Epidemiological and intervention studies have increased both public and expert awareness of the possible importance of blood sugar regulation and the varying glycemic index of foods in the etiology and treatment of chronic diseases. Generally a low glycemic index diet is considered beneficial due to less incremental increase in blood levels of glucose than with a high glycemic index diet. Nordic dietary habits include a large number of carbohydrate rich food items, many of which are likely to fall into the category of high glycemic index. Evaluation of the evidence and the practical implications of these studies on nutrition recommendations have to be clarified. The report sheds a light to the strengths and weaknesses of the glycemic index.