Back Matter

Back Matter

International Monetary Fund
Published Date:
October 2015
    • ShareShare
    Show Summary Details

      Acemoğlu, Daron, and James A.Robinson.2010. Why Nations Fail: The Origins of Power, Prosperity and Poverty. Crown Business.

      Amin, Mohammad, VeselinKuntchev, and MartinSchmidt.2015. “Gender Inequality and Growth: The Case of Rich vs. Poor Countries.Policy Research Working Paper 7172. World Bank, Washington.

      AndersonDerek, Jorge IvanCanales Kriljenko, PauloDrummond, PedroEspaillat, and DirkMuir.Forthcoming. “Spillovers from China onto Sub-Saharan Africa: Insights from the Flexible System of Global Models (FSGM).IMF Working Paper, International Monetary Fund, Washington.

      Arezki, Rabah, and MarkusBrückner.2012. “Commodity Windfalls, Democracy and External Debt.Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society122 (561): 84866.

      Arezki, Rabah, and K.Ismail.2013. “Boom-Bust Cycle, Asymmetrical Fiscal Response and the Dutch Disease.Journal of Development Economics101: 25667.

      Arze del Granado, F. J., D.Coady, and R.Gillingham.2012. “The Unequal Benefits of Fuel Subsidies: A Review of Evidence for Developing Countries.World Development40(11): 2234248.

      Baird, S., E.Chirwa, C.McIntosh, and B.Ozler.2009. “The Short-Term Impacts of a Schooling Conditional Cash Transfer Program on the Sexual Behavior of Young Women.” Policy Research Working Paper 5089, World Bank, Washington.

      Balakrishnan, R., C.Steinberg, and M.Syed.2013. “The Elusive Quest for Inclusive Growth: Growth, Poverty and Inequality in Asia.IMF Working Paper 13/152, Washington, International Monetary Fund.

      Banque africaine de développement (BAfD). 2015. Economic Empowerment of African Women through Equitable Participation in Agricultural Value Chains. Abidjan: African Development Bank.

      Banque mondiale. 2012. World Development Report: Gender Equality and Development. Washington: World Bank.

      Banque mondiale. 2013. “Women, Business and the Law 2013. Removing Restrictions to Enhance Gender Equality.World Bank/International Finance Corporation, Washington.

      Banque mondiale. 2015a. “A Fiscal Incidence Analysis for Ethiopia.Chapter 5 in “Ethiopia Poverty Assessment 2014.”World Bank, Washington.

      Banque mondiale. 2015b. “Purchasing Power Parities and the Real Size of World Economies: A Comprehensive Report of the 2011 International Comparison Program.World Bank, Washington.

      Barro, R.2000. “Inequality and Growth in a Panel of Countries.Journal of Economic Growth5(1): 532.

      Bardhan, P. K.2005. Scarcity, Conflicts, and Cooperation: Essays in the Political and Institutional Economics of Development. Cambridge, Massachusetts: MIT Press.

      Bayoumi, Tamim, JaewooLee, and SarmaJayanthi.2005. “New Rates from New Weights.IMF Working Paper 99. International Monetary Fund, Washington.

      Beegle, Kathleen, LucChristiaensen, AndrewDabalen, and IsisGaddis.Forthcoming. “Africa is Rising, but are People Better off?World Bank, Washington.

      Beck, Thorsten, AsliDemirgüç-Kunt, and RossLevin.2005. “Bank Concentration and Fragility: Impact and Mechanics.NBER Working Paper 11500, National Bureau of Economic Research, Cambridge, Massachusetts.

      Belotti, F., S.Daidone, G.Ilardi, and V.Atella.2012. “Stochastic Frontier Analysis Using Stata.Center for Economic and International Studies, CEIS Tor Vergata Research Paper 10 (12).

      Bems, Rudolf, and Robert C.Johnson.2012. “Value Added Exchange Rates.Working Paper No. 18498, National Bureau of Economic Research, Cambridge, Massachusetts, October.

      Berg, Andrew, Jonathon D. Ostry, and JerominZettelmayer.2012. “What Makes Growth Sustained?Journal of Development Economics, (98) 14966.

      Benabou, Roland.1996. “Inequality and Growth.In National Bureau of Economic Research Macroeconomics Annual, edited by BenBernanke and JulioRotembergCambridge: MIT Press.

      Berg, A., and J.Ostry.2011. “Inequality and Unsustainable Growth: Two Sides of the Same Coin?Staff Discussion Note 11/09, International Monetary Fund, Washington.

      Besley, Timothy, and TorstenPersson.2011. “The Pillars of Prosperity: The Political Economics of Development Clusters.The Yrjö Jahnsson Lectures. Princeton: Princeton University Press.

      Bhorat, H., K.Naidoo, and K.Pillay.2015. “Growth, Poverty and Inequality Interactions in Africa. An Overview of Key Issues.” Unpublished.

      Brückner, Markus, and AntonioCiccone.2010. “International Commodity Prices, Growth and the Outbreak of Civil War in Sub-Saharan Africa.Economic Journal120(544): 51934.

      Bucellato, T., and M.Alessandrini.2009. “Natural Resources: A Blessing or a Curse? The Role of Inequality.Discussion Paper 98, Center for Financial Management Studies.

      Bulir, A.2001. “Income Inequality: Does Inflation Matter?IMF Staff Papers48(1):13959.

      Castello-Climent, A.2010. “Inequality and Growth in Advanced Economies: An Empirical Investigation.Journal of Economic Inequality8(3): 293321.

      Castelló-Climent, A., and R.Doménech.2014. “Human Capital and Income Inequality: Some Facts and Some Puzzles.BBVA Working Paper 12/28, Madrid, March.

      Chevalier, A., K.Denny, and D.McMahon.2003. “A Multi-Country Study of Inter-Generational Educational Mobility.ISSC Discussion Paper 2003/6.

      Christiansen, L., L.Demery, and J.Kuhl.2007. “The Role of Agriculture in Poverty Reduction: An Empirical Perspective.Policy Research Working Paper 4013, World Bank, Washington, September.

      Corak, M.2013. “Income Inequality, Equality of Opportunity, and Intergenerational Mobility.Journal of Economic Perspectives27(3): 79102.

      Cox, D. R.1972. “Regression Models and Life-Tables.Journal of the Royal Statistical SocietyB34(2): 187220.

      Cuberes, David, and MarcTeignier.Forthcoming. “Aggregate Costs of Gender Gaps in the Labor Market: A Quantitative Estimate.The Journal of Human Capital.

      Dabla-Norris, E., K.Kochhar, N.Suphaphidat, F.Ricka, and E.Tsounta.2015a. “Causes and Consequences of Inequality: A Global Perspective.IMF Staff Discussion Note 15/13, International Monetary Fund, Washington.

      Dabla-Norris, E., R.Townsend, and D.F.Unsal.2015b. “Identifying Constraints to Financial Inclusion and their Impact on GDP and Inequality: A Structural Framework for Policy.IMF Working Paper 15/22, International Monetary Fund, Washington.

      Deaton, A., and R.Miller.1995. “International Commodity Prices, Macroeconomic Performance, and Politics in Sub-Saharan Africa.Princeton Studies in International Finance 79, Princeton, New Jersey.

      De Gregorio, José D., and Holger C.Wolf.1994. “Terms of Trade, Productivity and the Real Exchange Rate.NBER Working Paper 4807, National Bureau of Economic Research, Cambridge, Massachusetts.

      Dehn, Jan.2000. “Commodity Price Uncertainty and Shocks: Implications for Economic Growth.Working Paper Series 2000-10, Centre for the Study of African Economies, University of Oxford, Cambridge, UK.

      Dell’Ariccia, Giovanni, DenizIgan, LucLaeven, and HuiTong.2012. “Policies for Macrofinancial Stability: How to Deal with Credit Booms.IMF Staff Discussion Note 12/06, International Monetary Fund, Washington.

      Demirgüç-Kunt, Asli, and EnricaDetragiache.1998. “The Determinants of Banking Crises in Developing and Developed Countries.IMF Staff Papers45(1): 1109.

      Demirgüç-Kunt, Asli, Leora FKlapper, and DorotheSinger.2013. “Financial Inclusion and Legal Discrimination Against Women: Evidence from Developing Countries.Policy Research Working Paper No. 6416, World Bank, Washington.

      Drehmann, Mathias, and MikaelJuselius.2013. “Evaluating Early Warning Indicators of Banking Crises: Satisfying Policy Requirements.BIS Working Paper No. 421, Bank for International Settlements, Basel.

      Duflo, E.2003. “Grandmothers and Granddaughters: Old-Age Pensions and Intrahousehold Allocation in South Africa.The World Bank Economic Review17(1): 125.

      Eichengreen, Barry.2007. “The Real Exchange Rate and Economic Growth.Background Paper for the World Bank Growth Commission presented to the commission meeting in New York City, 9April.

      Elborgh-Woytek, K., M.Newiak, K.Kochhar, S.Fabrizio, K.Kpodar, P.Wingender, B.Clements, and G.Schwartz.2013. “Women, Work, and the Economy: Macroeconomic Gains from Gender Equity.IMF Staff Discussion Note 13/10, International Monetary Fund, Washington.

      Esteve-Volart, Berta.2004. “Gender Discrimination and Growth: Theory and Evidence from India.LSE STICERD Research Paper DEDPS 42, London.

      Fabrizio, Stefania, RodrigoGarcia-Verdu, CatherinePattilo, AdrianPeralta, AndreaPresbitero, BaopingShang, GenevieveVerdier, Marie-ThereseCamilleri, PatriziaTumbarello, MoniqueNewiak, MartinČihák, InciÖtker, FelipeZanna, and CarolBaker.2015. “From Ambition to Execution: Policies in Support of Sustainable Development Goals.IMF Staff Discussion Note 15/18, International Monetary Fund, Washington.

      Feder, Gershon.1983. “On Exports and Economic Growth.Journal of Development Economics12 (1–2): 5973.

      Fenochietto, Ricardo, and CarolaPessino.2010. “Determining Countries’ Tax Effort.Hacienda Publica Española/Revista de Economia Publica195(4): 6587. Instituto de Estudios Fiscales.

      Fenochietto, Ricardo, and CarolaPessino.2013. “Understanding Countries’ Tax Effort.IMF Working Paper No. 13/244, International Monetary Fund, Washington.

      Fonds monétaire international (FMI). 2011. «Mobilisation des recettes dans les pays en développementDocument de politique générale, Fonds monétaire international, Washington, mars.

      Fonds monétaire international (FMI)2012. “Fiscal Regimes for Extractive Industries: Design and Implementation.IMF Policy Paper, International Monetary Fund, Washington, August.

      Fonds monétaire international (FMI)2014a. “South Africa Selected Issues Paper.IMF Country Report 14/339, International Monetary Fund, Washington.

      Fonds monétaire international (FMI)2014b. “Spillovers in International Corporate Taxation.IMF Policy Paper, International Monetary Fund, Washington, May.

      Fonds monétaire international (FMI)2015a. “Current Challenges in Revenue Mobilization—Improving Tax Compliance.IMF Policy Paper, International Monetary Fund, Washington, February.

      Fonds monétaire international (FMI)2015b. “Kenya—Request for Stand-By Arrangement and an Arrangement under the Standby Credit Facility.IMF Country Report No. 15/31, International Monetary Fund, Washington, February.

      Fonds monétaire international (FMI)2015c. “Financing for Development: Revisiting the Monterey Consensus.IMF Policy Paper, International Monetary Fund, Washington, July.

      Fonds monétaire international (FMI)2015d. “Fiscal Policy and Long-Term Growth.IMF Policy Paper, International Monetary Fund, Washington, April.

      Fonds monétaire international (FMI)2015e. “Making Public Investment More Efficient.IMF Policy Paper, International Monetary Fund, Washington.

      Fonds monétaire international (FMI)2015f. Perspectives de l’ économie mondiale. Études économiques et financières, Fonds monétaire international, Washington, octobre.

      Galor, O., and J.Zeira.1993. “Income Distribution and Macroeconomics.The Review of Economic Studies60(1): 3552.

      Gelb, Alan, ChristianMeyer, and VijayaRamachandran.2013. “Does Poor Mean Cheap? A Comparative Look at Africa’s Industrial Labor Costs.Working Paper 325, Center for Global Development, Washington.

      Gonzales, C., S.Jain-Chandra, K.Kochhar, and M.Newiak.2015. “Fair Play: More Equal Laws Boost Female Labor Force Participation.IMF Staff Discussion Note 15/02, International Monetary Fund, Washington.

      Gonzales, C., S.Jain-Chandra, K.Kochhar, M.Newiak, and T.Zeinullayev.Forthcoming. “Catalyst for Change: Empowering Women and Tackling Income Inequality.IMF Staff Discussion Note, International Monetary Fund, Washington.

      Greenwood, J., and B.Jovanovic.1990. “Financial Development, Growth, and the Income Distribution.Journal of Political Economy98: 10761107.

      Grown, C., and I.Valodia, editors. 2010. “Taxation and Gender Equity: A Comparative Analysis of Direct and Indirect Taxes in Developing and Developed Countries.Routledge International Studies in Money and Banking (Book 58).

      Hallward-Driemeier, M., and T.Hasan.2013. “Empowering Women. Legal Rights and Economic Opportunities in Africa.International Bank for Reconstruction and Development/World Bank, Washington.

      Hausmann, Ricardo, LantPritchett, and DaniRodrik.2005. “Growth Accelerations.Journal of Economic Growth10(4): 30329.

      Hausmann, Ricardo, César A.Hidalgo, SebastiánBustos, MicheleCoscia, SarahChung, JuanJimenez, AlexanderSimoes, and Muhammed A.Yildirim.2011. The Atlas of Economic Complexity: Mapping Paths to Prosperity. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Puritan Press.

      Heintz, J.2006. Globalization, Economic Policy and Employment: Poverty and Gender Implications. Geneva: International Labour Organization.

      Johnson, Simon, Jonathon D.Ostry, and ArvindSubramanian.2010. “Prospects for Sustained Growth in Africa: Benchmarking the Constraints.IMF Staff Papers, 57(1): 11971.

      Keen, Michael, and MarioMansour.2009. “Revenue Mobilization in Sub-Saharan Africa: Challenges from Globalization.IMF Working Paper No. 09/157, International Monetary Fund, Washington.

      Keen, M.2013. “Targeting, Cascading, and Indirect Tax Design.IMF Working Paper No. 13/57, International Monetary Fund, Washington.

      Kinda, Tidiane, MontieMlachila, and RasmanéOuedraogo.Forthcoming. “Commodity Price Shocks and Financial Sector Fragility.IMF Working Paper, International Monetary Fund, Washington.

      Klasen, S.1999. “Does Gender Inequality Reduce Growth and Development? Evidence from Cross-Country Regressions.Policy Research Report, Engendering Development Working Paper No. 7, World Bank, Washington.

      Kochhar, R.2015. “A Global Middle Class Is More Promise than Reality, From 2001 to 2011, Nearly 700 Million Step Out of Poverty, but Most Only Barely.Pew Research Center, Washington, July.

      Kuznets, S.1955. “Economic Growth and Income Inequality.American Economic Review45:128.

      Laeven, Luc, and Fabián V.Valencia.2013. “Systemic Banking Crisis Database: An Update.IMF Economic Review61: 22570.

      Lichbach, M. I.1989. “An Evaluation of ‘Does Economic Inequality Breed Political Conflict?’ Studies.World Politics41(4): 43170.

      Marchettini, Daniela, and RodolfoMaino.2015. “Systemic Risk Assessment in Low Income Countries: Balancing Financial Stability and Development.IMF Working Paper No 15/190. Washington.

      Mecagni, Mauro, Juan SebastianCorrales, JemmaDridi, RodrigoGarcia-Verdu, PatrickImam, JustinMatz, CarlaMacario, RodolfoMaino, YibinMu, AshwinMoheeput, FutoshiNarita, MarcoPani, ManuelRosales, SebastianWeber, and EtienneYehoue.2015. “Dollarization in Sub-Saharan Africa: Experience and Lessons.IMF African Department Paper No. 15/4, International Monetary Fund, Washington.

      Miller, G.2008, “Women’s Suffrage, Political Responsiveness, and Child Survival in American History.The Quarterly Journal of Economics (August): 1287326.

      Mundlak, Yair.1978. “On the Pooling of Time Series and Cross Section Data.Econometrica46(1): 6985.

      Nauges, C., and J.Strand.2013. “Water Hauling and Girls’ School Attendance. Some New Evidence from Ghana.Policy Research Working Paper 6443, World Bank, Washington.

      Neves, P.C., and S. M. T.Silva.2013. “Inequality and Growth: Uncovering the Main Conclusions from the Empirics.The Journal of Development Studies50(1): 121.

      Ortiz Vidal-Abarca, Álvaro, and Alfonso UgarteRuiz.2015. “Introducing a New Early Warning System Indicator (EWSI) of Banking Crises.BBVA Working Paper 15/02, BBVA Research, Madrid.

      Ostry, J., A.Berg, and C.Tsangarides.2014. “Redistribution, Inequality, and Growth.IMF Staff Discussion Note 14/02, International Monetary Fund, Washington.

      Phillips, Steven, LuisCatáo, LucaAntonio Ricci, RudolfsBems, MitaliDas, Julian diGiovanni, D. FilizUnsal, MarolaCastillo, JungjinLee, JairRodriguez, MauricioVargas.2013. “The External Balance Assessment (EBA) Methodology.IMF Working Paper No. 133, International Monetary Fund, Washington.

      Ravallion, M.2002. “Inequality Convergence.Policy Research Working Paper, World Bank, Washington.

      Rodrik, Dani.2008. “The Real Exchange Rate and Economic Growth.Brookings Papers on Economic Activity, Fall.

      Rogoff, Kenneth D.1996. “The Purchasing Power Parity Puzzle.Journal of Economic Literature, 34(2): 64768.

      Roine, J., J.Vlachos, and D.Waldenstrom.2009. “The Longrun Determinants of Inequality: What Can We Learn from Top Income Data?Journal of Public Economics93(7/8): 97488.

      Rosenzweig, M.1990. “Population Growth and Human Capital Investments: Theory and Evidence.Journal of Political Economy98(5): 3870.

      Rubalcava, L., G.Teruel, and D.Thomas.2004. “Spending, Saving and Public Transfers to Women.California Center of Population Research UCLA, On-Line Working Paper Series, CCPR-024-04.

      Sala-i-Martin, X.2002. “The World Distribution of Income (Estimated from Individual Country Distributions).NBER Working Paper 8933, National Bureau of Economic Research, Cambridge, Massachusetts.

      Sahay, Ratna, MartinČihák, PapaN’Diaye, AdolfoBarajas, RanBi, DianaAyala, YuanGao, AnnetteKyobe, LamNguyen, ChristianSaborowski, KatsiarynaSvirydzenka, and Seyed RezaYousefi.2015. “Rethinking Financial Deepening: Stability and Growth in Emerging Markets.IMF Staff Discussion Note 15/08, International Monetary Fund, Washington.

      Soares, Rodrigo R.2005. “Mortality Reductions, Educational Attainment, and Fertility Choice.American Economic Review95(3): 580601.

      Soares, Rodrigo R., and Bruno L. S.Falcao.2008. “The Demographic Transition and the Sexual Division of Labor.Journal of Political Economy116(6): 1058104.

      Solt, Frederick.2014. “The Standardized World Income Inequality Database.Working Paper, SWIID 5.0.

      Stotsky, J. G.2006. “Gender and its Relevance to Macroeconomic Policy: A Survey.IMF Working Paper 06/233, International Monetary Fund, Washington.

      Thomas, D.1990. “Intra-Household Resource Allocation. An Inferential Approach.The Journal of Human Resources25(4) 63564.

      Thomas, Charles, JaimeMarquez, and SeanFahle.2008. “Measuring U.S. International Relative Prices.Federal Reserve Board International Finance Discussion Paper No. 917, Federal Reserve Board, Washington.

      Tsangarides, Charalambos.2012. “Determinants of Growth Spells: Is Africa Different?IMF Working Paper No. 227, International Monetary Fund, Washington.

      Tulin, Volodymyr, and KorneliaKrajnyák.2010. “How Expensive is Norway? New International Relative Price Measures.IMF Working Paper No. 133, International Monetary Fund, Washington.

      Wanjala, B., and M.Wersig. 2011. “Gender and Taxation in Kenya.In Challenging Gender Inequality in Tax Policy Making: Comparative Perspectives, edited by KimBrooks, AsaGunnarson, LisaPhilipps, and MariaWersig.United Kingdom: Hart Publishing Ltd.

      Wooldridge, Jeremy M.2010. Econometric Analysis of Cross Section and Panel Data. Cambridge, Massachusetts: MIT Press.

      Zanello, Alessandro, and DominiqueDesruelle.1997. “A Primer on the IMF Information Notice System.International Monetary Fund, Washington.

    Publications du Département Afrique du FMI, 2009–15

    Livres et monographies


    • The East African Community: Quest for Regional Integration

    • Drummond, Paulo, S.K. Wajid et Oral Williams


    • The Mystery of Missing Real Spillovers in Southern Africa: Some Facts and Possible Explanations

    • Basdevant, Olivier, Andrew W. Jonelis, Borislava Mircheva et Slavi T. Slavov


    • Building a Common Future in Southern Africa

    • Mongardini, Joannes, Tamon Asonuma, Olivier Basdevant, Alfredo Cuevas, Xavier Debrun, Lars Holger Engstrom, Imelda M. Flores Vazquez, Vitaliy Kramarenko, Lamin Leigh, Paul R. Masson et Geneviève Verdier


    • Oil Wealth in Central Africa: Policies for Inclusive Growth

    • Coorey, Sharmini et Bernardin Akitoby


    • The Impact of the Global Financial Crisis on Sub-Saharan Africa

    • Département Afrique


    • Tanzania: The Story of an African Transition

    • Nord, Roger, Yuri Sobolev, David Dunn, Alejandro Hajdenberg, Niko Hobdari, Samar Maziad et Stéphane Roudet

    Documents du département Afrique


    • Toward a Monetary Union in the East African Community: Asymmetric Shocks, Exchange Rates, and Risk-Sharing Mechanisms

    • Drummond, Paulo, Ari Aisen, C. Emre Alper, Ejona Fuli et Sebastien Walker


    • Building Resilience in Sub-Saharan Africa’s Fragile States

    • Gelbard, Enrique, Corinne Délechat, Ejona Fuly, Mumtaz Hussain, Ulrich Jacoby, Dafina Mulaj, Marco Pani, Gustavo Ramirez et Rui Xu


    • Sustaining More Inclusive Growth in the Republic of Congo

    • Hakura, Dalia, Adrian Alter, Matteo Ghilardi, Rodolfo Maino, Cameron McLoughlin et Maximilien Queyranne


    • Mozambique Rising: Building a New Tomorrow

    • Ross, Doris, Victor Duarte Lledo, Alex Segura-Ubiergo, Yuan Xiao, Iyabo Masha, Alun H. Thomas et Keiichiro Inui


    • The Mystery of Missing Real Spillovers in Southern Africa: Some Facts and Possible Explanations

    • Basdevant, Olivier, Andrew W Jonelis, Borislava Mircheva et Slavi T. Slavov


    • Issuing International Sovereign Bonds: Opportunities and Challenges for Sub-Saharan Africa

    • Mecagni, Mauro, Jorge Iván Canales Kriljenko, Cheikh A. Gueye, Yibin Mu, Masafumi Yabara et Sebastian Weber


    • Managing Volatile Capital Flows: Experiences and Lessons for Sub-Saharan African Frontier Markets

    • Gueye, Cheikh, Javier Arze del Granado,

    • Rodrigo Garcia-Verdu, Mumtaz Hussain, B. Jang, Sebastian Weber et Juan S Corrales


    • Mali: Achieving Strong and Inclusive Growth with Macroeconomic Stability

    • Josz, Christian


    • Responding to Shocks and Maintaining Stability in the West African Economic and Monetary Union

    • Kolerus, Christina, Aleksandra Zdzienicka, Ermal Hitaj et Douglas J. Shapiro


    • West African Economic and Monetary Union: Financial Depth and Macrostability

    • Imam, Patrick A. et Christina Kolerus


    • Senegal: Financial Depth and Macrostability

    • Imam, Patrick A. et Christina Kolerus


    • Senegal: Achieving High and Inclusive Growth While Preserving Fiscal Sustainability

    • Kireyev, Alexei et Gaston K. Mpatswe


    • Banking in Sub-Saharan Africa: The Macroeconomic Context

    • Mlachila, Montfort, Seok Gil Park et Masafumi Yabara


    • Energy Subsidy Reform in Sub-Saharan Africa: Experiences and Lessons

    • Alleyne, Trevor et Mumtaz Hussain


    • Boom, Bust, or Prosperity? Managing Sub-Saharan Africa’s Natural Resource Wealth

    • Lundgren, Charlotte J., Alun H. Thomas et Robert C. York


    • Restoring Sustainability in a Changing Global Environment: Options for Swaziland

    • Basdevant, Olivier, Emily Forrest et Borislava Mircheva


    • Macroeconomic Vulnerabilities Stemming from the Global Economic Crisis: The Case of Swaziland

    • Basdevant, Olivier, Chikako Baba et Borislava Mircheva


    • What Do Fast Job Creators Look Like? Some Stylized Facts and Perspectives on South Africa

    • Zhan, Zaijin


    • South Africa: Macro Policy Mix and Its Effects on Growth and the Real Exchange Rate—Empirical Evidence and GIMF Simulations

    • Canales-Kriljenko, Jorge Iván


    • Measuring the Potential Output of South Africa

    • Klein, Nir


    • In the Wake of the Global Economic Crisis: Adjusting to Lower Revenue of the Southern African Customs Union in Botswana, Lesotho, Namibia, and Swaziland

    • Mongardini, Joannes, Dalmacio Benicio, Thomson Fontaine, Gonzalo C. Pastor et Geneviève Verdier


    • Zimbabwe: Challenges and Policy Options after Hyperinflation

    • Kramarenko, Vitaliy, Lars H. Engstrom, Geneviève Verdier, Gilda Fernandez, Stefan E. Oppers, Richard Hughes, James McHugh et Warren L. Coats


    • Expenditure Composition and Economic Developments in Benin

    • Pani, Marco et Mohamed El Harrak


    • Wage Policy and Fiscal Sustainability in Benin

    • Lundgren, Charlotte J.


    • The Global Financial Crisis and Adjustments to Shocks in Kenya, Tanzania, and Uganda: A Balance Sheet Analysis Perspective

    • Masha, Iyabo


    • Impact of the Global Financial Crisis on Exchange Rates and Policies in Sub-Saharan Africa

    • Ben Ltaifa, Nabil, Stella Kaendera et Shiv Dixit


    • Spillover Effects and the East African Community: Explaining the Slowdown and the Recovery

    • Drummond, Paulo et Gustavo Ramirez


    • Foreign Exchange Reserve Adequacy in East African Community Countries

    • Drummond, Paulo, Aristide Mrema, Stéphane Roudet et Mika Saito

    Document de politique générale


    • Pan-African Banks - Opportunities and Challenges for Cross-Border Oversight

    • Rédigé par une équipe dirigée par Charles Enoch, Paul Mathieu et Mauro Mecagni.

    Notes de réflexion des services du FMI


    • Economic Diversification in LICs: Stylized Facts and Macroeconomic Implications

    • Papageorgiou, Chris et Nicola Spatafora


    • The International Financial Crisis and Global Recession: Impact on the CEMAC Region and Policy Considerations

    • Wakeman-Linn, John, Rafael A. Portillo, Plamen Iossifov et Dimitre Milkov


    • The Global Financial Crisis: Impact on WAEMU Member Countries and Policy Options

    • Mueller, Johannes, Irene Yackovlev et Hans Weisfeld


    • The Southern African Development Community’s Macroeconomic Convergence Program: Initial Performance

    • Burgess, Robert


    • Fiscal Policy in Sub-Saharan Africa in Response to the Impact of the Global Crisis

    • Berg, Andrew, Norbert Funke, Alejandro Hajdenberg, Victor Duarte Lledo, Rolando Ossowski, Martin Schindler, Antonio Spilimbergo, Shamsuddin Tareq et Irene Yackovlev

    Documents de travail


    • Systemic Risk Assessment in Lo Income Countries: Balancing Financial Stability and Development

    • Marchettini, Daniela et Rodolfo Maino


    • On the Drivers of Inflation in Sub-Saharan Africa

    • Nguyen, Anh D. M., Jemma Dridi, D. Filiz Unsal et Oral Williams


    • Sub-Saharan Employment Developments: The Important Role of Household Enterprises with an Application to Rwanda

    • Alun H. Thomas


    • Household Financial Acces and Risk Sharing in Nigeria

    • Carlson, Stacey, Era Dabla-Norris, Mika Saito et Yu Shi


    • Network Effects of International Shocks and Spillovers

    • Kireyev, Alexei et Andrei Leonidov


    • Pension Reforms in Mauritius: Fair and Fast—Balancing Social Protection and Fiscal Sustainability

    • Soto, Mauricio, Vimal Thakoor et Martin Petri


    • How to Improve the Effectiveness of Monetary Policy in the West African Economic and Monetary Union

    • Kireyev, Alexei


    • Do Resource Windfalls Improve the Standard of Living in Sub-Saharan African Countries?: Evidence from a Panel of Countries

    • Munseob Lee et Cheikh A. Gueye


    • Remittances and Macroeconomic Volatility in African Countries

    • Jidoud, Ahmat


    • Harnessing Resource Wealth for Inclusive Growth in Fragile States

    • Delechat, Corinne, Will Clark, Pranav Gupta, Malangu Kabedi-Mbuyi, Mesmin Koulet-Vickot, Carla Macario, Toomas Orav, Manuel Rosales, Renee Tapsoba, Dmitry Zhdankin et Susan Yang


    • Fiscal Policy Implications for Labor Market Outcomes in Middle-Income Countries

    • Stepanyan, Ara, et Lamin Leigh


    • Revisiting teh Concept of Dollarization: The Global Financial Crisis and Dollarization in Low-Income Countries

    • Mwase, Nkunde, et Francis Y. Kumah


    • Global Financial Transmission into Sub-Saharan Africa—A Global Vector Autoregression Analysis

    • Canales Kriljenko, Jorge Iván, Mehdi Hosseinkouchack et Alexis Meyer-Cirkel


    • Safe Debt and Uncertainty in Emerging Markets: An Application to South Africa

    • Saxegaard, Magnus


    • A Quality of Growth Index for Developing Countries: A Proposal

    • Mlachila, Montfort, Rene Tapsoba et Sampawende J.-A. Tapsoba


    • Introducing a Semi-Structural Macroeconomic Model for Rwanda

    • Charry, Luisa, Pranav Gupta et Vimal Thakoor


    • How Solid is Economic Growth in the East African Community?

    • Gigineishvili, Nikoloz, Paolo Mauro et Ke Wang


    • Islamic Finance in Sub-Saharan Africa: Status and Prospects

    • Gelbard, Enrique, Mumtaz Hussain, Rodolfo Maino, Yibin Mu et Etienne B. Yehoue


    • Africa Rising: Harnessing the Demographic Dividend

    • Drummond, Paulo, Vimal Thakoor et Shu Yu


    • Does Openness Matter for Financial Development in Africa?

    • David, Antonio, Montfort Mlachila et Ashwin Moheeput


    • Surging Investment and Declining Aid: Evaluating Debt Sustainability in Rwanda

    • Clark, Will et Birgir Arnason


    • Natural Gas, Public Investment and Debt Sustainability in Mozambique

    • Melina, Giovanni et Yi Xiong


    • Africa’S Rising Exposure to China: How Large Are Spillovers Through Trade?

    • Drummond, Paulo et Estelle X. Liu


    • Money Targeting in a Modern Forecasting and Policy Analysis System: an Application to Kenya

    • Andrle, Michal, Andrew Berg, Enrico Berkes,

    • Rafael A Portillo, Jan Vlcek et R. Armando Morales


    • The Investment-Financing-Growth Nexus: The Case of Liberia

    • Clark, Will et Manuel Rosales


    • Making Monetary Policy More Effective: The Case of the Democratic Republic of the Congo

    • Fischer, Felix, Charlotte J. Lundgren et Samir Jahjah


    • Fiscal Discipline in WAEMU: Rules, Institutions, and Markets

    • Hitaj, Ermal et Yasin Kursat Onder


    • Inclusive Growth and Inequality in Senegal

    • Kireyev, Alexei


    • Africa’s Got Work to Do: Employment Prospects in the New Century

    • Fox, Louise, Cleary Haines, Jorge Huerta Muñoz et Alun Thomas


    • Resource Dependence and Fiscal Effort in Sub-Saharan Africa

    • Thomas, Alun et Juan P. Treviño


    • Benchmarking Structural Transformation Across the World

    • Dabla-Norris, Era, Alun H. Thomas, Rodrigo Garcia-Verdu et Yingyuan Chen


    • Tax Administration Reform in the Francophone Countries of Sub-Saharan Africa

    • Fossat, Patrick et Michel Bua


    • Financial Depth in the WAEMU: Benchmarking Against Frontier SSA Countries

    • Ahokpossi, Calixte, Kareem Ismail, Sudipto Karmakar et Mesmin Koulet-Vickot


    • Investing Volatile Oil Revenues in Capital-Scarce Economies: An Application to Angola

    • Richmond, Christine, Irene Yackovlev et Shu-Chun Yang


    • Fiscal Sustainability, Public Investment, and Growth in Natural Resource-Rich, Low-Income Countries: The Case of Cameroon

    • Samaké, Issouf, Priscilla Muthoora et Bruno Versailles


    • Inclusive Growth: An Application of the Social Opportunity Function to Selected African Countries

    • Adedeji, Olumuyiwa, Huancheng Du et Maxwell Opoku-Afari


    • Inclusive Growth and the Incidence of Fiscal Policy in Mauritius—Much Progress, But More Could be Done

    • David, Antonio et Martin Petri


    • The Quality of the Recent High-Growth Episode in Sub-Saharan Africa

    • Mlachila, Montfort et Marcelo Martinez


    • Benchmarking Banking Sector Efficiency Across Regional Blocks in Sub-Saharan Africa: What Room for Policy?

    • Boutin-Dufresne, Francois, Santiago Peña, Oral Williams et Tomasz A. Zawisza


    • Monetary Transmission Mechanism in the East African Community: An Empirical Investigation

    • Davoodi, Hamid, Shiv Dixit et Gabor Pinter


    • Determinants of Bank Interest Margins in Sub-Saharan Africa

    • Ahokpossi, Calixte


    • Exchange Rate Liberalization in Selected Sub-Saharan African Countries: Successes, Failures, and Lessons

    • Mœhle, Nils, Haimanot Teferra et Armine Khachatryan


    • Inward and Outward Spillovers in the SACU Area

    • Canales-Kriljenko, Jorge Iván, Farayi Gwenhamo et Saji Thomas


    • Bond Markets in Africa

    • Mu, Yibin, Peter Phelps et Janet Stotsky


    • Inequalities and Growth in the Southern African Customs Union (SACU) Region

    • Basdevant, Olivier, Dalmacio Benicio et Yorbol Yakhshilikov


    • Striking an Appropriate Balance Among Public Investment, Growth, and Debt Sustainability in Cape Verde

    • Mu, Yibin


    • The East African Community: Prospects for Sustained Growth

    • McAuliffe, Catherine, Sweta Saxena et Masafumi Yabara


    • Financing Growth in the WAEMU through the Regional Securities Market: Past Successes and Current Challenges

    • Diouf, Mame Astou et Francois Boutin-Dufresne


    • Exchange Rate and Foreign Interest Rate Linkages for Sub-Saharan Africa Floaters

    • Thomas, Alun


    • A Financial Conditions Index for South Africa

    • Gumata, Nombulelo, Nir Klein et Eliphas Ndou


    • Estimating the Implicit Inflation Target of the South African Reserve Bank

    • Klein, Nir


    • Monetization in Low- and Middle-Income Countries

    • McLoughlin, Cameron et Noriaki Kinoshita


    • The Relationship between the Foreign Exchange Regime and Macroeconomic Performance in Eastern Africa

    • Stotsky, Janet Gale, Olumuyiwa Adedeji, Manuk Ghazanchyan et Nils O. Maehle


    • Exchange Rate Pass-Through in Sub-Saharan African Economies and its Determinants

    • Razafimahefa, Ivohasina Fizara


    • Welfare Effects of Monetary Integration: The Common Monetary Area and Beyond

    • Asonuma, Tamon, Xavier Debrun et Paul R. Masson


    • As You Sow So Shall You Reap: Public Investment Surges, Growth, and Debt Sustainability in Togo

    • Andrle, Michal, Antonio David, Raphael A. Espinoza, Marshall Mills et Luis-Felipe Zanna


    • Tracking Short-Term Dynamics of Economic Activity in Low-Income Countries in the Absence of High-Frequency GDP Data

    • Opoku-Afari, Maxwell et Shiv Dixit


    • Mobilizing Revenue in Sub-Saharan Africa: Empirical Norms and Key Determinants

    • Drummond, Paulo, Wendell Daal, Nandini Srivastava et Luiz E. Oliveira


    • Monetary Policy in Low-Income Countries in the Face of the Global Crisis: The Case of Zambia

    • Baldini, Alfredo, Jaromir Benes, Andrew Berg, Mai Dao et Rafael Portillo


    • Fiscal Policies and Rules in the Face of Revenue Volatility Within Southern Africa Customs Union Countries (SACU)

    • Basdevant, Olivier


    • Real Wage, Labor Productivity, and Employment Trends in South Africa: A Closer Look

    • Klein, Nir


    • Exchange Rate Volatility Under Peg: Do Trade Patterns Matter?

    • Lonkeng Ngouana, Constant


    • Assessing Bank Competition within the East African Community

    • Sanya, Sarah et Matthew Gaertner


    • Prudential Liquidity Regulation in Developing Countries: A Case Study of Rwanda

    • Sanya, Sarah, Wayne Mitchell et Angelique Kantengwa


    • Capital Market Integration: Progress Ahead of the East African Community Monetary Union

    • Yabara, Masafumi


    • International Reserves in Low-Income Countries: Have They Served as Buffers?

    • Cripolti, Valerio et George Tsibouris


    • Inflation Differentials in the GCC: Does the Oil Cycle Matter?

    • Mohaddes, Kamiar et Oral Williams


    • Effectiveness of Capital Controls in Selected Emerging Markets in the 2000s

    • Baba, Chikako et Annamaria Kokenyne


    • How Costly Are Debt Crises?

    • Furceri, Davide et Aleksandra Zdzienicka


    • Monetary Policy Transmission in Ghana: Does the Interest Rate Channel Work?

    • Kovanen, Arto


    • Does Money Matter for Inflation in Ghana?

    • Kovanen, Arto


    • On the Stability of Monetary Demand in Ghana: A Bounds Testing Approach

    • Dagher, Jihad et Arto Kovanen


    • Oil-Price Boom and Real Exchange Rate Appreciation: Is There Dutch Disease in the CEMAC?

    • Treviño, Juan Pedro


    • The Design of Fiscal Adjustment Strategies in Botswana, Lesotho, Namibia, and Swaziland

    • Basdevant, Olivier, Dalmacio Benicio, Borislava Mircheva, Joannes Mongardini, Geneviève Verdier, Susan Yang et Luis-Felipe Zanna


    • Do Remittances Reduce Aid Dependency?

    • Kpodar, Kangni et Maelan Le Goff


    • Determinants of Non-oil Growth in the CFA-Zone Oil Producing Countries: How Do They Differ?

    • Tabova, Alexandra et Carol L. Baker


    • Inflation Dynamics in the CEMAC Region

    • Caceres, Carlos, Marcos Poplawski-Ribeiro et Darlena Tartari


    • External Sustainability of Oil-Producing Sub-Saharan African Countries

    • Takebe, Misa et Robert C. York


    • The Cyclicality of Fiscal Policies in the CEMAC Region

    • Mpatswe, Gaston K., Sampawende J. Tapsoba et Robert C. York


    • South Africa: The Cyclical Behavior of the Markups and Its Implications for Monetary Policy

    • Klein, Nir


    • Burkina Faso—Policies to Protect the Poor from the Impact

    • of Food and Energy Price Increases

    • Arze del Granado, Javier et Isabell Adenauer


    • De Jure versus De Facto Exchange Rate Regimes in Sub-Saharan Africa

    • Slavov, Slavi T.


    • Financial Deepening, Property Rights and Poverty: Evidence from Sub-Saharan Africa

    • Singh, Raju Jan et Yifei Huang


    • FDI from BRICs to LICs: Emerging Growth Driver?

    • Mlachila, Montfort et Misa Takebe


    • Determinants of Interest Rate Pass-Through:

    • Do Macroeconomic Conditions and Financial Market

    • Structure Matter?

    • Gigineishvili, Nikoloz


    • The Quest for Higher Growth in the WAEMU Region: The Role of Accelerations and Decelerations

    • Kinda, Tidiane et Montfort Mlachila


    • Fiscal Policy Implementation in Sub-Saharan Africa

    • Lledo, Victor Duarte et Marcos Poplawski Ribeiro


    • Post-Conflict Recovery: Institutions, Aid, or Luck?

    • David, Antonio, Fabiano Rodrigues Bastos et Marshall Mills


    • Ghana: Will It Be Gifted, or Will It Be Cursed?

    • Aydin, Burcu


    • Oil Spill(over)s: Linkages in Petroleum Product Pricing Policies in West African Countries

    • David, Antonio, Mohamed El Harrak, Marshall Mills et Lorraine Ocampos


    • Feeling the Elephant’s Weight: The Impact of Côte d’Ivoire’s Crisis on WAEMU Trade

    • Egoumé-Bossogo, Philippe et Ankouvi Nayo


    • ICT, Financial Inclusion, and Growth Evidence from African Countries

    • Andrianaivo, Mihasonirina et Kangni Kpodar


    • Fiscal Sustainability and the Fiscal Reaction Function for South Africa

    • Burger, Philippe, Alfredo Cuevas, Ian Stuart et Charl Jooste


    • Reviving the Competitive Storage Model: A Holistic Approach to Food Commodity Prices

    • Miao, Yanliang, Weifeng Wu et Norbert Funke


    • Inflation Uncertainty and Relative Price Variability in

    • WAEMU

    • Fernandez Valdovinos, Carlos et Kerstin Gerling


    • Modeling Inflation in Chad

    • Kinda, Tidiane


    • Fiscal Expectations under the Stability and Growth Pact: Evidence from Survey Data

    • Poplawski-Ribeiro, Marcos et Jan-Christoph Rulke


    • Growth in Africa under Peace and Market Reforms

    • Korbut, Olessia, Gonzalo Salinas et Cheikh A. Gueye


    • Feeling the Elephant’s Weight: The Impact of Côte d’Ivoire’s Crisis on WAEMU Trade

    • Egoumé-Bossogo, Philippe et Nayo Ankouvi


    • Capital Flows, Exchange Rate Flexibility, and the Real Exchange Rate

    • Kinda, Tidiane, Jean-Louis Combes et Patrick Plane


    • Weathering the Global Storm: The Benefits of Monetary Policy Reform in the LA5 Countries

    • Canales-Kriljenko, Jorge Iván, Luis Ignacio Jácome, Ali Alichi et Ivan Luis de Oliveira Lima


    • Export Tax and Pricing Power: Two Hypotheses on the Cocoa Market in Côte d’Ivoire

    • Kireyev, Alexei


    • What Can International Cricket Teach Us About the Role

    • of Luck in Labor Markets?

    • Aiyar, Shekhar et Rodney Ramcharan


    • Performance of Fiscal Accounts in South Africa in a Cross-Country Setting

    • Aydin, Burcu


    • Cyclicality of Revenue and Structural Balances in South Africa

    • Aydin, Burcu


    • Mother, Can I Trust the Government? Sustained Financial Deepening—A Political Institutions View

    • Quintyn, Marc et Geneviève Verdier


    • Islamic Banking: How Has It Diffused?

    • Imam, Patrick A. et Kangni Kpodar


    • A Macro Model of the Credit Channel in a Currency Union Member: The Case of Benin

    • Samaké, Issouf


    • How Do International Financial Flows to Developing Countries Respond to Natural Disasters?

    • David, Antonio


    • Exchange Rate Assessment for Sub-Saharan Economies

    • Aydin, Burcu


    • Balance Sheet Vulnerabilities of Mauritius during a Decade of Shocks

    • Imam, Patrick A. et Rainer Koehler


    • Beyond Aid: How Much Should African Countries Pay to Borrow?

    • Gueye, Cheikh A. et Amadou N.R. Sy


    • Banking Efficiency and Financial Development in Sub-Saharan Africa

    • Kablan, Sandrine


    • FDI Flows to Low-Income Countries: Global Drivers and Growth Implications

    • Dabla-Norris, Era, Jiro Honda, Amina Lahrèche-Révil et Geneviève Verdier


    • The Linkage between the Oil and Nonoil Sectors—A Panel VAR Approach

    • Klein, Nir


    • Short- versus Long-Term Credit and Economic Performance: Evidence from the WAEMU

    • Kpodar, Kangni et Kodzo Gbenyo


    • Budget Institutions and Fiscal Performance in Low-Income Countries

    • Dabla-Norris, Era, Richard Allen, Luis-Felipe Zanna, Tej Prakash, Eteri Kvintradze, Victor Duarte Lledo, Irene Yackovlev et Sophia Gollwitzer


    • ICTEquipment Investment and Growth in Low- and Lower-Middle-Income Countries

    • Haacker, Markus


    • The Real Exchange Rate and Growth Revisited: The Washington Consensus Strikes Back?

    • Berg, Andrew et Yanliang Miao


    • Firm Productivity, Innovation, and Financial Development

    • Dabla-Norris, Era, Eramus Kersting et Geneviève Verdier


    • Cyclical Patterns of Government Expenditures in

    • Sub-Saharan Africa: Facts and Factors

    • Lledo, Victor, Irene Yackovlev et Lucie Gadenne


    • A Framework to Assess the Effectiveness of IMF Technical Assistance in National Accounts

    • Pastor, Gonzalo C.


    • Improving Surveillance Across the CEMAC Region

    • Iossifov, Plamen, Noriaki Kinoshita, Misa Takebe, Robert C. York et Zaijin Zhan


    • A Rule Based Medium-Term Fiscal Policy Framework for Tanzania

    • Kim, Daehaeng et Mika Saito


    • Analyzing Fiscal Space Using the MAMS Model: An Application to Burkina Faso

    • Gottschalk, Jan, Vu Manh Le, Hans Lofgren et Kofi Nouve


    • Determinants and Macroeconomic Impact of Remittances in Sub-Saharan Africa

    • Singh, Raju Jan, Markus Haacker et Kyung-woo Lee


    • São Tomé and Príncipe: Domestic Tax System and Tax Revenue Potential

    • Farhan, Nisreen


    • The Gambia: Demand for Broad Money and Implications for Monetary Policy Conduct

    • Sriram, Subramanian S.


    • Understanding the Growth of African Markets

    • Yartey, Charles Amo et Mihasonirina Andrianaivo


    • Credit Growth in Sub-Saharan Africa—Sources, Risks, and Policy Responses

    • Iossifov, Plamen et May Y. Khamis


    • Spillovers from the Rest of the World into Sub-Saharan African Countries

    • Drummond, Paulo, Flavio Nacif et Gustavo Ramirez


    • In Search of Successful Inflation Targeting: Evidence from an Inflation Targeting Index

    • Miao, Yanliang


    • Introducing the Euro as Legal Tender—Benefits and Costs of Eurorization for Cape Verde

    • Imam, Patrick A.


    • The Macroeconomics of Scaling Up Aid: The Gleneagles Initiative for Benin

    • Mongardini, Joannes et Issouf Samaké


    • Sub-Saharan Africa’s Integration in the Global Financial Markets

    • Deléchat, Corinne, Gustavo Ramirez, Smita Wagh, et John Wakeman-Linn


    • Financial Deepening in the CFA Franc Zone: The Role of Institutions

    • Singh, Raju, Kangni Kpodar et Dhaneshwar Ghura


    • Madagascar: A Competitiveness and Exchange Rate Assessment

    • Eyraud, Luc


    • Understanding Inflation Inertia in Angola

    • Klein, Nir et Alexander Kyei


    • Grants, Remittances, and the Equilibrium Real Exchange Rate in Sub-Saharan African Countries

    • Mongardini, Joannes et Brett Rayner


    • Dedollarization in Liberia—Lessons from Cross-Country Experience

    • Erasmus, Lodewyk, Jules Leichter et Jeta Menkulasi


    • The Macroeconomic Impact of Scaled-Up Aid: The Case of Niger

    • Farah, Abdikarim, Emilio Sacerdoti et Gonzalo Salinas


    • The Value of Institutions for Financial Markets: Evidence from Emerging Markets

    • Akitoby, Bernardin et Thomas Stratmann


    • Why Isn’t South Africa Growing Faster? A Comparative Approach

    • Eyraud, Luc


    • The Determinants of Commercial Bank Profitability in Sub-Saharan Africa

    • Flamini, Valentina, Calvin A. McDonald et Liliane Schumacher


    • Bank Efficiency in Sub-Saharan African Middle-Income

    • Countries

    • Chen, Chuling


    • How Can Burundi Raise its Growth Rate?

    • The Impact of Civil Conflicts and State Intervention

    • on Burundi’s Growth Performance

    • Basdevant, Olivier

      You are not logged in and do not have access to this content. Please login or, to subscribe to IMF eLibrary, please click here

      Other Resources Citing This Publication