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Relationship between CO2, fuel and electricity prices and the effect on Green House Gas (GHG) emissions in Nordic countries

Relationship between CO2, fuel and electricity prices and the effect on Green House Gas (GHG) emissions in Nordic countries »

Series: Nordic Council of Ministers

Publisher: Nordic Council of Ministers

Publication Date: 01 June 2008

ISBN: 9789289316781

Keywords: Nordic, Norden, Baltic, Baltics, Union Emissions Trading Scheme, Modelling and Forecasts, Market Fundamentals, Carbon Price Forecaster Model, Nordic Power Model, NordPool System Prices

The European Union emissions trading scheme (EU ETS) has rea-ched the end of the first phase (2005 to 2007) and the market has moved on to the next phase, which runs from 2008 to 2012. This report is divided into t...

The Missing Globalization Puzzle

The Missing Globalization Puzzle »

Source: The Missing Globalization Puzzle

Volume/Issue: 2002/171

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Rikhil Bhavnani , Natalia Tamirisa , Arvind Subramanian , and David Coe

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 October 2002

ISBN: 9781451858518

Keywords: trade, gravity model, distance, bilateral trade, trade costs, equation, transport costs, international trade, Trade: General, Trade Gravity Model,

The failure of declining trade-related costs to be reflected in estimates of the standard gravity model of bilateral trade might be called the "missing globalization puzzle." This puzzle is most apparent in the est...

North-South Trade

North-South Trade »

Source: North-South Trade : Is Africa Unusual?

Volume/Issue: 1998/94

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): David Coe , and Alexander Hoffmaister

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 June 1998

ISBN: 9781451851694

Keywords: gravity model, trade, bilateral trade, trading patterns, world trade, trade liberalization, trading blocs

We estimate a gravity model to address the question of whether Africa’s bilateral trade with industrial countries is “unusual” compared with other developing country regions. Our main finding i...

Trade and Income in the Long Run: Are There Really Gains, and Are They Widely Shared?*

Trade and Income in the Long Run: Are There Really Gains, and Are They Widely Shared?* »

Source: Trade and Income in the Long Run: Are There Really Gains, and Are They Widely Shared?

Volume/Issue: 2017/231

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Diego Cerdeiro , and Andras Komaromi

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 07 November 2017

ISBN: 9781484324851

Keywords: Income, Trade, Growth, Inequality, Gravity model, General

In the cross section of countries, there is a strong positive correlation between trade and income, and a negative relationship between trade and inequality. Does this reflect a causal relationship? We adopt the Fr...

A General Equilibrium Approach to Interenterprise Arrears in Transition Economies with Application to Russia

A General Equilibrium Approach to Interenterprise Arrears in Transition Economies with Application to Russia »

Source: A General Equilibrium Approach to Interenterprise Arrears in Transition Economies with Application to Russia

Volume/Issue: 1995/145

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Goohoon Kwon , and Se-Jik Kim

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 December 1995

ISBN: 9781451856491

Keywords: trade credit, commercialization, equilibrium model, transition economies, aggregate trade

This paper presents a general equilibrium model of interenterprise arrears, characterized by n-stage production technology with random productivity shocks. The model shows that large interenterprise arrears in tran...

Trade and Integration in the Caribbean

Trade and Integration in the Caribbean »

Source: Trade and Integration in the Caribbean

Volume/Issue: 2002/148

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Philippe Egoume Bossogo , and Chandima Mendis

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 September 2002

ISBN: 9781451856835

Keywords: integration, gravity model, dummy variable, equation, trade liberalization, bilateral trade, average trade, Neoclassical Models of Trade, Bahamas,

This paper analyzes trade in the Caribbean community (CARICOM) using a gravity model framework. The paper seeks to shed light on the dynamics of trade among CARICOM member countries, as well with the rest of world...

Import-Reducing Effect of Trade Barriers

Import-Reducing Effect of Trade Barriers »

Source: Import-Reducing Effect of Trade Barriers : A Cross-Country Investigation

Volume/Issue: 2001/216

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Qing Wang

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 December 2001

ISBN: 9781451954692

Keywords: Trade-Barriers, Tariff, non-tariff trade barriers, trade barriers, trade protection, bilateral trade, trade flows, tariff rates, Econometric Modeling,

A comprehensive empirical investigation is carried out to ascertain the import-reducing effect of trade protection barriers. We first present a statistical summary of the status of global trade protection. Then, ba...

Quantifying the Impact of Tradeon Wages

Quantifying the Impact of Tradeon Wages »

Source: Quantifying the Impact of Tradeon Wages : The Role of Nontraded Goods

Volume/Issue: 2002/191

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Stephen Tokarick

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 November 2002

ISBN: 9781451859720

Keywords: wage, unskilled labor, skilled labor, changes in trade, Neoclassical Models of Trade, Computable General Equilibrium Models,

This paper uses an applied general equilbrium model to decompose the effects of changes in trade and technology-related variables on wages of skilled and unskilled labor between 1982 and 1996 in the United States....

Trade Creation and Diversion Revisited

Trade Creation and Diversion Revisited »

Source: Trade Creation and Diversion Revisited : Accounting for Model Uncertainty and Natural Trading Partner Effects

Volume/Issue: 2008/66

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Chris Papageorgiou , Christian Henn , and Theo Eicher

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 March 2008

ISBN: 9781451869286

Keywords: Trade Creation and Trade Diversion, Preferential Trade Agreements, Bayesian Model Averaging, Country-Pair Fixed Effects, trade creation, trade flows, trade diversion, bilateral trade, trade agreements,

Trade theories covering Preferential Trade Agreements (PTAs) are as diverse as the literature in search of their empirical support. To account for the model uncertainty that surrounds the validity of the competing...

Intra-Arab Trade

Intra-Arab Trade »

Source: Intra-Arab Trade : Is it too Little?

Volume/Issue: 2000/10

Series: IMF Working Papers

Author(s): Tarik Yousef , and Hassan Al-Atrash

Publisher: INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

Publication Date: 01 January 2000

ISBN: 9781451842685

Keywords: Arab countries, gravity model, bilateral trade, regional integration, trade patterns, intraregional trade, per capita income

This paper estimates a gravity model to address the issue of whether intra-Arab trade is too little. Although gravity models have been extensively used to measure bilateral trade among countries, they have—t...