Regional Economic Outlook, April 2011 : Sub-Saharan Africa: Recovery and New Risks

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Back Matter

Back Matter

Author(s):
International Monetary Fund. African Dept.
Published Date:
May 2011
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    Statistical Appendix

    Unless otherwise noted, data and projections presented in this report are IMF staff estimates as of April 1, 2011, consistent with the projections underlying the Spring 2011 World Economic Outlook.

    The data and projections cover the 44 countries of the IMF’s African Department. Data definitions follow established international statistical methodologies to the extent possible. However, in some cases data limitations limit comparability across countries.

    Country Groupings

    As in previous Regional Economic Outlooks, countries are aggregated into four nonoverlapping groups: oil exporters, non-oil-exporting middle-income, low-income, and fragile low-income countries (see the appendix tables).

    • The 7 oil exporters are countries where net oil exports make up 30 percent or more of total exports. Except for Angola and Nigeria, they belong to the Central African Economic and Monetary Community. Oil exporters are classified as such even if they would otherwise qualify for another group.

    • The 8 middle-income countries are not oil exporters and had per capita gross national income of more than US$975 in 2008, as calculated by the World Bank using the Atlas method.

    • The 15 low-income countries not classified as fragile are not oil exporters, had per capita gross national income equal to or lower than US$975 in 2008, and had a score higher than 3.2 on the 2008 IDA Resource Allocation Index (IRAI).

    • The 14 low-income countries classified as fragile are not oil exporters, had per capita gross national income equal to or lower than US$975 in 2008, and had a score of 3.2 or less on the 2008 IDA Resource Allocation Index (IRAI).

    In addition, countries are classified as resource-rich if their primary commodity rents exceed 10 percent of GDP. Non-resource-rich countries are also classified by whether they are coastal or landlocked (Table SA MN 1).

    Table SA MN 1.Sub-Saharan Africa: Country Groupings
    Resource-RichNon-Resource-Rich
    OilNon-oilCoastalLandlocked
    AngolaBotswanaBenin *Burkina Faso *
    Cameroon *Côte d’IvoireCape VerdeBurundi *
    ChadGuineaComorosCentral African Republic *
    Congo, Rep. of *NamibiaEritreaCongo, Dem. Rep. of *
    Equatorial GuineaSierra Leone *Gambia, The *Ethiopia *
    GabonZambia *Ghana *Lesotho
    NigeriaGuinea-Bissau *Malawi *
    Liberia *Mali *
    KenyaNiger *
    Madagascar *Rwanda *
    MauritiusSwaziland
    Mozambique *Uganda *
    São Tomé & Príncipe *Zimbabwe
    Senegal *
    Seychelles
    South Africa
    Tanzania *
    Togo *
    Note: *Country has reached the completion point under the enhanced HIPC Initiative and has qualified for MDRI relief.

    Finally, countries are grouped into regional cooperation bodies: CFA franc zone, comprising the West African Economic and Monetary Union (WAEMU) and the Central African Economic and Monetary Community (CEMAC); East Africa Community (EAC-5); Southern African Development Community (SADC); Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa. (COMESA); and Southern Africa Customs Union (SACU) (Table SA MN 2).

    Table SA MN 2.Sub-Saharan Africa: Member Countries of Regional Groupings
    The West African
    Economic and
    Monetary Union
    (WAEMU)
    Economic and
    Monetary
    Community of
    Central African
    States (CEMAC)
    Common Market for
    Eastern and Southern
    Africa (COMESA)
    East Africa
    Community
    (EAC-5)
    Southern African
    Development
    Community (SADC)
    Southern
    Africa
    Customs
    Union (SACU)
    BeninCameroonBurundiBurundiAngolaBotswana
    Burkina FasoCentral AfricanComorosKenyaBotswanaLesotho
    Côte d’IvoireRepublicCongo, Dem. Rep. ofRwandaCongo, Dem. Rep. ofNamibia
    Guinea-BissauChadEritreaTanzaniaLesothoSouth Africa
    MaliCongo, Rep. ofEthiopiaUgandaMadagascarSwaziland
    NigerEquatorialKenyaMalawi
    SenegalGuineaMadagascarMauritius
    TogoGabonMalawiMozambique
    MauritiusNamibia
    RwandaSeychelles
    SeychellesSouth Africa
    SwazilandSwaziland
    UgandaTanzania
    ZambiaZambia
    ZimbabweZimbabwe

    Unless otherwise noted, group aggregates exclude data for Zimbabwe because of data limitations. EAC-5 aggregates include data for Rwanda and Burundi, which joined only in 2007.

    Methods of Aggregation

    In Tables SA14, SA7SA14, SA16, and SA23SA24, country group composites are calculated as the arithmetic average of data for individual countries, weighted by GDP valued at purchasing power parity as a share of total group GDP. The source of purchasing power parity weights is the WEO database.

    In Tables SA1722 and SA2527, country group composites are calculated as the arithmetic average of data for individual countries, weighted by GDP in U.S. dollars at market exchange rates as a share of total group GDP.

    In Tables SA56 and SA15, country group composites are calculated as the geometric average of data for individual countries, weighted by GDP valued at purchasing power parity as a share of total group GDP. The source of purchasing power parity weights is the WEO database.

    List of Tables

    SA1. Real GDP Growth

    SA2. Real Non-Oil GDP Growth

    SA3. Real Per Capita GDP Growth

    SA4. Real Per Capita GDP

    SA5. Consumer Prices, Average

    SA6. Consumer Prices, End of Period

    SA7. Total Investment

    SA8. Gross National Savings

    SA9. Overall Fiscal Balance, Including Grants

    SA10. Overall Fiscal Balance, Excluding Grants

    SA11. Government Revenue, Excluding Grants

    SA12. Government Expenditure

    SA13. Government Debt

    SA14. Broad Money

    SA15. Broad Money Growth

    SA16. Claims on Nonfinancial Private Sector

    SA17. Exports of Goods and Services

    SA18. Imports of Goods and Services

    SA19. Trade Balance

    SA20. External Current Account, Including Grants

    SA21. External Current Account, Excluding Grants

    SA22. Official Grants

    SA23. Real Effective Exchange Rates

    SA24. Nominal Effective Exchange Rates

    SA25. External Debt to Official Creditors

    SA26. Terms of Trade

    SA27. Reserves

    Table SA1.Real GDP Growth(Percent)
    2004-08200420052006200720082009201020112012
    Oil-exporting countries8.711.27.67.69.97.15.26.26.76.9
    Excluding Nigeria11.212.311.29.714.28.72.52.86.57.4
    Angola17.811.220.619.523.913.82.41.67.810.5
    Cameroon3.03.72.33.23.42.62.03.03.54.5
    Chad8.333.67.90.20.2-0.40.35.14.16.0
    Congo, Rep. of4.33.57.86.2-1.65.67.59.17.84.7
    Equatorial Guinea16.238.09.71.321.410.75.7-0.87.24.0
    Gabon2.71.43.01.25.62.3-1.45.75.63.3
    Nigeria7.010.65.46.27.06.07.08.46.96.6
    Middle-income countries4.94.84.95.65.53.6-1.53.13.74.0
    Excluding South Africa4.66.32.15.35.23.9-0.55.74.75.1
    Botswana4.16.01.65.14.83.1-3.78.66.06.6
    Cape Verde7.24.36.510.18.66.23.65.45.56.8
    Lesotho3.72.32.44.74.54.73.02.43.14.1
    Mauritius4.65.51.54.55.95.53.04.04.14.2
    Namibia6.312.32.57.15.44.3-0.84.44.84.5
    Seychelles3.7-2.96.76.49.6-1.30.76.24.04.7
    South Africa4.94.65.35.65.63.6-1.72.83.53.8
    Swaziland2.72.52.22.92.83.11.22.00.51.5
    Low-income countries6.35.86.66.36.56.44.85.46.16.7
    Excluding fragile countries7.06.47.37.27.27.15.25.77.26.9
    Benin3.93.02.93.84.65.02.72.53.44.3
    Burkina Faso5.54.58.75.53.65.23.25.85.55.6
    Ethiopia11.811.712.611.511.811.210.08.08.58.0
    Ghana6.25.46.24.66.58.44.75.713.77.3
    Kenya5.14.66.06.37.01.62.65.05.76.5
    Madagascar5.75.34.65.06.27.1-3.7-2.00.64.7
    Malawi6.05.52.67.75.88.67.66.66.15.7
    Mali4.62.36.15.34.35.04.54.56.05.4
    Mozambique7.87.98.48.77.36.86.37.07.57.8
    Niger5.2-0.88.45.83.39.3-0.97.55.515.4
    Rwanda8.67.49.49.25.511.24.16.56.57.0
    Senegal4.45.95.62.45.03.22.24.24.54.8
    Tanzania7.37.87.47.06.97.36.76.56.46.6
    Uganda8.26.86.310.88.48.77.25.26.06.5
    Zambia5.85.45.36.26.25.76.47.66.87.4
    Fragile countries3.33.23.52.93.33.53.14.00.65.7
    Including Zimbabwe2.83.23.12.52.92.53.24.21.35.6
    Burundi3.84.80.95.13.64.53.53.94.54.8
    Central African Republic2.61.02.43.83.72.01.73.34.15.0
    Comoros1.3-0.24.21.20.51.01.82.12.43.5
    Congo, Dem. Rep. of6.56.67.85.66.36.22.87.26.56.0
    Côte d’Ivoire1.61.61.90.71.62.33.82.6-7.56.0
    Eritrea-1.11.52.6-1.01.4-9.83.92.27.96.1
    Gambia, The4.67.00.33.46.06.36.75.75.55.5
    Guinea2.92.33.02.51.84.9-0.31.94.04.5
    Guinea-Bissau3.12.84.32.13.23.23.03.54.34.5
    Liberia6.42.65.37.89.47.14.65.15.99.8
    São Tomé & Príncipe6.16.65.76.76.05.84.04.55.06.0
    Sierra Leone6.87.47.27.36.45.53.25.05.16.0
    Togo2.42.11.24.12.32.43.23.43.64.0
    Zimbabwe1-6.8-6.9-2.2-3.5-3.7-17.76.09.07.35.7
    Sub-Saharan Africa6.67.26.36.47.35.72.84.95.55.9
    Median5.24.85.35.35.65.23.25.05.55.6
    Including Zimbabwe6.57.16.26.47.25.62.85.05.65.9
    Excluding Nigeria and South Africa7.57.57.47.18.56.93.84.76.16.7
    Oil-importing countries5.55.25.75.96.04.91.54.24.95.3
    Excluding South Africa6.15.86.06.26.36.14.25.45.96.5
    CFA franc zone4.87.74.92.94.64.12.84.03.35.3
    WAEMU3.72.94.73.23.44.23.04.11.36.2
    CEMAC6.012.65.12.55.94.02.63.95.24.4
    EAC-56.76.36.67.77.15.75.15.66.16.5
    SADC6.65.76.77.27.95.50.03.34.65.3
    SACU4.94.85.05.65.53.6-1.73.13.64.0
    COMESA7.36.87.27.97.96.85.25.66.26.5
    Resource-intensive countries7.910.26.86.98.96.64.56.05.96.7
    Oil8.711.27.67.69.97.15.26.26.76.9
    Non-oil resource-intensive countries3.44.72.33.53.43.30.44.70.35.8
    Non-resource-intensive countries5.85.36.06.26.25.11.64.25.35.3
    Coastal Non-resource-intensive countries5.24.95.45.65.84.20.33.54.84.8
    Landlocked Non-resource-intensive countries8.06.98.48.57.78.56.46.56.77.1
    MDRI6.76.26.96.76.57.35.25.77.06.6
    Fixed exchange rate regimes4.87.64.73.14.63.92.63.93.45.2
    Floating exchange rate6.97.16.67.17.86.02.85.15.96.0
    Sources: IMF, African Department database, April 1, 2011; and IMF, World Economic Outlook (WEO) database, April 1, 2011.

    In constant 2009 US dollars. The Zimbabwe dollar ceased circulating in early 2009. Data are based on IMF staff estimates of price and exchange rate developments in U.S. dollars. Staff estimates of U.S. dollar values may differ from authorities’ estimates.

    Table SA2.Real Non-Oil GDP Growth(Percent)
    2004-08200420052006200720082009201020112012
    Oil-exporting countries10.911.38.311.913.79.58.06.77.87.5
    Excluding Nigeria12.78.110.415.419.010.57.64.98.07.7
    Angola18.09.014.125.226.815.08.14.69.210.4
    Cameroon3.64.93.22.94.03.12.93.84.03.7
    Chad4.82.111.04.73.13.21.95.96.06.3
    Congo, Rep. of5.75.05.45.96.65.43.96.57.37.9
    Equatorial Guinea29.328.422.829.847.218.127.65.312.85.0
    Gabon4.22.34.34.96.23.4-0.56.16.74.3
    Nigeria9.813.37.09.610.18.98.37.97.77.4
    Middle-income countries4.94.84.95.65.53.6-1.53.13.74.0
    Excluding South Africa4.66.32.15.35.23.9-0.55.74.75.1
    Botswana4.16.01.65.14.83.1-3.78.66.06.6
    Cape Verde7.24.36.510.18.66.23.65.45.56.8
    Lesotho3.72.32.44.74.54.73.02.43.14.1
    Mauritius4.65.51.54.55.95.53.04.04.14.2
    Namibia6.312.32.57.15.44.3-0.84.44.84.5
    Seychelles3.7-2.96.76.49.6-1.30.76.24.04.7
    South Africa4.94.65.35.65.63.6-1.72.83.53.8
    Swaziland2.72.52.22.92.83.11.22.00.51.5
    Low-income countries6.35.86.56.36.56.54.85.45.36.6
    Excluding fragile countries7.06.47.37.27.27.15.25.76.36.8
    Benin3.93.02.93.84.65.02.72.53.44.3
    Burkina Faso5.54.58.75.53.65.23.25.85.55.6
    Ethiopia11.811.712.611.511.811.210.08.08.58.0
    Ghana6.25.46.24.66.58.44.75.76.56.6
    Kenya5.14.66.06.37.01.62.65.05.76.5
    Madagascar5.75.34.65.06.27.1-3.7-2.00.64.7
    Malawi6.05.52.67.75.88.67.66.66.15.7
    Mali4.62.36.15.34.35.04.54.56.05.4
    Mozambique7.87.98.48.77.36.86.37.07.57.8
    Niger5.2-0.88.45.83.39.3-0.97.55.515.4
    Rwanda8.67.49.49.25.511.24.16.56.57.0
    Senegal4.45.95.62.45.03.22.24.24.54.8
    Tanzania7.37.87.47.06.97.36.76.56.46.6
    Uganda8.26.86.310.88.48.77.25.26.06.5
    Zambia5.85.45.36.26.25.76.47.66.87.4
    Fragile countries3.23.23.32.63.53.53.04.10.65.5
    Including Zimbabwe2.83.22.92.23.12.53.24.41.35.5
    Burundi3.84.80.95.13.64.53.53.94.54.8
    Central African Republic2.61.02.43.83.72.01.73.34.15.0
    Comoros1.3-0.24.21.20.51.01.82.12.43.5
    Congo, Dem. Rep. of6.56.67.85.66.36.22.87.26.56.0
    Côte d’Ivoire1.51.61.30.02.12.53.73.0-7.65.6
    Eritrea-1.11.52.6-1.01.4-9.83.92.27.96.1
    Gambia, The4.67.00.33.46.06.36.75.75.55.5
    Guinea2.92.33.02.51.84.9-0.31.94.04.5
    Guinea-Bissau3.12.84.32.13.23.23.03.54.34.5
    Liberia6.42.65.37.89.47.14.65.15.99.8
    São Tomé & Príncipe6.16.65.76.76.05.84.04.55.06.0
    Sierra Leone6.87.47.27.36.45.53.25.05.16.0
    Togo2.42.11.24.12.32.43.23.43.64.0
    Zimbabwe1-6.8-6.9-2.2-3.5-3.7-17.76.09.07.35.7
    Sub-Saharan Africa7.37.26.57.88.56.53.75.15.66.1
    Median5.34.95.35.55.85.23.25.05.55.6
    Including Zimbabwe7.27.26.47.78.46.43.85.15.76.1
    Excluding Nigeria and South Africa7.96.47.18.69.87.45.15.36.06.7
    Oil-importing countries5.55.25.65.96.04.91.54.34.55.3
    Excluding South Africa6.15.86.06.26.46.24.25.55.26.4
    CFA franc zone6.05.16.25.57.85.25.04.64.05.6
    WAEMU3.62.94.53.03.54.22.94.21.36.1
    CEMAC8.37.47.98.112.26.27.05.16.85.0
    EAC-56.76.36.67.77.15.75.15.66.16.5
    SADC6.75.56.17.98.35.60.73.74.85.3
    SACU4.94.85.05.65.53.6-1.73.13.64.0
    COMESA7.36.87.27.97.96.85.25.66.26.5
    Resource-intensive countries9.810.37.310.512.28.77.06.56.87.3
    Oil10.911.38.311.913.79.58.06.77.87.5
    Non-oil resource-intensive countries3.44.72.03.23.63.40.44.80.35.7
    Non-resource-intensive countries5.85.36.06.26.25.11.64.24.85.2
    Coastal Non-resource-intensive countries5.24.95.45.65.84.20.33.54.34.7
    Landlocked Non-resource-intensive countries8.06.98.48.57.78.56.46.56.77.1
    MDRI6.86.46.96.76.87.35.25.76.16.5
    Fixed exchange rate regimes5.85.35.85.47.54.94.64.54.05.4
    Floating exchange rate7.67.66.68.38.76.83.65.25.96.2
    Sources: IMF, African Department database, April 1, 2011; and IMF, World Economic Outlook (WEO) database, April 1, 2011.

    In constant 2009 US dollars. The Zimbabwe dollar ceased circulating in early 2009. Data are based on IMF staff estimates of price and exchange rate developments in U.S. dollars. Staff estimates of U.S. dollar values may differ from authorities’ estimates.

    Table SA3.Real Per Capita GDP Growth(Percent)
    2004-08200420052006200720082009201020112012
    Oil-exporting countries5.88.24.74.76.94.32.43.43.94.0
    Excluding Nigeria8.29.28.16.711.16.0-0.10.13.74.6
    Angola14.68.017.216.220.610.9-0.2-1.34.67.3
    Cameroon0.20.9-0.50.40.6-0.2-0.80.51.02.0
    Chad5.730.45.3-2.3-2.3-2.8-2.22.51.53.5
    Congo, Rep. of1.40.64.73.2-4.42.64.46.04.81.7
    Equatorial Guinea12.934.16.7-1.618.07.62.8-3.64.11.1
    Gabon0.4-1.10.5-1.33.00.8-2.84.24.11.8
    Nigeria4.27.62.63.44.13.14.15.54.03.7
    Middle-income countries3.73.73.94.44.51.9-2.82.02.52.8
    Excluding South Africa3.45.11.04.23.82.6-1.44.83.74.1
    Botswana3.04.80.84.33.51.8-4.97.14.65.2
    Cape Verde5.52.55.08.37.14.70.73.42.63.8
    Lesotho1.80.10.62.82.62.81.20.61.32.2
    Mauritius3.84.60.73.74.95.22.53.63.53.6
    Namibia4.410.40.75.23.52.4-1.63.54.03.6
    Seychelles2.7-2.56.24.29.0-3.40.35.83.64.4
    South Africa3.73.54.34.54.61.8-2.91.62.32.6
    Swaziland1.61.81.31.81.51.61.42.40.91.9
    Low-income countries3.62.94.03.63.73.72.12.73.43.9
    Excluding fragile countries4.43.84.84.44.54.42.53.04.54.2
    Benin0.9-0.3-0.40.91.82.2-0.1-0.30.61.4
    Burkina Faso2.91.36.13.11.22.80.93.43.13.2
    Ethiopia8.98.99.88.78.98.37.25.56.05.5
    Ghana3.62.73.51.93.85.72.03.110.84.6
    Kenya2.42.64.03.23.9-1.4-0.42.02.73.5
    Madagascar2.82.41.82.23.44.3-6.2-4.5-1.92.1
    Malawi3.43.30.54.72.95.64.63.73.22.8
    Mali2.1-0.23.62.81.92.52.01.42.92.3
    Mozambique5.75.86.36.65.24.74.24.95.45.7
    Niger2.0-3.85.22.60.26.0-3.84.32.311.9
    Rwanda6.65.97.57.33.38.92.04.34.34.8
    Senegal2.03.43.20.02.50.8-0.21.82.02.3
    Tanzania5.15.55.15.14.95.24.64.44.44.5
    Uganda4.73.42.97.24.95.23.51.52.32.8
    Zambia3.33.13.03.73.63.13.85.04.24.8
    Fragile countries0.3-0.40.80.00.50.60.11.1-2.22.7
    Including Zimbabwe-0.1-1.00.5-0.20.2-0.30.41.5-1.72.9
    Burundi1.82.8-1.13.11.52.51.41.82.42.7
    Central African Republic0.6-1.00.41.81.70.0-1.90.81.62.4
    Comoros-0.7-2.32.1-0.8-1.6-1.1-0.30.00.31.3
    Congo, Dem. Rep. of3.43.54.72.53.23.1-0.24.13.42.9
    Côte d’Ivoire-1.7-3.3-0.8-2.2-1.4-0.70.7-0.4
    Eritrea-4.5-2.6-1.2-4.3-1.9-12.60.7-0.94.62.9
    Gambia, The1.03.4-3.2-0.22.42.73.12.22.02.0
    Guinea0.80.41.00.4-0.42.6-2.7-0.51.41.9
    Guinea-Bissau0.80.31.8-0.20.91.00.81.22.12.3
    Liberia2.70.82.43.74.41.9-0.20.82.16.3
    São Tomé & Príncipe4.44.83.95.04.34.12.42.83.34.3
    Sierra Leone3.43.13.43.93.52.90.72.32.43.3
    Togo-0.2-0.5-1.41.5-0.2-0.10.70.91.11.5
    Zimbabwe1-7.3-7.9-3.3-3.4-3.9-18.26.09.07.35.7
    Sub-Saharan Africa4.34.94.24.35.13.30.62.73.33.6
    Median2.92.72.93.13.22.60.72.32.82.9
    Including Zimbabwe4.34.94.24.25.03.20.62.73.33.6
    Excluding Nigeria and South Africa4.74.64.74.45.74.11.22.23.54.1
    Oil-importing countries3.63.33.94.04.12.7-0.42.32.93.4
    Excluding South Africa3.53.13.53.63.73.41.73.03.44.0
    CFA franc zone2.04.52.20.21.91.40.11.30.72.7
    WAEMU0.8-0.62.00.50.71.50.31.3-1.43.3
    CEMAC3.39.62.4-0.23.11.40.01.42.71.9
    EAC-54.13.94.24.94.33.02.32.83.33.8
    SADC4.94.15.25.66.33.4-1.61.72.93.6
    SACU3.73.74.04.54.41.8-2.91.92.42.8
    COMESA4.43.94.54.94.93.72.63.03.63.9
    Resource-intensive countries5.17.24.04.26.13.81.93.33.14.0
    Oil5.88.24.74.76.94.32.43.43.94.0
    Non-oil resource-intensive countries1.11.70.31.41.21.1-1.72.5-1.73.6
    Non-resource-intensive countries3.93.54.34.34.42.8-0.32.33.33.4
    Coastal Non-resource-intensive countries3.63.44.04.04.32.2-1.41.93.13.1
    Landlocked Non-resource-intensive countries4.83.65.35.54.65.23.73.84.04.3
    MDRI4.03.54.24.03.84.52.53.14.43.9
    Fixed exchange rate regimes2.04.52.00.41.91.30.11.40.92.7
    Floating exchange rate4.85.04.75.05.73.60.72.93.73.8
    Sources: IMF, African Department database, April 1, 2011; and IMF, World Economic Outlook (WEO) database, April 1, 2011.

    In constant 2009 US dollars. The Zimbabwe dollar ceased circulating in early 2009. Data are based on IMF staff estimates of price and exchange rate developments in U.S. dollars. Staff estimates of U.S. dollar values may differ from authorities’ estimates.

    Table SA4.Real Per Capita GDP(U.S. dollars, at 2000 prices, using 2000 exchange rates)
    2004-08200420052006200720082009201020112012
    Oil-exporting countries681625649675715742761788818850
    Excluding Nigeria9168048569019831,0331,0321,0341,0701,114
    Angola9907088299631,1621,2881,2851,2681,3261,423
    Cameroon679679675678682681675678685698
    Chad296293308301294286280287291301
    Congo, Rep. of1,1701,1201,1731,2111,1581,1881,2411,3161,3791,402
    Equatorial Guinea3,9233,4493,6793,6204,2724,5964,7224,5524,7404,792
    Gabon4,0704,0304,0513,9984,1184,1524,0344,2034,3744,452
    Nigeria596559574593617637663699727754
    Middle-income countries3,3993,1413,2633,4063,5583,6253,5253,5933,6803,782
    Excluding South Africa2,5292,4042,4242,5212,6152,6822,6452,7602,8562,966
    Botswana4,3904,1794,2114,3914,5444,6244,3964,7104,9255,183
    Cape Verde1,5881,3981,4671,5901,7031,7831,7951,8561,9051,977
    Lesotho395380382393403415420422428437
    Mauritius4,6774,4134,4444,6104,8335,0845,2125,3975,5855,784
    Namibia2,6682,5242,5422,6742,7682,8352,7892,8873,0013,110
    Seychelles7,4676,7427,1597,4568,1287,8497,8718,3318,6319,011
    South Africa3,5653,2813,4223,5763,7393,8063,6943,7523,8383,938
    Swaziland1,5311,4851,5051,5321,5551,5801,6011,6401,6551,686
    Low-income countries278259269278288297303311320332
    Excluding fragile countries303277290303316328336347361376
    Benin350345343347353361360359361366
    Burkina Faso278258273282285293296306316326
    Ethiopia161134147160174189203214227239
    Ghana462432447456473500510526583610
    Kenya441414430444461455453462474491
    Madagascar241229233239247257241231226231
    Malawi149141142149153162169175181186
    Mali314296307315321329336341351359
    Mozambique346307327348366383400419442467
    Niger178166174179179190183191195218
    Rwanda298261280301311339345360376394
    Senegal508490506506518523522531542554
    Tanzania377341358376394415434453473494
    Uganda320290299320336353366371380391
    Zambia364341351364377389404424442463
    Fragile countries213212213213214215215217212218
    Including Zimbabwe
    Burundi109107105109110113115117120123
    Central African Republic218214215218222222218220223228
    Comoros380379387384378373372373374379
    Congo, Dem. Rep. of8983878992959599102105
    Côte d’Ivoire541555551539531528532530
    Eritrea167179177169166145146145152156
    Gambia, The501507491490502516532543554565
    Guinea391385389391389399389386392400
    Guinea-Bissau267262267266269272274277283289
    Liberia127119122126132134134135138147
    São Tomé & Príncipe720660686720751782801824851887
    Sierra Leone249232240249258265267273280289
    Togo226227223227226226227229232235
    Zimbabwe
    Sub-Saharan Africa635593613634659676674688706727
    Median387379382384389399404422435450
    Including Zimbabwe
    Excluding Nigeria and South Africa379350364377395409413421434450
    Oil-importing countries618582599619639652642651664681
    Excluding South Africa321302311321332342346355365379
    CFA franc zone497485494495503509509515517530
    WAEMU363355361362365369370374368379
    CEMAC805781797797818829827838860875
    EAC-5358329342359375386396407420436
    SADC1,0299519871,0291,0761,1031,0761,0891,1111,141
    SACU3,3793,1213,2453,3893,5383,6023,4973,5613,6473,747
    COMESA244225233244255264269276285295
    Resource-intensive countries676629649671704728741766788818
    Oil681625649675715742761788818850
    Non-oil resource-intensive countries659648649658665673663679671693
    Non-resource-intensive countries622582602623645659649658673690
    Coastal Non-resource-intensive countries1,1201,0491,0841,1221,1621,1821,1561,1701,1971,225
    Landlocked Non-resource-intensive countries189171180189198208215222230239
    MDRI278257267278287299306315328340
    Fixed exchange rate regimes514502510512520526525530533546
    Floating exchange rate665616638664693713710727748771
    Sources: IMF, African Department database, April 1, 2011; and IMF, World Economic Outlook (WEO) database, April 1, 2011.
    Table SA5.Consumer Prices(Annual average, percent change)
    2004-08200420052006200720082009201020112012
    Oil-exporting countries10.814.914.88.15.610.411.111.510.38.9
    Excluding Nigeria9.514.610.27.96.08.88.98.29.18.0
    Angola20.943.623.013.312.212.513.714.514.612.4
    Cameroon2.70.32.04.91.15.33.01.33.02.5
    Chad1.5-4.83.77.7-7.48.310.11.03.03.0
    Congo, Rep. of3.93.72.54.72.66.04.35.05.95.2
    Equatorial Guinea4.34.25.74.52.84.37.27.57.37.0
    Gabon2.10.41.2-1.45.05.31.90.62.33.4
    Nigeria11.615.017.98.25.411.612.513.711.19.5
    Middle-income countries5.91.93.65.17.111.67.14.35.25.8
    Excluding South Africa7.75.35.58.37.511.97.24.87.05.9
    Botswana9.47.08.611.67.112.68.16.97.87.0
    Cape Verde2.9-1.90.44.84.46.81.02.14.45.4
    Lesotho6.75.03.46.18.010.77.23.85.45.6
    Mauritius7.44.74.98.78.69.72.52.97.44.6
    Namibia5.74.12.35.16.710.48.84.55.95.6
    Seychelles9.03.90.6-1.95.337.031.9-2.43.14.3
    South Africa5.61.43.44.77.111.57.14.34.95.8
    Swaziland7.33.54.85.39.713.17.54.57.96.1
    Low-income countries9.07.19.27.87.813.313.66.67.97.2
    Excluding fragile countries9.07.58.67.57.713.613.96.07.67.3
    Benin3.90.95.43.81.38.02.22.14.23.0
    Burkina Faso3.8-0.46.42.4-0.210.72.60.42.02.0
    Ethiopia13.88.66.812.315.825.336.42.812.911.2
    Ghana13.012.615.110.210.716.519.310.78.78.7
    Kenya9.611.89.96.04.316.29.33.97.25.0
    Madagascar12.514.018.410.810.49.29.09.08.87.5
    Malawi11.511.415.513.98.08.88.76.96.66.9
    Mali3.1-3.16.41.51.59.12.21.24.52.7
    Mozambique10.212.66.413.28.210.33.312.79.57.2
    Niger3.80.47.80.10.110.51.10.93.82.0
    Rwanda10.912.09.18.89.115.410.32.33.15.5
    Senegal3.20.51.72.15.95.8-1.71.23.92.5
    Tanzania5.84.14.45.66.38.411.810.56.37.0
    Uganda6.75.08.06.66.87.314.29.46.111.0
    Zambia13.718.018.39.010.712.413.48.59.06.5
    Fragile countries9.45.811.59.18.512.112.59.39.16.9
    Including Zimbabwe12.29.08.86.9
    Burundi11.48.013.52.78.324.410.76.48.413.4
    Central African Republic3.5-2.22.96.70.99.33.51.52.72.9
    Comoros4.04.53.03.44.54.84.82.73.93.6
    Congo, Dem. Rep. of14.74.021.413.216.718.046.223.512.011.0
    Côte d’Ivoire3.21.53.92.51.96.31.01.45.02.5
    Eritrea16.425.112.515.19.319.933.012.713.312.3
    Gambia, The6.214.35.02.15.44.54.65.05.95.5
    Guinea25.017.531.434.722.918.44.715.519.615.1
    Guinea-Bissau4.00.83.20.74.610.4-1.61.14.02.0
    Liberia9.83.66.97.213.717.57.47.39.76.0
    São Tomé & Príncipe19.512.817.223.118.526.017.014.410.66.7
    Sierra Leone12.514.212.09.511.614.89.217.814.78.8
    Togo3.80.46.82.20.98.71.93.26.22.0
    Zimbabwe6.53.04.86.1
    Sub-Saharan Africa8.47.68.86.96.911.710.57.57.87.3
    Median6.84.26.46.06.710.47.44.56.25.6
    Including Zimbabwe10.57.57.87.3
    Excluding Nigeria and South Africa9.08.89.17.97.311.911.86.98.17.3
    Oil-importing countries7.34.26.16.37.512.410.25.46.56.5
    Excluding South Africa8.96.98.77.97.813.112.86.47.87.0
    CFA franc zone3.10.43.73.11.56.82.82.04.13.2
    WAEMU3.40.34.72.22.07.91.01.34.12.4
    CEMAC2.80.42.74.11.05.74.72.84.13.9
    EAC-57.87.77.76.15.811.711.37.26.47.2
    SADC7.76.06.56.68.011.59.26.96.97.0
    SACU5.81.83.65.07.111.67.24.45.15.8
    COMESA10.99.010.29.29.916.319.56.19.08.6
    Resource-intensive countries10.313.413.88.25.810.510.210.810.08.5
    Oil10.814.914.88.15.610.411.111.510.38.9
    Non-oil resource-intensive countries8.15.88.39.26.910.65.05.88.06.0
    Non-resource-intensive countries7.24.05.96.07.512.510.65.46.36.5
    Coastal Non-resource-intensive countries6.63.75.25.57.011.77.95.35.75.9
    Landlocked Non-resource-intensive countries9.55.18.98.39.515.820.45.68.48.5
    MDRI8.35.88.17.67.712.414.26.77.47.3
    Fixed exchange rate regimes3.61.13.83.52.27.43.72.44.43.5
    Floating exchange rate9.49.09.97.67.812.611.98.58.58.1
    Sources: IMF, African Department database, April 1, 2011; and IMF, World Economic Outlook (WEO) database, April 1, 2011.
    Table SA6.Consumer Prices(End of period, percent change)
    2004-08200420052006200720082009201020112012
    Oil-exporting countries9.710.810.27.76.712.911.610.59.57.9
    Excluding Nigeria8.712.28.06.46.99.88.18.78.07.0
    Angola17.331.018.512.211.813.214.015.313.011.2
    Cameroon3.11.03.52.43.45.30.92.63.02.5
    Chad3.29.2-3.4-0.91.79.74.7-2.2-2.0-2.0
    Congo, Rep. of4.41.13.18.1-1.711.42.55.45.04.2
    Equatorial Guinea4.45.13.23.83.76.28.17.57.37.0
    Gabon2.3-0.51.1-0.75.95.60.90.73.53.2
    Nigeria10.410.011.68.56.615.113.911.710.58.5
    Middle-income countries6.63.73.96.09.010.36.13.76.05.6
    Excluding South Africa8.35.96.78.08.612.34.45.56.55.5
    Botswana9.97.911.38.58.113.75.87.47.56.4
    Cape Verde3.5-0.31.85.83.46.7-0.43.45.74.3
    Lesotho7.25.03.56.410.510.64.23.15.65.7
    Mauritius7.35.63.911.68.66.81.56.15.84.4
    Namibia6.44.33.56.07.110.97.03.15.75.5
    Seychelles16.53.9-1.60.216.863.3-2.50.45.53.5
    South Africa6.43.53.65.89.010.16.33.55.95.6
    Swaziland8.13.26.35.512.612.94.54.57.35.4
    Low-income countries10.27.98.88.47.718.27.36.78.96.4
    Excluding fragile countries10.27.78.48.07.918.96.46.28.86.5
    Benin4.42.63.75.30.39.9-2.94.04.53.0
    Burkina Faso4.10.74.51.52.311.6-0.31.42.02.0
    Ethiopia19.31.713.011.615.155.32.77.316.09.0
    Ghana13.711.814.810.912.718.116.08.69.08.5
    Kenya10.517.14.77.35.617.85.34.56.75.5
    Madagascar13.627.311.510.88.210.18.09.28.56.5
    Malawi11.613.716.610.17.59.97.66.37.06.8
    Mali3.71.53.43.62.67.41.71.95.03.1
    Mozambique9.29.111.19.410.36.24.216.68.45.6
    Niger4.53.74.20.44.79.4-0.62.73.52.0
    Rwanda11.410.25.612.16.622.35.70.26.05.0
    Senegal3.51.71.43.96.24.3-3.44.32.72.3
    Tanzania6.24.15.06.85.89.310.77.27.55.5
    Uganda7.10.910.77.24.412.512.34.212.010.0
    Zambia13.417.515.98.28.916.69.97.97.06.0
    Fragile countries10.39.110.510.26.615.111.88.89.15.8
    Including Zimbabwe10.88.59.05.9
    Burundi12.511.81.09.314.725.74.64.113.912.9
    Central African Republic4.7-0.32.27.1-0.214.5-1.22.33.42.4
    Comoros4.43.37.21.72.27.42.23.24.32.9
    Congo, Dem. Rep. of17.29.221.318.210.027.653.49.813.09.0
    Côte d’Ivoire3.94.42.52.01.59.0-1.75.15.02.5
    Eritrea17.517.418.59.012.630.222.214.212.312.3
    Gambia, The5.28.14.80.46.06.82.75.86.05.0
    Guinea24.627.629.739.112.813.57.920.817.112.3
    Guinea-Bissau4.62.9-1.03.29.38.7-6.45.71.82.0
    Liberia9.57.57.08.914.79.49.76.69.04.7
    São Tomé & Príncipe21.915.217.224.627.624.816.112.98.55.0
    Sierra Leone12.414.413.18.313.812.210.818.413.18.0
    Togo4.93.95.51.53.410.3-2.46.96.9-2.1
    Zimbabwe-7.73.27.16.5
    Sub-Saharan Africa8.77.37.47.37.813.68.37.08.16.7
    Median6.95.04.87.17.110.64.65.46.75.4
    Including Zimbabwe8.37.08.16.7
    Excluding Nigeria and South Africa9.68.88.47.87.615.37.27.18.46.5
    Oil-importing countries8.25.66.17.18.413.96.65.27.46.0
    Excluding South Africa10.07.78.58.37.817.56.96.58.66.3
    CFA franc zone3.72.62.42.52.97.80.73.33.72.6
    WAEMU4.02.83.02.72.98.5-1.53.74.02.3
    CEMAC3.32.51.82.43.07.12.92.93.53.0
    EAC-58.48.76.07.55.614.28.75.08.26.6
    SADC8.17.06.37.39.110.98.46.17.46.5
    SACU6.63.74.05.99.010.36.33.76.05.6
    COMESA12.99.410.010.09.125.88.56.010.87.6
    Resource-intensive countries9.510.49.97.86.612.710.410.29.37.6
    Oil9.710.810.27.76.712.911.610.59.57.9
    Non-oil resource-intensive countries8.68.48.68.76.111.33.47.87.65.5
    Non-resource-intensive countries8.25.35.96.98.514.16.94.97.46.0
    Coastal Non-resource-intensive countries7.35.74.86.58.510.96.54.86.35.6
    Landlocked Non-resource-intensive countries11.73.610.48.88.827.18.05.210.87.4
    MDRI9.55.58.77.97.617.77.66.38.76.3
    Fixed exchange rate regimes4.13.02.92.93.68.31.43.54.13.0
    Floating exchange rate9.68.38.48.28.714.79.77.78.97.4
    Sources: IMF, African Department database, April 1, 2011; and IMF, World Economic Outlook (WEO) database, April 1, 2011.
    Table SA7.Total Investment(Percent of GDP)
    2004-08200420052006200720082009201020112012
    Oil-exporting countries21.322.020.620.921.121.925.222.721.020.9
    Excluding Nigeria18.519.817.018.318.718.721.619.618.519.4
    Angola12.19.98.812.013.516.215.210.411.012.9
    Cameroon16.820.416.814.315.017.516.616.418.519.0
    Chad25.724.320.232.626.624.831.539.735.933.8
    Congo, Rep. of20.922.520.221.621.918.422.520.820.121.8
    Equatorial Guinea35.443.739.932.535.325.948.148.335.434.7
    Gabon23.424.421.325.124.721.826.225.725.325.9
    Nigeria23.123.322.822.622.824.027.624.722.621.9
    Middle-income countries20.619.018.720.221.823.420.222.422.522.2
    Excluding South Africa25.825.824.323.925.829.424.627.426.325.3
    Botswana28.333.226.324.025.832.424.027.423.722.7
    Cape Verde41.439.536.038.047.046.639.447.148.745.4
    Lesotho25.824.423.624.826.929.534.937.539.142.8
    Mauritius25.624.422.726.726.927.321.525.125.825.3
    Namibia22.719.119.722.323.728.928.727.631.028.4
    Seychelles31.220.535.430.529.540.129.354.037.229.4
    South Africa19.918.118.019.721.222.519.621.721.921.7
    Swaziland16.09.023.813.919.213.914.412.511.612.6
    Low-income countries20.618.719.720.321.322.922.222.823.223.7
    Excluding fragile countries22.220.021.222.123.124.623.924.324.624.5
    Benin19.018.518.617.220.520.023.318.720.220.2
    Burkina Faso18.416.220.316.418.920.216.420.322.821.1
    Ethiopia24.026.523.825.222.122.422.722.324.023.9
    Ghana20.918.019.121.622.923.024.421.820.520.6
    Kenya17.714.416.917.919.120.320.922.625.225.2
    Madagascar28.825.823.825.028.340.932.225.820.624.3
    Malawi24.018.222.725.727.026.324.930.123.422.8
    Mali17.016.515.516.916.919.020.319.221.722.4
    Mozambique17.218.317.717.015.317.614.821.923.323.7
    Niger23.314.623.123.622.832.333.047.038.432.0
    Rwanda20.919.920.919.720.223.522.423.424.122.3
    Senegal30.226.028.528.234.034.127.929.830.830.9
    Tanzania26.121.523.926.428.729.729.428.828.828.9
    Uganda22.120.222.421.223.723.023.524.324.724.7
    Zambia22.724.923.722.122.020.921.623.824.125.5
    Fragile countries13.613.413.512.813.115.214.015.516.119.3
    Including Zimbabwe
    Burundi16.013.310.816.317.522.322.120.620.720.6
    Central African Republic10.06.89.810.110.712.713.213.913.514.8
    Comoros10.39.08.99.210.713.711.916.517.318.1
    Congo, Dem. Rep. of16.112.813.813.218.222.419.427.029.534.8
    Côte d’Ivoire9.710.89.79.38.710.110.29.6
    Eritrea15.920.320.313.712.712.79.39.310.09.6
    Gambia, The20.424.221.623.818.314.018.017.412.212.4
    Guinea17.820.719.517.214.217.511.410.518.122.3
    Guinea-Bissau8.27.66.66.411.78.710.19.811.111.7
    Liberia
    São Tomé & Príncipe47.641.675.539.849.931.048.539.262.538.7
    Sierra Leone14.310.817.415.213.214.814.918.318.019.2
    Togo15.914.516.316.814.617.318.016.919.319.5
    Zimbabwe
    Sub-Saharan Africa20.819.919.620.521.422.722.522.622.222.2
    Median21.120.020.321.421.622.322.222.523.322.7
    Including Zimbabwe
    Excluding Nigeria and South Africa20.519.719.420.121.022.322.222.322.222.6
    Oil-importing countries20.618.919.220.221.523.121.122.622.822.9
    Excluding South Africa21.219.620.320.821.823.722.423.323.523.8
    CFA franc zone20.320.619.819.820.720.623.124.022.723.0
    WAEMU18.016.217.717.118.720.519.320.520.320.7
    CEMAC22.625.021.922.622.720.827.027.625.225.3
    EAC-521.518.220.421.423.224.224.425.126.226.1
    SADC20.118.318.119.621.223.120.421.521.521.8
    SACU20.418.818.519.921.523.120.122.122.222.0
    COMESA21.519.820.621.221.923.722.523.624.324.7
    Resource-intensive countries20.821.620.120.320.521.724.122.120.520.6
    Oil21.322.020.620.921.121.925.222.721.020.9
    Non-oil resource-intensive countries18.419.817.516.817.020.817.318.117.418.7
    Non-resource-intensive countries20.818.819.320.622.023.421.523.023.323.3
    Coastal Non-resource-intensive countries20.818.619.020.622.223.621.322.722.922.9
    Landlocked Non-resource-intensive countries21.019.520.820.721.222.522.224.124.724.8
    MDRI21.820.420.821.322.423.923.223.723.924.2
    Fixed exchange rate regimes20.320.319.919.720.720.923.123.922.923.1
    Floating exchange rate20.919.819.620.621.523.122.422.422.022.1
    Sources: IMF, African Department database, April 1, 2011; and IMF, World Economic Outlook (WEO) database, April 1, 2011.
    Table SA8.Gross National Savings(Percent of GDP)
    2004-08200420052006200720082009201020112012
    Oil-exporting countries32.223.626.941.635.333.629.324.330.730.7
    Excluding Nigeria23.714.723.229.826.124.511.513.720.323.2
    Angola26.813.627.039.429.324.85.28.617.222.4
    Cameroon15.817.013.415.916.416.312.911.914.915.4
    Chad-2.8-20.8-4.6-0.35.46.2-11.5-3.76.56.8
    Congo, Rep. of18.914.922.223.714.019.613.623.532.537.8
    Equatorial Guinea34.022.133.639.539.634.931.024.425.225.8
    Gabon41.635.544.240.641.945.534.037.542.341.2
    Nigeria37.828.929.349.241.639.841.031.137.235.2
    Middle-income countries16.516.516.216.316.417.015.920.018.517.8
    Excluding South Africa29.427.128.830.531.828.718.120.219.019.9
    Botswana39.936.241.441.240.839.918.524.921.222.7
    Cape Verde30.725.132.532.632.330.824.135.330.629.8
    Lesotho26.413.913.526.540.737.434.421.315.825.0
    Mauritius19.721.918.318.022.118.315.316.214.215.7
    Namibia30.226.024.436.132.931.627.926.630.125.1
    Seychelles9.814.716.617.39.0-8.8-10.73.34.510.9
    South Africa14.715.014.514.414.315.415.620.018.417.5
    Swaziland12.212.219.76.617.05.70.3-5.3-1.62.6
    Low-income countries15.115.914.715.115.514.115.615.815.516.6
    Excluding fragile countries16.216.916.115.817.015.416.716.816.316.7
    Benin11.611.612.411.910.412.014.412.415.013.3
    Burkina Faso8.15.28.77.310.68.711.516.018.813.6
    Ethiopia21.124.620.018.123.519.219.520.817.917.5
    Ghana14.415.613.915.515.112.022.514.613.715.5
    Kenya16.017.217.216.815.513.014.514.716.017.3
    Madagascar16.416.613.216.215.620.411.512.413.417.9
    Malawi14.57.08.013.228.016.119.028.819.619.1
    Mali9.08.67.012.910.06.312.810.714.914.4
    Mozambique6.37.76.16.35.65.74.39.311.311.6
    Niger14.17.314.215.014.619.34.316.315.717.9
    Rwanda19.121.821.915.418.018.613.916.615.016.1
    Senegal19.919.119.518.722.219.820.221.519.320.1
    Tanzania18.320.419.318.316.217.319.519.719.319.0
    Uganda19.920.221.017.820.619.916.714.414.215.5
    Zambia16.313.715.223.315.413.825.827.630.028.8
    Fragile countries10.011.79.112.09.08.210.711.412.016.0
    Including Zimbabwe
    Burundi5.14.99.61.81.87.36.18.74.95.7
    Central African Republic4.45.13.27.14.52.35.35.24.46.2
    Comoros3.54.81.92.94.93.23.49.75.28.0
    Congo, Dem. Rep. of8.69.80.510.517.14.98.920.226.734.2
    Côte d’Ivoire10.912.410.012.18.012.117.613.5
    Eritrea12.718.920.810.26.47.21.73.59.29.9
    Gambia, The9.817.28.113.68.71.38.15.40.2-0.4
    Guinea15.118.019.124.24.010.00.6-2.26.710.2
    Guinea-Bissau5.19.14.50.87.33.94.13.75.67.4
    Liberia
    São Tomé & Príncipe21.925.566.012.312.3-6.820.57.217.8-3.8
    Sierra Leone7.24.810.29.77.73.36.68.56.17.8
    Togo7.46.28.29.06.07.711.19.010.912.1
    Zimbabwe
    Sub-Saharan Africa21.218.619.224.122.321.620.420.221.821.9
    Median14.815.014.915.415.313.413.714.515.015.7
    Including Zimbabwe
    Excluding Nigeria and South Africa18.716.618.220.419.918.314.715.617.118.6
    Oil-importing countries15.816.215.515.716.015.715.818.017.017.2
    Excluding South Africa16.817.316.517.017.515.915.916.315.917.0
    CFA franc zone16.413.215.917.417.418.115.716.418.419.1
    WAEMU12.011.311.612.612.012.614.614.714.214.8
    CEMAC20.815.020.222.322.923.616.718.022.723.5
    EAC-517.618.918.817.116.716.216.516.316.417.2
    SADC17.316.016.618.517.817.514.218.118.318.8
    SACU16.416.416.116.216.217.015.920.118.617.8
    COMESA17.218.416.516.019.115.815.016.816.317.8
    Resource-intensive countries30.823.326.239.133.332.027.623.328.628.9
    Oil32.223.626.941.635.333.629.324.330.730.7
    Non-oil resource-intensive countries22.721.722.325.621.222.816.916.815.217.0
    Non-resource-intensive countries15.215.714.814.815.515.015.718.117.217.2
    Coastal Non-resource-intensive countries15.015.614.914.914.615.015.918.317.317.1
    Landlocked Non-resource-intensive countries15.915.914.614.719.215.315.117.516.917.7
    MDRI15.716.214.915.416.715.115.916.716.917.7
    Fixed exchange rate regimes17.013.916.418.118.318.615.916.318.419.0
    Floating exchange rate22.019.619.825.323.122.221.220.922.422.5
    Sources: IMF, African Department database, April 1, 2011; and IMF, World Economic Outlook (WEO) database, April 1, 2011.
    Table SA9.Overall Fiscal Balance, Including Grants(Percent of GDP)
    2004-08200420052006200720082009201020112012
    Oil-exporting countries7.86.08.913.83.76.5-8.1-2.54.15.0
    Excluding Nigeria9.72.38.318.79.79.2-4.64.78.98.3
    Angola9.41.59.416.011.38.9-8.67.912.210.6
    Cameroon8.5-0.73.233.14.52.3-0.1-1.0-0.60.4
    Chad1.2-4.6-2.45.53.14.5-10.1-7.05.22.8
    Congo, Rep. of13.53.614.616.49.423.54.821.532.533.1
    Equatorial Guinea18.212.320.623.519.315.4-8.0-4.8-3.1-3.4
    Gabon9.27.68.79.28.711.77.55.86.57.7
    Nigeria6.58.19.310.6-0.44.6-10.4-7.21.03.1
    Middle-income countries0.3-1.30.21.31.7-0.6-5.4-6.1-5.6-4.7
    Excluding South Africa1.3-1.52.04.92.9-1.7-6.2-8.0-4.9-2.7
    Botswana4.31.28.811.65.0-5.2-11.4-10.8-3.9-1.1
    Cape Verde-3.8-4.1-6.7-5.7-1.1-1.4-6.3-10.7-11.8-8.5
    Lesotho7.65.14.112.711.54.8-2.7-8.1-14.5-8.3
    Mauritius-3.9-4.6-4.7-4.4-3.3-2.8-3.6-3.2-4.2-4.1
    Namibia0.9-3.7-1.02.14.42.6-1.7-7.2-4.3-2.1
    Seychelles-1.8-0.81.6-5.9-9.75.83.0-0.42.42.7
    South Africa0.1-1.20.00.81.5-0.5-5.2-5.8-5.7-5.0
    Swaziland1.8-4.2-2.67.47.51.0-6.6-11.8-9.0-5.6
    Low-income countries-2.0-2.6-2.91.2-2.8-3.1-3.4-4.0-4.2-3.4
    Excluding fragile countries-2.0-2.4-2.72.0-3.4-3.3-3.8-4.2-4.2-3.4
    Benin-0.7-1.1-2.3-0.20.3-0.1-3.3-0.4-1.7-1.4
    Burkina Faso-0.9-4.7-5.515.5-5.6-4.1-4.6-5.8-4.3-2.7
    Ethiopia-3.4-2.7-4.2-3.8-3.6-2.9-0.9-1.3-2.5-2.1
    Ghana-4.9-3.1-2.9-4.7-5.6-8.5-5.8-7.7-4.3-2.6
    Kenya-2.4-0.1-1.8-2.5-3.1-4.3-5.4-6.2-5.4-4.6
    Madagascar4.6-5.0-4.837.6-2.7-1.9-2.8-1.1-1.3-4.1
    Malawi-3.0-4.6-1.10.4-4.5-5.4-5.31.7-0.2-1.3
    Mali4.8-1.8-2.332.2-2.4-1.5-3.3-1.9-3.0-2.1
    Mozambique-3.3-4.4-2.8-4.1-2.9-2.5-5.4-3.6-6.7-6.3
    Niger7.1-3.5-2.040.3-1.01.5-5.3-3.1-1.3-0.5
    Rwanda0.20.90.90.2-1.71.01.54.33.31.9
    Senegal-3.8-2.3-2.8-5.4-3.8-4.7-5.0-5.0-5.7-5.3
    Tanzania-3.0-2.8-3.0-4.9-4.00.0-4.8-6.9-6.5-6.0
    Uganda-1.4-1.2-0.5-0.9-1.3-3.0-2.4-5.0-6.8-3.2
    Zambia2.4-2.9-2.820.2-1.3-1.5-2.6-3.1-2.9-5.7
    Fragile countries-2.3-3.5-3.4-2.0-0.2-2.5-1.5-3.2-4.0-3.6
    Including Zimbabwe-2.4-3.7-2.0-0.4-2.5-1.5-3.2-3.9-3.4
    Burundi-2.3-4.9-5.1-1.40.4-0.758.5-3.0-2.6-2.5
    Central African Republic0.5-2.1-4.59.01.2-1.00.0-0.6-0.10.3
    Comoros-0.1-0.21.6-1.0-0.4-0.62.56.9-1.00.4
    Congo, Dem. Rep. of-3.1-4.3-3.9-0.6-3.5-3.3-4.22.4-7.1-5.6
    Côte d’Ivoire-1.3-1.7-1.7-1.8-0.8-0.6-1.6-2.0
    Eritrea-17.9-16.6-22.2-14.1-15.7-21.1-14.7-16.1-16.2-13.5
    Gambia, The-3.1-4.1-5.8-5.00.5-1.3-2.4-4.9-1.8-2.9
    Guinea-2.2-5.4-1.6-3.10.3-1.3-7.2-14.2-3.9-0.9
    Guinea-Bissau-5.7-7.8-6.2-4.8-5.9-3.82.9-0.2-1.9-1.3
    Liberia-0.60.00.06.03.9-12.9-12.0-6.6-3.6-3.3
    São Tomé & Príncipe28.8-16.737.8-13.8121.814.9-19.2-7.9-7.4-10.9
    Sierra Leone2.8-3.2-1.9-2.225.8-4.7-3.2-6.9-4.0-2.9
    Togo-1.41.0-2.4-2.8-1.9-0.9-2.8-2.8-2.6-2.4
    Zimbabwe1-4.6-8.6-3.3-3.9-2.8-2.9-2.3-1.6-0.2
    Sub-Saharan Africa2.00.72.05.31.01.0-5.7-4.2-1.8-0.9
    Median-1.3-2.7-2.0-0.2-0.8-1.0-3.6-3.6-3.1-2.6
    Including Zimbabwe2.02.05.30.91.0-5.7-4.2-1.8-0.9
    Excluding Nigeria and South Africa1.3-1.30.46.11.10.4-4.0-2.0-0.7-0.2
    Oil-importing countries-0.8-1.9-1.21.2-0.4-1.8-4.4-5.1-4.9-4.1
    Excluding South Africa-1.7-2.5-2.31.6-2.1-3.0-3.7-4.5-4.2-3.3
    CFA franc zone4.60.22.214.02.93.7-2.2-0.71.21.5
    WAEMU-0.3-2.3-2.77.8-2.3-1.8-3.4-3.0-3.1-2.8
    CEMAC9.52.77.220.48.29.2-1.01.85.65.9
    EAC-5-2.2-1.3-1.8-2.8-2.8-2.2-2.9-5.4-5.5-4.3
    SADC1.0-1.40.53.22.00.4-5.6-3.7-3.0-2.6
    SACU0.4-1.20.41.51.9-0.6-5.4-6.2-5.6-4.8
    COMESA-2.2-2.5-3.20.7-3.0-3.2-2.3-2.8-4.0-3.2
    Resource-intensive countries6.74.87.712.13.65.3-7.7-3.13.14.1
    Oil7.86.08.913.83.76.5-8.1-2.54.15.0
    Non-oil resource-intensive countries0.8-1.61.42.63.1-1.7-5.2-7.0-3.2-2.1
    Non-resource-intensive countries-0.9-1.8-1.41.2-0.7-1.7-4.3-4.8-5.0-4.2
    Coastal Non-resource-intensive countries-0.8-1.7-1.00.2-0.2-1.5-5.1-5.7-5.4-4.7
    Landlocked Non-resource-intensive countries-1.1-2.6-3.04.8-2.4-2.4-1.6-2.0-3.7-2.5
    MDRI-0.3-2.4-1.76.0-1.8-1.7-2.5-2.5-2.5-1.8
    Fixed exchange rate regimes4.0-0.31.612.72.93.2-2.5-1.50.30.8
    Floating exchange rate1.60.92.13.80.60.5-6.3-4.7-2.2-1.2
    Sources: IMF, African Department database, April 1, 2011; and IMF, World Economic Outlook (WEO) database, April 1, 2011.

    The Zimbabwe dollar ceased circulating in early 2009. Data are based on IMF staff estimates of price and exchange rate developments in U.S. dollars. Staff estimates of U.S. dollar values may differ from authorities’ estimates.

    Table SA10.Overall Fiscal Balance, Including Grants(Percent of GDP)
    2004-08200420052006200720082009201020112012
    Oil-exporting countries7.15.88.711.43.56.4-8.3-2.63.94.9
    Excluding Nigeria8.11.87.812.59.38.9-5.14.58.67.9
    Angola9.31.09.116.011.38.9-8.67.912.210.6
    Cameroon2.4-0.83.04.73.31.5-0.9-1.6-1.5-0.4
    Chad-1.0-7.6-5.73.61.73.0-13.7-8.74.30.7
    Congo, Rep. of13.23.314.516.39.122.84.521.431.732.4
    Equatorial Guinea18.212.320.623.519.315.4-8.0-4.8-3.1-3.4
    Gabon9.27.58.79.28.711.77.55.86.57.7
    Nigeria6.58.19.310.6-0.44.6-10.4-7.21.03.1
    Middle-income countries0.2-1.40.21.21.6-0.7-5.5-6.2-5.7-4.9
    Excluding South Africa0.7-2.31.54.32.3-2.5-7.5-9.0-6.2-4.0
    Botswana3.70.58.611.04.2-5.8-12.3-11.3-4.4-1.7
    Cape Verde-10.2-13.0-13.3-11.6-6.3-6.9-11.8-17.0-17.0-13.2
    Lesotho5.72.31.911.510.02.8-6.7-16.5-24.2-20.1
    Mauritius-4.2-4.9-4.9-4.6-3.4-3.4-5.2-3.9-5.1-5.1
    Namibia0.8-3.9-1.12.04.32.5-2.0-7.5-4.6-2.3
    Seychelles-3.1-1.00.6-7.2-9.92.1-1.4-1.3-2.11.1
    South Africa0.1-1.20.00.81.5-0.5-5.2-5.8-5.7-5.0
    Swaziland1.1-5.0-3.66.57.00.5-7.1-12.7-10.0-6.4
    Low-income countries-7.2-7.0-7.3-7.3-7.3-7.2-7.9-8.1-8.3-7.4
    Excluding fragile countries-7.5-7.1-7.4-7.7-7.9-7.4-7.9-8.0-8.4-7.4
    Benin-3.0-3.7-4.3-2.5-2.6-1.8-6.5-1.9-4.0-3.4
    Burkina Faso-10.2-9.3-10.1-11.2-12.1-8.1-10.5-10.4-10.0-8.5
    Ethiopia-7.6-7.3-8.4-7.4-8.0-6.9-5.2-4.6-6.7-6.2
    Ghana-8.3-7.0-6.1-8.1-9.3-11.2-8.8-10.1-6.7-4.2
    Kenya-3.5-1.3-3.1-3.6-4.2-5.4-6.3-7.2-6.6-5.8
    Madagascar-9.3-13.2-10.5-10.3-7.0-5.4-3.9-1.7-2.4-6.4
    Malawi-15.5-14.9-13.2-14.3-17.9-17.1-14.5-11.5-7.7-9.7
    Mali-6.1-5.8-6.2-6.7-7.0-4.9-7.9-5.5-7.7-6.4
    Mozambique-11.3-11.7-8.8-12.0-12.2-11.9-14.8-12.5-15.8-15.2
    Niger-7.6-9.3-9.6-6.8-8.1-4.4-9.8-9.7-6.9-6.3
    Rwanda-10.1-9.2-10.8-9.6-10.7-10.0-13.1-12.3-12.6-12.1
    Senegal-5.8-4.4-4.4-6.9-6.4-7.1-8.0-7.5-8.0-7.6
    Tanzania-8.8-8.2-9.9-10.3-8.9-6.9-9.9-11.6-12.9-12.4
    Uganda-7.0-9.0-8.1-6.3-5.8-5.7-5.0-7.5-9.7-5.5
    Zambia-6.8-8.4-8.4-6.3-5.8-5.2-5.5-4.9-4.7-8.0
    Fragile countries-5.9-6.5-6.6-5.7-4.7-6.0-7.8-8.9-8.1-7.5
    Including Zimbabwe-5.9-6.8-5.6-4.6-5.8-7.6-8.6-7.8-7.1
    Burundi-25.8-19.7-16.8-19.3-35.3-38.2-32.1-31.8-24.8-21.3
    Central African Republic-5.5-5.5-8.7-4.4-2.9-5.8-5.3-6.1-4.2-4.4
    Comoros-6.7-3.2-3.1-6.6-8.8-12.1-8.2-9.0-9.0-8.2
    Congo, Dem. Rep. of-6.8-6.2-9.1-7.3-5.7-5.9-11.7-11.7-15.8-14.2
    Côte d’Ivoire-2.3-2.6-2.8-2.4-1.3-2.3-2.2-2.4
    Eritrea-24.8-31.7-31.5-18.2-18.8-24.0-17.3-21.3-19.4-14.7
    Gambia, The-4.6-7.2-7.0-6.0-0.4-2.4-6.3-8.6-4.3-3.9
    Guinea-3.2-6.5-2.3-4.6-0.5-1.8-7.6-14.6-4.8-1.9
    Guinea-Bissau-13.3-16.7-12.9-11.1-14.1-12.0-12.9-9.8-10.5-11.8
    Liberia-0.9-0.30.05.83.7-13.6-15.1-9.0-6.7-5.6
    São Tomé & Príncipe-12.0-35.820.8-29.80.2-15.6-34.4-23.6-20.9-21.3
    Sierra Leone-10.0-12.2-11.9-10.4-6.3-9.2-11.1-14.0-11.5-9.1
    Togo-2.70.2-3.6-4.2-3.6-2.3-4.4-5.2-5.9-6.7
    Zimbabwe1-4.6-8.6-3.3-3.9-2.8-3.6-2.3-1.6-0.2
    Sub-Saharan Africa0.1-0.80.61.8-0.5-0.4-7.2-5.6-3.2-2.3
    Median-5.3-5.8-4.9-6.3-4.2-5.4-8.0-8.6-6.7-6.3
    Including Zimbabwe0.10.61.8-0.5-0.4-7.2-5.6-3.2-2.3
    Excluding Nigeria and South Africa-2.4-4.3-2.6-1.1-1.9-2.3-7.0-4.8-3.5-3.0
    Oil-importing countries-3.2-3.9-3.3-2.7-2.5-3.7-6.6-7.1-7.0-6.1
    Excluding South Africa-6.2-6.4-6.2-5.9-6.1-6.6-7.8-8.2-8.0-7.0
    CFA franc zone0.7-1.50.51.80.91.9-4.3-2.3-0.5-0.4
    WAEMU-5.3-5.0-5.5-5.6-5.6-4.6-6.6-5.7-6.0-5.7
    CEMAC6.82.16.59.57.48.5-1.91.15.05.1
    EAC-5-6.8-6.0-7.1-7.0-7.1-6.9-8.1-9.5-10.1-8.7
    SADC-0.3-2.4-0.51.01.1-0.6-6.7-4.9-4.2-3.9
    SACU0.4-1.20.41.41.8-0.6-5.5-6.3-5.7-4.9
    COMESA-7.0-7.2-7.7-6.7-6.9-6.8-7.0-7.1-8.0-7.1
    Resource-intensive countries6.04.47.49.93.25.0-8.0-3.32.93.9
    Oil7.15.88.711.43.56.4-8.3-2.63.94.9
    Non-oil resource-intensive countries-0.5-2.70.41.61.1-2.9-6.1-7.8-3.9-2.7
    Non-resource-intensive countries-3.4-3.9-3.5-3.1-2.8-3.7-6.6-7.0-7.2-6.4
    Coastal Non-resource-intensive countries-2.3-2.9-2.2-2.0-1.4-2.8-6.3-6.7-6.6-6.0
    Landlocked Non-resource-intensive countries-7.8-8.2-8.7-7.2-7.9-7.1-7.9-8.0-9.1-7.7
    MDRI-6.5-7.0-6.4-6.3-6.7-6.0-7.4-6.9-7.0-6.0
    Fixed exchange rate regimes0.4-2.1-0.21.71.01.5-4.5-3.2-1.5-1.1
    Floating exchange rate0.1-0.50.81.8-0.8-0.7-7.7-6.0-3.5-2.5
    Sources: IMF, African Department database, April 1, 2011; and IMF, World Economic Outlook (WEO) database, April 1, 2011.

    The Zimbabwe dollar ceased circulating in early 2009. Data are based on IMF staff estimates of price and exchange rate developments in U.S. dollars. Staff estimates of U.S. dollar values may differ from authorities’ estimates.

    Table SA11.Government Revenue, Excluding Grants(Percent of GDP)
    2004-08200420052006200720082009201020112012
    Oil-exporting countries34.032.535.535.231.435.723.328.831.931.7
    Excluding Nigeria34.427.631.637.235.839.828.434.035.636.1
    Angola46.139.543.950.245.850.930.842.243.543.7
    Cameroon18.215.217.619.319.120.017.616.717.919.2
    Chad15.15.56.015.022.826.416.424.829.428.6
    Congo, Rep. of39.730.038.644.339.146.629.242.551.553.8
    Equatorial Guinea36.129.834.740.838.337.041.029.928.226.2
    Gabon30.930.131.331.729.531.932.630.628.930.1
    Nigeria33.735.437.933.928.432.819.925.529.529.1
    Middle-income countries28.425.927.628.529.929.828.228.028.528.7
    Excluding South Africa32.330.533.034.132.731.131.628.228.428.9
    Botswana38.037.342.241.036.932.535.131.232.933.4
    Cape Verde25.622.824.325.627.328.023.621.923.423.5
    Lesotho56.248.850.260.959.761.158.848.742.546.4
    Mauritius19.418.919.418.919.420.521.121.220.620.0
    Namibia28.925.627.329.431.730.629.525.926.226.8
    Seychelles37.040.539.140.132.232.935.435.836.735.9
    South Africa27.825.326.827.729.629.727.828.028.528.7
    Swaziland36.230.432.340.039.339.236.827.325.626.8
    Low-income countries15.515.015.115.415.916.015.916.917.117.6
    Excluding fragile countries15.415.115.115.315.715.715.716.717.117.4
    Benin18.116.716.816.820.619.418.418.418.619.0
    Burkina Faso13.013.512.712.413.513.113.515.916.516.0
    Ethiopia14.016.114.614.812.712.012.014.013.613.7
    Ghana13.613.813.613.713.813.313.415.016.918.1
    Kenya21.621.421.221.122.022.122.824.225.225.1
    Madagascar11.812.010.911.211.713.311.111.19.89.6
    Malawi18.816.819.217.719.420.922.626.625.425.8
    Mali17.718.018.418.217.516.218.018.016.917.8
    Mozambique14.813.114.115.015.915.917.419.419.920.3
    Niger13.711.410.613.015.018.414.613.614.615.8
    Rwanda12.812.212.512.112.314.912.813.113.413.6
    Senegal19.518.319.219.721.119.418.619.620.120.3
    Tanzania13.111.111.812.514.115.916.215.816.116.3
    Uganda12.210.912.112.512.612.812.512.413.113.4
    Zambia18.018.217.617.218.418.616.017.819.319.1
    Fragile countries16.014.715.416.116.717.317.017.916.818.2
    Including Zimbabwe15.715.415.715.916.617.018.517.418.8
    Burundi19.220.120.018.918.618.518.619.219.319.6
    Central African Republic9.48.38.29.510.310.410.811.011.511.9
    Comoros14.516.316.214.112.913.214.114.414.214.5
    Congo, Dem. Rep. of13.49.511.412.814.718.516.818.920.620.3
    Côte d’Ivoire18.217.517.018.419.218.918.919.8
    Eritrea22.323.225.923.021.218.213.313.314.316.1
    Gambia, The15.414.514.316.116.715.214.913.613.714.5
    Guinea14.111.514.514.414.315.616.515.616.617.7
    Guinea-Bissau9.08.69.210.28.09.29.010.811.111.2
    Liberia19.114.614.218.923.624.126.733.527.326.2
    São Tomé & Príncipe32.216.964.820.940.618.017.217.429.717.3
    Sierra Leone12.012.612.612.211.311.511.813.313.615.3
    Togo16.416.815.717.016.815.616.916.918.718.4
    Zimbabwe18.216.49.63.83.016.029.429.529.1
    Sub-Saharan Africa26.224.726.226.626.127.522.624.726.026.1
    Median18.116.817.618.219.218.617.618.919.619.4
    Including Zimbabwe26.226.226.526.027.422.624.826.026.1
    Excluding Nigeria and South Africa22.019.721.022.722.723.820.622.523.023.5
    Oil-importing countries22.420.921.922.423.323.322.322.622.923.1
    Excluding South Africa17.517.017.417.617.817.717.718.318.418.9
    CFA franc zone21.218.419.821.922.523.321.522.022.323.1
    WAEMU17.016.416.316.918.017.517.318.016.918.1
    CEMAC25.420.323.327.127.029.125.826.027.828.3
    EAC-516.215.315.715.916.817.517.517.918.518.6
    SADC28.025.026.828.429.430.426.628.228.728.9
    SACU28.626.127.828.730.230.128.428.228.729.0
    COMESA16.616.616.716.616.416.716.617.918.018.0
    Resource-intensive countries32.631.133.933.830.534.023.528.030.630.7
    Oil34.032.535.535.231.435.723.328.831.931.7
    Non-oil resource-intensive countries24.923.625.426.025.524.024.623.322.224.0
    Non-resource-intensive countries22.120.721.522.123.223.322.122.622.923.1
    Coastal Non-resource-intensive countries24.022.123.223.825.325.424.124.424.925.1
    Landlocked Non-resource-intensive countries15.114.915.115.415.015.415.216.416.316.5
    MDRI15.514.415.115.715.816.315.416.717.417.9
    Fixed exchange rate regimes22.319.420.823.123.724.422.622.522.723.5
    Floating exchange rate27.025.827.427.326.528.122.625.226.626.6
    Sources: IMF, African Department database, April 1, 2011; and IMF, World Economic Outlook (WEO) database, April 1, 2011.

    The Zimbabwe dollar ceased circulating in early 2009. Data are based on IMF staff estimates of price and exchange rate developments in U.S. dollars. Staff estimates of U.S. dollar values may differ from authorities’ estimates.

    Table SA12.Government Expenditure(Percent of GDP)
    2004-08200420052006200720082009201020112012
    Oil-exporting countries26.926.726.823.827.829.331.631.427.926.8
    Excluding Nigeria26.325.823.824.726.530.933.529.527.028.1
    Angola36.838.534.734.134.542.039.534.331.333.0
    Cameroon15.916.014.614.515.718.518.418.319.419.6
    Chad16.113.111.711.421.123.430.133.525.127.9
    Congo, Rep. of26.526.724.228.030.023.824.721.119.721.4
    Equatorial Guinea17.917.514.117.319.021.649.034.631.329.7
    Gabon21.822.622.722.520.820.225.124.722.422.5
    Nigeria27.227.228.723.228.728.230.432.628.526.0
    Middle-income countries28.227.327.427.328.330.633.834.234.233.6
    Excluding South Africa31.632.831.529.830.433.639.137.234.632.9
    Botswana34.336.933.630.032.738.447.542.537.335.1
    Cape Verde35.835.937.637.233.634.935.338.940.436.7
    Lesotho50.546.648.449.349.658.365.665.166.666.5
    Mauritius23.723.824.423.522.823.826.225.125.725.1
    Namibia28.129.428.427.427.428.131.433.430.829.1
    Seychelles40.041.438.547.342.130.836.737.138.834.7
    South Africa27.726.526.826.928.130.233.033.834.133.7
    Swaziland35.235.535.933.432.338.743.940.035.633.2
    Low-income countries22.722.022.422.823.123.223.825.125.424.9
    Excluding fragile countries22.922.222.523.023.523.223.524.725.524.8
    Benin21.120.421.219.323.321.224.820.222.622.4
    Burkina Faso23.222.822.723.625.621.224.026.326.424.6
    Ethiopia21.623.423.122.220.718.917.218.620.319.9
    Ghana22.020.819.721.823.124.522.225.123.722.3
    Kenya25.122.724.324.726.227.629.031.431.830.9
    Madagascar21.125.321.421.518.718.615.012.912.216.1
    Malawi34.331.732.432.037.338.037.038.133.135.5
    Mali23.823.824.624.924.521.225.823.524.524.2
    Mozambique26.124.822.927.028.127.832.231.935.735.5
    Niger21.320.720.219.823.122.824.423.321.622.1
    Rwanda22.921.323.421.723.124.825.925.326.125.7
    Senegal25.422.723.626.627.526.526.627.128.127.9
    Tanzania21.919.321.722.823.022.826.127.429.028.6
    Uganda19.119.820.218.718.418.617.519.922.818.9
    Zambia24.926.626.123.524.323.921.422.724.027.1
    Fragile countries21.921.222.021.821.423.324.826.924.825.7
    Including Zimbabwe21.522.221.220.622.424.627.125.225.9
    Burundi45.139.836.838.153.956.750.751.044.140.8
    Central African Republic14.813.816.913.913.216.216.117.115.716.3
    Comoros21.319.519.320.621.725.322.423.323.222.7
    Congo, Dem. Rep. of20.215.820.520.120.424.428.530.636.434.5
    Côte d’Ivoire20.520.119.920.820.521.121.122.2
    Eritrea47.154.857.541.239.942.130.634.733.730.8
    Gambia, The20.021.721.322.217.217.621.222.218.018.4
    Guinea17.217.916.919.014.817.524.130.221.419.6
    Guinea-Bissau22.425.322.121.322.121.121.920.621.623.0
    Liberia20.014.814.213.020.037.741.942.534.031.8
    São Tomé & Príncipe44.352.744.050.740.433.651.641.050.738.7
    Sierra Leone22.124.824.522.717.620.722.927.325.124.4
    Togo19.116.619.321.220.417.921.322.124.625.1
    Zimbabwe112.825.012.87.75.819.631.731.129.3
    Sub-Saharan Africa26.125.525.624.826.627.829.830.329.228.4
    Median23.323.423.122.823.123.926.127.326.326.6
    Including Zimbabwe26.025.624.726.527.829.830.329.228.4
    Excluding Nigeria and South Africa24.424.023.623.824.626.127.627.326.626.5
    Oil-importing countries25.624.925.125.125.827.028.929.829.829.3
    Excluding South Africa23.723.423.523.523.924.325.526.526.425.9
    CFA franc zone20.419.819.320.121.621.425.824.322.823.5
    WAEMU22.321.421.722.623.622.123.823.722.823.8
    CEMAC18.618.316.817.619.620.627.824.822.823.2
    EAC-523.021.322.822.923.824.425.627.428.727.2
    SADC28.327.427.327.328.331.033.333.132.932.8
    SACU28.227.327.427.328.430.734.034.434.433.8
    COMESA23.723.824.423.323.223.623.625.026.025.1
    Resource-intensive countries26.726.626.523.927.329.031.531.427.726.8
    Oil26.926.726.823.827.829.331.631.427.926.8
    Non-oil resource-intensive countries25.426.325.024.424.426.930.731.126.126.7
    Non-resource-intensive countries25.524.625.025.225.927.028.729.630.129.5
    Coastal Non-resource-intensive countries26.225.025.325.826.728.230.331.231.531.1
    Landlocked Non-resource-intensive countries23.023.023.822.722.822.523.124.325.524.2
    MDRI22.021.421.522.022.522.322.823.524.523.9
    Fixed exchange rate regimes21.921.521.021.422.722.927.025.824.224.6
    Floating exchange rate26.926.326.625.427.328.830.431.230.129.1
    Sources: IMF, African Department database, April 1, 2011; and IMF, World Economic Outlook (WEO) database, April 1, 2011.

    The Zimbabwe dollar ceased circulating in early 2009. Data are based on IMF staff estimates of price and exchange rate developments in U.S. dollars. Staff estimates of U.S. dollar values may differ from authorities’ estimates.

    Table SA13.Government Debt(Percent of GDP)
    2004-082004200520062007200820092010
    Oil-exporting countries28.856.135.218.318.116.520.019.3
    Excluding Nigeria37.061.845.628.325.823.627.423.9
    Angola33.952.740.724.022.729.534.831.4
    Cameroon30.161.451.815.711.99.59.612.9
    Chad29.434.233.629.626.023.630.936.1
    Congo, Rep. of112.9198.7108.398.898.560.357.417.4
    Equatorial Guinea2.56.23.01.61.10.75.17.5
    Gabon45.065.253.842.143.220.926.421.3
    Nigeria23.552.728.611.812.811.615.216.4
    Middle-income countries31.435.434.232.228.027.031.135.3
    Excluding South Africa28.631.731.029.126.025.428.228.5
    Botswana7.39.97.45.67.56.213.913.7
    Cape Verde83.592.695.786.873.968.269.280.3
    Lesotho60.460.066.276.046.553.439.637.8
    Mauritius49.551.653.651.147.344.047.850.5
    Namibia23.528.127.224.719.917.615.819.0
    Seychelles136.0161.8148.1133.1101.4135.4128.683.0
    South Africa31.735.934.632.628.327.331.536.3
    Swaziland17.819.517.117.318.116.913.618.9
    Low-income countries62.883.576.360.147.846.344.941.2
    Excluding fragile countries50.571.865.247.434.733.535.037.4
    Benin28.035.142.914.620.926.728.130.6
    Burkina Faso31.545.844.121.721.924.025.827.7
    Ethiopia64.5105.779.066.838.233.032.236.7
    Ghana39.758.248.626.231.534.339.241.2
    Kenya49.055.050.846.846.146.249.450.5
    Madagascar56.191.782.641.434.630.433.735.0
    Malawi73.9131.5132.929.832.542.645.240.3
    Mali32.546.252.920.321.721.624.228.3
    Mozambique56.370.781.053.641.934.428.632.0
    Niger31.258.851.615.815.913.915.817.6
    Rwanda47.290.870.726.626.921.220.223.9
    Senegal33.147.545.723.024.525.032.038.0
    Tanzania56.866.766.668.142.440.140.943.8
    Uganda67.598.093.589.228.928.026.325.4
    Zambia63.8148.687.929.825.826.928.626.9
    Fragile countries115.2130.5121.7114.4105.4104.190.159.3
    Including Zimbabwe113.0117.0110.9103.1103.490.459.1
    Burundi190.7249.4192.2180.3177.8153.748.247.5
    Central African Republic92.8102.9107.793.979.180.333.032.8
    Comoros69.478.174.173.861.659.455.551.9
    Congo, Dem. Rep. of149.5197.5150.1134.4129.1136.3138.329.5
    Côte d’Ivoire81.384.986.384.275.675.367.067.2
    Eritrea156.0140.8156.2151.6156.7174.9145.7144.8
    Gambia, The97.2120.9117.9127.656.363.057.057.4
    Guinea117.7119.8150.2137.192.488.977.088.7
    Guinea-Bissau202.0235.4216.2213.8186.9157.7164.347.7
    Liberia482.7311.1118.7
    São Tomé & Príncipe205.4295.2275.6287.8104.364.035.078.1
    Sierra Leone125.6204.7177.9136.755.253.760.057.3
    Togo87.893.076.885.3100.783.167.828.2
    Zimbabwe166.952.059.065.790.896.156.3
    Sub-Saharan Africa40.357.047.636.430.929.531.731.7
    Median54.074.472.448.940.134.434.836.1
    Including Zimbabwe40.447.636.531.029.731.931.8
    Excluding Nigeria and South Africa52.973.164.049.040.138.539.135.6
    Oil-importing countries45.957.453.445.137.336.338.038.3
    Excluding South Africa58.676.970.456.345.444.243.439.9
    CFA franc zone45.865.756.639.036.631.231.629.2
    WAEMU51.363.362.744.743.342.541.940.8
    CEMAC40.368.250.333.229.819.921.117.5
    EAC-558.174.368.964.142.540.539.440.7
    SADC38.146.743.537.031.631.735.635.3
    SACU30.334.333.131.227.126.130.134.6
    COMESA68.295.881.366.249.648.347.339.7
    Resource-intensive countries33.157.340.124.722.420.723.422.9
    Oil28.856.135.218.318.116.520.019.3
    Non-oil resource-intensive countries56.963.966.360.647.646.344.745.9
    Non-resource-intensive countries44.156.451.743.235.134.236.637.1
    Coastal Non-resource-intensive countries38.345.643.637.832.831.835.438.8
    Landlocked Non-resource-intensive countries67.1100.883.764.044.143.140.631.6
    MDRI58.086.974.353.139.136.836.732.9
    Fixed exchange rate regimes47.064.155.940.040.034.933.630.6
    Floating exchange rate38.955.545.835.629.128.531.331.9
    Sources: IMF, African Department database, April 1, 2011; and IMF, World Economic Outlook (WEO) database, April 1, 2011.

    The Zimbabwe dollar ceased circulating in early 2009. Data are based on IMF staff estimates of price and exchange rate developments in U.S. dollars. Staff estimates of U.S. dollar values may differ from authorities’ estimates.

    Table SA14.Broad Money(Percent of GDP)
    2004-08200420052006200720082009201020112012
    Oil-exporting countries22.317.917.720.024.331.838.033.131.832.5
    Excluding Nigeria18.215.515.417.519.023.730.629.226.726.7
    Angola21.917.717.520.522.231.542.440.235.334.6
    Cameroon19.318.117.918.320.821.723.523.023.023.0
    Chad10.58.18.011.511.813.316.218.117.617.7
    Congo, Rep. of16.013.414.016.417.818.422.520.016.718.4
    Equatorial Guinea7.07.56.46.37.57.112.011.913.714.0
    Gabon18.317.418.219.618.9