74.1 percent in 1996.

Sources: Burundi authorities; and Fund staff estimates and projections.

Includes private loans, shoit-term capital, and errors and omissions.

Debt service actually paid in percent of exports of goods and nonfactor services amounted to 43.3 percent in 1994, 39.2 percent in 1995, and 74.1 percent in 1996.

Table 39.Burundi: Balance of Payments, 1992–96(In millions of Burundi francs)
1992199319941995
Trade balance-21,835-24,031-23,230-15,753
Exports, f.o.b.16,02917,93220,37828,094
Of which: coffee10,11011,42214,44322,269
Imports, f.o.b.-37,864-41,963-43,608-43,847
Services (net)-27,077-26,532-22,237-23,375
Nonfactor (net)-24,232-23,858-19,333-20,223
Factor services (net)-2,845-2,674-2,904-3,152
Private transfers2,6764,2285,4093,901
Current account (excluding official transfers)-46,236-46,335-40,058-35,227
Official transfers34,35839,68236,33833,999
Current account (including official transfers)-11,878-6,653-3,720-1,228
Capital account14,6746,55914,7561,933
Direct investment12582-25345
Medium- and long-term official loans (net)18,92311,4306,3671,213
Disbursement23,46917,10112,82310,070
Amortization-4,546-5,671-6,456-8,857
Other capital and errors and omissions-4,374-4,9538,414375
Overall balance2,796-9411,036705
Financing-2,79694-11,035-705
Change in net foreign assets (increase -)-6,955-2,649-10,138-7,757
Of which: net Fund credit3,874-1,020-15,567-2,273
Change in arrears (increase +)001,0452,354
Reevaluation4,1592,743-1,9424,698
Sources: Burundi authorities; and Fund staff estimates.
Sources: Burundi authorities; and Fund staff estimates.
Table 40.Burundi: Composition of Exports, f.o.b., 1992–96(Value in millions of U.S. dollars; volume and unit value in indicated units)
19921993199419951996
Coffee
Value48.548.057.289.228.8
Volume (tons)39,52629,59520,94130,24514,471
Unit value (US$/kg.)1.21.62.72.92.0
Unit value (cents/lb.)55.772.1122.5131.590.7
Tea
Value9.29.29.39.74.7
Volume (tons)5,5805,7695,5756,7953,412
Unit value (US$/kg.)1.71.61.71.41.4
Cotton
Value0.03.33.41.70.0
Volume (tons)02,4452,1308890.0
Unit value (US$/kg.)1.31.31.61.90.0
Hides and skins
Value1.60.92.42.10.9
Volume (tons)951563839664355
Unit value (US$/kg.)1.71.52.83.22.5
Other primary products
Value4.13.92.92.91.6
Manufactured products
Value10.78.65.47.04.3
Reexports
Value3.20.00.00.00.0
Total export value77.473.980.5112.540.3
(percent change)-14.8-4.58.939.8-64.2
Sources: Burundi authorities; and Fund staff estimates.
Sources: Burundi authorities; and Fund staff estimates.
Table 41.Burundi: Composition of Imports, c.i.f., 1992–96(Values in millions of U.S. dollars; other units as indicated)
19921993199419951996
Capital goods
Value77.857.152.355.134.2
(percent change)-14.3-26.6-8.55.5-37.9
(percent change in volume)-17.4-22.7-11.2-5.2-36.1
(percent change in unit value)4.0-5.13.111.2-2.8
Intermediate goods
Value81.472.385.272.848.5
(percent change)-16.1-11.217.9-14.6-33.4
Petroleum products26.323.827.323.617.3
(percent change)-8.8-9.614.8-13.4-27.0
(percent change in volume)-8.32.121.4-19.9-38.6
(percent change in unit value)-0.5-11.4-5.58.018.9
Other55.048.457.949.231.2
(percent change)-19.2-12.019.7-15.1-36.5
(percent change in volume)-21.6-13.916.1-23.7-34.7
(percent change in unit value)3.02.33.111.2-2.8
Consumption goods
Value62.274.970.978.234.7
(percent change)-6.520.5-5.410.4-55.7
Food10.618.637.336.217.9
(percent change)-27.274.8100.5-2.8-50.7
(percent change in volume)-28.476.690.8-10.1-56.0
(percent change in unit value)1.6-1.05.18.112.1
Other51.656.433.642.016.8
(percent change)-0.69.3-40.525.1-60.0
(percent change in volume)-4.26.8-42.312.5-58.8
(percent change in unit value)3.72.33.111.2-2.8
Other (adjustments)-6.9-3.70.00.00.0
Total imports (c.i.f.)214.5200.5208.4206.2117.4
(percent change)-10.1-6.53.9-1.1-43.1
Sources: Burundi authorities; and Fund staff estimates.
Sources: Burundi authorities; and Fund staff estimates.
Table 42.Burundi: Services and Transfers, 1992–96(In millions of U.S. dollars)
19921993199419951996
Services (net)-130.1-109.3-87.9-94.1-64.4
Nonfactor services (net)-116.4-98.3-76.4-81.1-50.4
Credit17.314.214.516.310.0
Freight1.40.81.81.00.5
Passenger services0.81.21.31.00.9
Revenue from government services0.81.21.33.61.5
Travel3.83.31.91.41.2
Foreign governments9.96.77.28.44.4
Other0.51.00.90.91.5
Debit-133.7-112.5-90.9-97.4-60.4
Freight (including insurance)-32.7-28.5-35.8-30.6-17.4
Other freight-3.2-1.90.00.00.0
Travel-9.8-6.7-18.0-25.4-12.1
Government of Burundi (net)-14.0-10.2-18.9-21.1-18.7
Studies-17.4-14.6
Scholarships-11.1-12.9
Technical assistance-43.5-35.6-15.9-17.8-10.3
Other-2.0-2.1-2.4-2.5-1.9
Factor services (net)-13.7-11.0-11.5-13.0-14.0
Credit: investment income14.011.212.510.06.4
Debit-27.5-22.2-24.0-22.9-20.4
Dividends-4.2-2.9-3.4-3.1-1.5
Interest payments-16.5-13.3-13.6-15.3-14.4
Of which
Interest on public debt-15.0-12.1-12.6-14.1-13.3
Labor income-6.8-6.0-6.0-4.5-4.5
Property income-0.10.0-1.0-0.10.0
Transfers (net)180.5180.9189.2151.767.5
Private (net)12.817.421.415.611.3
Receipts14.219.222.317.512.1
Payments-1.4-1.8-0.9-1.9-0.8
Official receipts (net)167.7163.5143.8136.156.2
Credit169.2164.7144.7137.156.8
SAC cofinancing17.023.1
Other current grants88.988.9
STABEX12.89.3
Technical assistance54.745.9
Other current21.433.7
Capital grants63.352.7
Debit
Contribution to international organizations-1.5-1.2-0.9-1.0-0.6
Sources: Burundi authorities; and Fund staff estimates.
Sources: Burundi authorities; and Fund staff estimates.
Table 43.Burundi: Structure, Volume, and Prices of International Trade, 1992–96
19921993199419951996
(In percent of total)
Exports, f.o.b.100.0100.0100.0100.0100.0
Coffee62.864.578.977.667.7
Tea11.912.69.19.214.5
Cotton0.04.52.91.60.0
Eudes and skins2.01.22.02.01.9
Other primary products5.35.42.42.74.4
Manufactured products13.811.84.76.911.5
Reexports4.20.00.00.00.0
Imports, c.i.f.100.0100.0100.0100.0100.0
Intermediate goods36.835.440.935.341.3
Petroleum products11.911.713.111.514.7
Other24.923.727.823.826.6
Capital goods35.128.025.126.729.2
Consumer goods28.136.734.037.929.5
Foodstuffs4.89.117.917.615.2
Nonfoods tuffs23.327.616.120.414.3
(Index; 1985=100, unless otherwise indicated)
Export volume116.396.070.893.041.4
Export unit value (in U.S. dollars)58.266.9100.3106.485.2
Import volume85.883.582.182.145.8
Import unit value (in U.S. dollars)143.2139.8142.0144.6147.5
Terms of trade40.647.970.673.657.8
(Annual percentage change, unless otherwise indicated)
Export volume14.7-17.5-26.331.4-55.5
Export unit value (in U.S. dollars)-25.714.949.96.1-19.9
Import volume-9.5-2.7-1.70.0-44.2
Import unit value (in U.S. dollars)2.5-2.41.61.82.0
Terms of trade-27.517.747.64.2-21.5
Sources: Burundi authorities; and Fund staff estimates.
Sources: Burundi authorities; and Fund staff estimates.
Table 44.Burundi: Direction of Trade, 1992–97(In percent of total)
199219931994199519961997 1/
Exports, f.o.b.100.0100.099.8100.099.8100.0
European Union countries60.444.338.838.419.880.7
Belgium2.13.21.32.12.574.8
France2.94.13.51.80.00.0
Germany15.59.37.83.92.15.3
Italy1.30.71.11.20.80.0
United Kingdom5.825.424.128.413.40.6
Netherlands2.40.50.71.00.70.0
Spain, Portugal, Denmark1.91.1. 0.30.00.30.0
Others28.50.00.00.00.00.0
African countries19.925.110.112.624.514.8
Kenya4.911.94.75.23.80.0
Rwanda7.63.91.31.99.314.8
Uganda0.41.00.61.00.20.0
Zaire3.44.22.00.50.30.0
Others3.64.11.54.010.90.0
Finland1.40.00.00.00.00.0
Japan0.50.00.00.00.00.0
United States7.70.40.10.24.5
Others10.931.350.848.855.50.0
Imports, c.i.f.100.0100.0100.0100.0100.0100.0
European Union countries47.545.442.750.845.962.9
Belgium14.916.513.915.415.323.2
France11.111.611.410.18.621.0
Germany7.76.85.28.18.86.4
Italy3.53.23.03.93.91.6
Netherlands2.52.44.85.34.87.5
United Kingdom, Ireland2.72.82.44.02.50.9
Others5.12.12.03.91.92.2
African countries20.018.718.716.417.314.1
Kenya3.33.54.44.13.71.2
Malawi0.00.30.50.7
Tanzania8.910.12.52.73.20.2
Zaire0.61.11.20.80.80.8
Zambia2.92.23.33.33.58.2
Zimbabwe0.90.82.21.81.31.1
Others3.41.04.83.24.81.9
Iran3.33.57.21.31.8
Japan8.19.27.95.76.75.2
Other Asian countries8.98.215.319.022.613.7
United States4.34.43.74.94.61.1
Others7.910.64.51.92.91.2
Sources: Burundi authorities; Fund staff estimates; and quarterly trade statistics.

Through March.

Sources: Burundi authorities; Fund staff estimates; and quarterly trade statistics.

Through March.

Table 45.Burundi: Trade Flows with the Preferential Trade Area Countries, 1993–97 1/(In millions of Burundi francs)
19931994199519961997 2/
ExportsImportsExportsImportsExportsImportsExportsImportsExportsImports
Tanzania176.02,955.9346.51,404.51,126.71,562.01,1821,1790.014.5
Kenya1,924.81,601.41,412.52,481.11,362.52,388.34251,3920.071.5
Rwanda651.891.9406.096.7487.2129.11,04573.214.3482.1
Zambia5.61,218.715.91,835.542.01,931.74.21,297.60.00.0