Back Matter

Source:
Regional Economic Outlook, April 2011 : Sub-Saharan Africa: Recovery and New Risks
Author:
International Monetary Fund. African Dept.
Publisher:
INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND
Published Date:
May  2011
Statistical Appendix

Unless otherwise noted, data and projections presented in this report are IMF staff estimates as of April 1, 2011, consistent with the projections underlying the Spring 2011 World Economic Outlook.

The data and projections cover the 44 countries of the IMF’s African Department. Data definitions follow established international statistical methodologies to the extent possible. However, in some cases data limitations limit comparability across countries.

Country Groupings

As in previous Regional Economic Outlooks, countries are aggregated into four nonoverlapping groups: oil exporters, non-oil-exporting middle-income, low-income, and fragile low-income countries (see the appendix tables).

  • The 7 oil exporters are countries where net oil exports make up 30 percent or more of total exports. Except for Angola and Nigeria, they belong to the Central African Economic and Monetary Community. Oil exporters are classified as such even if they would otherwise qualify for another group.

  • The 8 middle-income countries are not oil exporters and had per capita gross national income of more than US$975 in 2008, as calculated by the World Bank using the Atlas method.

  • The 15 low-income countries not classified as fragile are not oil exporters, had per capita gross national income equal to or lower than US$975 in 2008, and had a score higher than 3.2 on the 2008 IDA Resource Allocation Index (IRAI).

  • The 14 low-income countries classified as fragile are not oil exporters, had per capita gross national income equal to or lower than US$975 in 2008, and had a score of 3.2 or less on the 2008 IDA Resource Allocation Index (IRAI).

In addition, countries are classified as resource-rich if their primary commodity rents exceed 10 percent of GDP. Non-resource-rich countries are also classified by whether they are coastal or landlocked (Table SA MN 1).

Table SA MN 1. Sub-Saharan Africa: Country Groupings
Resource-Rich Non-Resource-Rich
Oil Non-oil Coastal Landlocked
Angola Botswana Benin * Burkina Faso *
Cameroon * Côte d’Ivoire Cape Verde Burundi *
Chad Guinea Comoros Central African Republic *
Congo, Rep. of * Namibia Eritrea Congo, Dem. Rep. of *
Equatorial Guinea Sierra Leone * Gambia, The * Ethiopia *
Gabon Zambia * Ghana * Lesotho
Nigeria Guinea-Bissau * Malawi *
Liberia * Mali *
Kenya Niger *
Madagascar * Rwanda *
Mauritius Swaziland
Mozambique * Uganda *
São Tomé & Príncipe * Zimbabwe
Senegal *
Seychelles
South Africa
Tanzania *
Togo *
Note: * Country has reached the completion point under the enhanced HIPC Initiative and has qualified for MDRI relief.

Finally, countries are grouped into regional cooperation bodies: CFA franc zone, comprising the West African Economic and Monetary Union (WAEMU) and the Central African Economic and Monetary Community (CEMAC); East Africa Community (EAC-5); Southern African Development Community (SADC); Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa. (COMESA); and Southern Africa Customs Union (SACU) (Table SA MN 2).

Table SA MN 2. Sub-Saharan Africa: Member Countries of Regional Groupings
The West African
Economic and
Monetary Union
(WAEMU)
Economic and
Monetary
Community of
Central African
States (CEMAC)
Common Market for
Eastern and Southern
Africa (COMESA)
East Africa
Community
(EAC-5)
Southern African
Development
Community (SADC)
Southern
Africa
Customs
Union (SACU)
Benin Cameroon Burundi Burundi Angola Botswana
Burkina Faso Central African Comoros Kenya Botswana Lesotho
Côte d’Ivoire Republic Congo, Dem. Rep. of Rwanda Congo, Dem. Rep. of Namibia
Guinea-Bissau Chad Eritrea Tanzania Lesotho South Africa
Mali Congo, Rep. of Ethiopia Uganda Madagascar Swaziland
Niger Equatorial Kenya Malawi
Senegal Guinea Madagascar Mauritius
Togo Gabon Malawi Mozambique
Mauritius Namibia
Rwanda Seychelles
Seychelles South Africa
Swaziland Swaziland
Uganda Tanzania
Zambia Zambia
Zimbabwe Zimbabwe

Unless otherwise noted, group aggregates exclude data for Zimbabwe because of data limitations. EAC-5 aggregates include data for Rwanda and Burundi, which joined only in 2007.

Methods of Aggregation

In Tables SA14, SA7SA14, SA16, and SA23SA24, country group composites are calculated as the arithmetic average of data for individual countries, weighted by GDP valued at purchasing power parity as a share of total group GDP. The source of purchasing power parity weights is the WEO database.

In Tables SA1722 and SA2527, country group composites are calculated as the arithmetic average of data for individual countries, weighted by GDP in U.S. dollars at market exchange rates as a share of total group GDP.

In Tables SA56 and SA15, country group composites are calculated as the geometric average of data for individual countries, weighted by GDP valued at purchasing power parity as a share of total group GDP. The source of purchasing power parity weights is the WEO database.

List of Tables

SA1. Real GDP Growth

SA2. Real Non-Oil GDP Growth

SA3. Real Per Capita GDP Growth

SA4. Real Per Capita GDP

SA5. Consumer Prices, Average

SA6. Consumer Prices, End of Period

SA7. Total Investment

SA8. Gross National Savings

SA9. Overall Fiscal Balance, Including Grants

SA10. Overall Fiscal Balance, Excluding Grants

SA11. Government Revenue, Excluding Grants

SA12. Government Expenditure

SA13. Government Debt

SA14. Broad Money

SA15. Broad Money Growth

SA16. Claims on Nonfinancial Private Sector

SA17. Exports of Goods and Services

SA18. Imports of Goods and Services

SA19. Trade Balance

SA20. External Current Account, Including Grants

SA21. External Current Account, Excluding Grants

SA22. Official Grants

SA23. Real Effective Exchange Rates

SA24. Nominal Effective Exchange Rates

SA25. External Debt to Official Creditors

SA26. Terms of Trade

SA27. Reserves

Table SA1. Real GDP Growth (Percent)
2004-08 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012
Oil-exporting countries 8.7 11.2 7.6 7.6 9.9 7.1 5.2 6.2 6.7 6.9
Excluding Nigeria 11.2 12.3 11.2 9.7 14.2 8.7 2.5 2.8 6.5 7.4
Angola 17.8 11.2 20.6 19.5 23.9 13.8 2.4 1.6 7.8 10.5
Cameroon 3.0 3.7 2.3 3.2 3.4 2.6 2.0 3.0 3.5 4.5
Chad 8.3 33.6 7.9 0.2 0.2 -0.4 0.3 5.1 4.1 6.0
Congo, Rep. of 4.3 3.5 7.8 6.2 -1.6 5.6 7.5 9.1 7.8 4.7
Equatorial Guinea 16.2 38.0 9.7 1.3 21.4 10.7 5.7 -0.8 7.2 4.0
Gabon 2.7 1.4 3.0 1.2 5.6 2.3 -1.4 5.7 5.6 3.3
Nigeria 7.0 10.6 5.4 6.2 7.0 6.0 7.0 8.4 6.9 6.6
Middle-income countries 4.9 4.8 4.9 5.6 5.5 3.6 -1.5 3.1 3.7 4.0
Excluding South Africa 4.6 6.3 2.1 5.3 5.2 3.9 -0.5 5.7 4.7 5.1
Botswana 4.1 6.0 1.6 5.1 4.8 3.1 -3.7 8.6 6.0 6.6
Cape Verde 7.2 4.3 6.5 10.1 8.6 6.2 3.6 5.4 5.5 6.8
Lesotho 3.7 2.3 2.4 4.7 4.5 4.7 3.0 2.4 3.1 4.1
Mauritius 4.6 5.5 1.5 4.5 5.9 5.5 3.0 4.0 4.1 4.2
Namibia 6.3 12.3 2.5 7.1 5.4 4.3 -0.8 4.4 4.8 4.5
Seychelles 3.7 -2.9 6.7 6.4 9.6 -1.3 0.7 6.2 4.0 4.7
South Africa 4.9 4.6 5.3 5.6 5.6 3.6 -1.7 2.8 3.5 3.8
Swaziland 2.7 2.5 2.2 2.9 2.8 3.1 1.2 2.0 0.5 1.5
Low-income countries 6.3 5.8 6.6 6.3 6.5 6.4 4.8 5.4 6.1 6.7
Excluding fragile countries 7.0 6.4 7.3 7.2 7.2 7.1 5.2 5.7 7.2 6.9
Benin 3.9 3.0 2.9 3.8 4.6 5.0 2.7 2.5 3.4 4.3
Burkina Faso 5.5 4.5 8.7 5.5 3.6 5.2 3.2 5.8 5.5 5.6
Ethiopia 11.8 11.7 12.6 11.5 11.8 11.2 10.0 8.0 8.5 8.0
Ghana 6.2 5.4 6.2 4.6 6.5 8.4 4.7 5.7 13.7 7.3
Kenya 5.1 4.6 6.0 6.3 7.0 1.6 2.6 5.0 5.7 6.5
Madagascar 5.7 5.3 4.6 5.0 6.2 7.1 -3.7 -2.0 0.6 4.7
Malawi 6.0 5.5 2.6 7.7 5.8 8.6 7.6 6.6 6.1 5.7
Mali 4.6 2.3 6.1 5.3 4.3 5.0 4.5 4.5 6.0 5.4
Mozambique 7.8 7.9 8.4 8.7 7.3 6.8 6.3 7.0 7.5 7.8
Niger 5.2 -0.8 8.4 5.8 3.3 9.3 -0.9 7.5 5.5 15.4
Rwanda 8.6 7.4 9.4 9.2 5.5 11.2 4.1 6.5 6.5 7.0
Senegal 4.4 5.9 5.6 2.4 5.0 3.2 2.2 4.2 4.5 4.8
Tanzania 7.3 7.8 7.4 7.0 6.9 7.3 6.7 6.5 6.4 6.6
Uganda 8.2 6.8 6.3 10.8 8.4 8.7 7.2 5.2 6.0 6.5
Zambia 5.8 5.4 5.3 6.2 6.2 5.7 6.4 7.6 6.8 7.4
Fragile countries 3.3 3.2 3.5 2.9 3.3 3.5 3.1 4.0 0.6 5.7
Including Zimbabwe 2.8 3.2 3.1 2.5 2.9 2.5 3.2 4.2 1.3 5.6
Burundi 3.8 4.8 0.9 5.1 3.6 4.5 3.5 3.9 4.5 4.8
Central African Republic 2.6 1.0 2.4 3.8 3.7 2.0 1.7 3.3 4.1 5.0
Comoros 1.3 -0.2 4.2 1.2 0.5 1.0 1.8 2.1 2.4 3.5
Congo, Dem. Rep. of 6.5 6.6 7.8 5.6 6.3 6.2 2.8 7.2 6.5 6.0
Côte d’Ivoire 1.6 1.6 1.9 0.7 1.6 2.3 3.8 2.6 -7.5 6.0
Eritrea -1.1 1.5 2.6 -1.0 1.4 -9.8 3.9 2.2 7.9 6.1
Gambia, The 4.6 7.0 0.3 3.4 6.0 6.3 6.7 5.7 5.5 5.5
Guinea 2.9 2.3 3.0 2.5 1.8 4.9 -0.3 1.9 4.0 4.5
Guinea-Bissau 3.1 2.8 4.3 2.1 3.2 3.2 3.0 3.5 4.3 4.5
Liberia 6.4 2.6 5.3 7.8 9.4 7.1 4.6 5.1 5.9 9.8
São Tomé & Príncipe 6.1 6.6 5.7 6.7 6.0 5.8 4.0 4.5 5.0 6.0
Sierra Leone 6.8 7.4 7.2 7.3 6.4 5.5 3.2 5.0 5.1 6.0
Togo 2.4 2.1 1.2 4.1 2.3 2.4 3.2 3.4 3.6 4.0
Zimbabwe 1 -6.8 -6.9 -2.2 -3.5 -3.7 -17.7 6.0 9.0 7.3 5.7
Sub-Saharan Africa 6.6 7.2 6.3 6.4 7.3 5.7 2.8 4.9 5.5 5.9
Median 5.2 4.8 5.3 5.3 5.6 5.2 3.2 5.0 5.5 5.6
Including Zimbabwe 6.5 7.1 6.2 6.4 7.2 5.6 2.8 5.0 5.6 5.9
Excluding Nigeria and South Africa 7.5 7.5 7.4 7.1 8.5 6.9 3.8 4.7 6.1 6.7
Oil-importing countries 5.5 5.2 5.7 5.9 6.0 4.9 1.5 4.2 4.9 5.3
Excluding South Africa 6.1 5.8 6.0 6.2 6.3 6.1 4.2 5.4 5.9 6.5
CFA franc zone 4.8 7.7 4.9 2.9 4.6 4.1 2.8 4.0 3.3 5.3
WAEMU 3.7 2.9 4.7 3.2 3.4 4.2 3.0 4.1 1.3 6.2
CEMAC 6.0 12.6 5.1 2.5 5.9 4.0 2.6 3.9 5.2 4.4
EAC-5 6.7 6.3 6.6 7.7 7.1 5.7 5.1 5.6 6.1 6.5
SADC 6.6 5.7 6.7 7.2 7.9 5.5 0.0 3.3 4.6 5.3
SACU 4.9 4.8 5.0 5.6 5.5 3.6 -1.7 3.1 3.6 4.0
COMESA 7.3 6.8 7.2 7.9 7.9 6.8 5.2 5.6 6.2 6.5
Resource-intensive countries 7.9 10.2 6.8 6.9 8.9 6.6 4.5 6.0 5.9 6.7
Oil 8.7 11.2 7.6 7.6 9.9 7.1 5.2 6.2 6.7 6.9
Non-oil resource-intensive countries 3.4 4.7 2.3 3.5 3.4 3.3 0.4 4.7 0.3 5.8
Non-resource-intensive countries 5.8 5.3 6.0 6.2 6.2 5.1 1.6 4.2 5.3 5.3
Coastal Non-resource-intensive countries 5.2 4.9 5.4 5.6 5.8 4.2 0.3 3.5 4.8 4.8
Landlocked Non-resource-intensive countries 8.0 6.9 8.4 8.5 7.7 8.5 6.4 6.5 6.7 7.1
MDRI 6.7 6.2 6.9 6.7 6.5 7.3 5.2 5.7 7.0 6.6
Fixed exchange rate regimes 4.8 7.6 4.7 3.1 4.6 3.9 2.6 3.9 3.4 5.2
Floating exchange rate 6.9 7.1 6.6 7.1 7.8 6.0 2.8 5.1 5.9 6.0
Sources: IMF, African Department database, April 1, 2011; and IMF, World Economic Outlook (WEO) database, April 1, 2011.

In constant 2009 US dollars. The Zimbabwe dollar ceased circulating in early 2009. Data are based on IMF staff estimates of price and exchange rate developments in U.S. dollars. Staff estimates of U.S. dollar values may differ from authorities’ estimates.

Table SA2. Real Non-Oil GDP Growth (Percent)
2004-08 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012
Oil-exporting countries 10.9 11.3 8.3 11.9 13.7 9.5 8.0 6.7 7.8 7.5
Excluding Nigeria 12.7 8.1 10.4 15.4 19.0 10.5 7.6 4.9 8.0 7.7
Angola 18.0 9.0 14.1 25.2 26.8 15.0 8.1 4.6 9.2 10.4
Cameroon 3.6 4.9 3.2 2.9 4.0 3.1 2.9 3.8 4.0 3.7
Chad 4.8 2.1 11.0 4.7 3.1 3.2 1.9 5.9 6.0 6.3
Congo, Rep. of 5.7 5.0 5.4 5.9 6.6 5.4 3.9 6.5 7.3 7.9
Equatorial Guinea 29.3 28.4 22.8 29.8 47.2 18.1 27.6 5.3 12.8 5.0
Gabon 4.2 2.3 4.3 4.9 6.2 3.4 -0.5 6.1 6.7 4.3
Nigeria 9.8 13.3 7.0 9.6 10.1 8.9 8.3 7.9 7.7 7.4
Middle-income countries 4.9 4.8 4.9 5.6 5.5 3.6 -1.5 3.1 3.7 4.0
Excluding South Africa 4.6 6.3 2.1 5.3 5.2 3.9 -0.5 5.7 4.7 5.1
Botswana 4.1 6.0 1.6 5.1 4.8 3.1 -3.7 8.6 6.0 6.6
Cape Verde 7.2 4.3 6.5 10.1 8.6 6.2 3.6 5.4 5.5 6.8
Lesotho 3.7 2.3 2.4 4.7 4.5 4.7 3.0 2.4 3.1 4.1
Mauritius 4.6 5.5 1.5 4.5 5.9 5.5 3.0 4.0 4.1 4.2
Namibia 6.3 12.3 2.5 7.1 5.4 4.3 -0.8 4.4 4.8 4.5
Seychelles 3.7 -2.9 6.7 6.4 9.6 -1.3 0.7 6.2 4.0 4.7
South Africa 4.9 4.6 5.3 5.6 5.6 3.6 -1.7 2.8 3.5 3.8
Swaziland 2.7 2.5 2.2 2.9 2.8 3.1 1.2 2.0 0.5 1.5
Low-income countries 6.3 5.8 6.5 6.3 6.5 6.5 4.8 5.4 5.3 6.6
Excluding fragile countries 7.0 6.4 7.3 7.2 7.2 7.1 5.2 5.7 6.3 6.8
Benin 3.9 3.0 2.9 3.8 4.6 5.0 2.7 2.5 3.4 4.3
Burkina Faso 5.5 4.5 8.7 5.5 3.6 5.2 3.2 5.8 5.5 5.6
Ethiopia 11.8 11.7 12.6 11.5 11.8 11.2 10.0 8.0 8.5 8.0
Ghana 6.2 5.4 6.2 4.6 6.5 8.4 4.7 5.7 6.5 6.6
Kenya 5.1 4.6 6.0 6.3 7.0 1.6 2.6 5.0 5.7 6.5
Madagascar 5.7 5.3 4.6 5.0 6.2 7.1 -3.7 -2.0 0.6 4.7
Malawi 6.0 5.5 2.6 7.7 5.8 8.6 7.6 6.6 6.1 5.7
Mali 4.6 2.3 6.1 5.3 4.3 5.0 4.5 4.5 6.0 5.4
Mozambique 7.8 7.9 8.4 8.7 7.3 6.8 6.3 7.0 7.5 7.8
Niger 5.2 -0.8 8.4 5.8 3.3 9.3 -0.9 7.5 5.5 15.4
Rwanda 8.6 7.4 9.4 9.2 5.5 11.2 4.1 6.5 6.5 7.0
Senegal 4.4 5.9 5.6 2.4 5.0 3.2 2.2 4.2 4.5 4.8
Tanzania 7.3 7.8 7.4 7.0 6.9 7.3 6.7 6.5 6.4 6.6
Uganda 8.2 6.8 6.3 10.8 8.4 8.7 7.2 5.2 6.0 6.5
Zambia 5.8 5.4 5.3 6.2 6.2 5.7 6.4 7.6 6.8 7.4
Fragile countries 3.2 3.2 3.3 2.6 3.5 3.5 3.0 4.1 0.6 5.5
Including Zimbabwe 2.8 3.2 2.9 2.2 3.1 2.5 3.2 4.4 1.3 5.5
Burundi 3.8 4.8 0.9 5.1 3.6 4.5 3.5 3.9 4.5 4.8
Central African Republic 2.6 1.0 2.4 3.8 3.7 2.0 1.7 3.3 4.1 5.0
Comoros 1.3 -0.2 4.2 1.2 0.5 1.0 1.8 2.1 2.4 3.5
Congo, Dem. Rep. of 6.5 6.6 7.8 5.6 6.3 6.2 2.8 7.2 6.5 6.0
Côte d’Ivoire 1.5 1.6 1.3 0.0 2.1 2.5 3.7 3.0 -7.6 5.6
Eritrea -1.1 1.5 2.6 -1.0 1.4 -9.8 3.9 2.2 7.9 6.1
Gambia, The 4.6 7.0 0.3 3.4 6.0 6.3 6.7 5.7 5.5 5.5
Guinea 2.9 2.3 3.0 2.5 1.8 4.9 -0.3 1.9 4.0 4.5
Guinea-Bissau 3.1 2.8 4.3 2.1 3.2 3.2 3.0 3.5 4.3 4.5
Liberia 6.4 2.6 5.3 7.8 9.4 7.1 4.6 5.1 5.9 9.8
São Tomé & Príncipe 6.1 6.6 5.7 6.7 6.0 5.8 4.0 4.5 5.0 6.0
Sierra Leone 6.8 7.4 7.2 7.3 6.4 5.5 3.2 5.0 5.1 6.0
Togo 2.4 2.1 1.2 4.1 2.3 2.4 3.2 3.4 3.6 4.0
Zimbabwe 1 -6.8 -6.9 -2.2 -3.5 -3.7 -17.7 6.0 9.0 7.3 5.7
Sub-Saharan Africa 7.3 7.2 6.5 7.8 8.5 6.5 3.7 5.1 5.6 6.1
Median 5.3 4.9 5.3 5.5 5.8 5.2 3.2 5.0 5.5 5.6
Including Zimbabwe 7.2 7.2 6.4 7.7 8.4 6.4 3.8 5.1 5.7 6.1
Excluding Nigeria and South Africa 7.9 6.4 7.1 8.6 9.8 7.4 5.1 5.3 6.0 6.7
Oil-importing countries 5.5 5.2 5.6 5.9 6.0 4.9 1.5 4.3 4.5 5.3
Excluding South Africa 6.1 5.8 6.0 6.2 6.4 6.2 4.2 5.5 5.2 6.4
CFA franc zone 6.0 5.1 6.2 5.5 7.8 5.2 5.0 4.6 4.0 5.6
WAEMU 3.6 2.9 4.5 3.0 3.5 4.2 2.9 4.2 1.3 6.1
CEMAC 8.3 7.4 7.9 8.1 12.2 6.2 7.0 5.1 6.8 5.0
EAC-5 6.7 6.3 6.6 7.7 7.1 5.7 5.1 5.6 6.1 6.5
SADC 6.7 5.5 6.1 7.9 8.3 5.6 0.7 3.7 4.8 5.3
SACU 4.9 4.8 5.0 5.6 5.5 3.6 -1.7 3.1 3.6 4.0
COMESA 7.3 6.8 7.2 7.9 7.9 6.8 5.2 5.6 6.2 6.5
Resource-intensive countries 9.8 10.3 7.3 10.5 12.2 8.7 7.0 6.5 6.8 7.3
Oil 10.9 11.3 8.3 11.9 13.7 9.5 8.0 6.7 7.8 7.5
Non-oil resource-intensive countries 3.4 4.7 2.0 3.2 3.6 3.4 0.4 4.8 0.3 5.7
Non-resource-intensive countries 5.8 5.3 6.0 6.2 6.2 5.1 1.6 4.2 4.8 5.2
Coastal Non-resource-intensive countries 5.2 4.9 5.4 5.6 5.8 4.2 0.3 3.5 4.3 4.7
Landlocked Non-resource-intensive countries 8.0 6.9 8.4 8.5 7.7 8.5 6.4 6.5 6.7 7.1
MDRI 6.8 6.4 6.9 6.7 6.8 7.3 5.2 5.7 6.1 6.5
Fixed exchange rate regimes 5.8 5.3 5.8 5.4 7.5 4.9 4.6 4.5 4.0 5.4
Floating exchange rate 7.6 7.6 6.6 8.3 8.7 6.8 3.6 5.2 5.9 6.2
Sources: IMF, African Department database, April 1, 2011; and IMF, World Economic Outlook (WEO) database, April 1, 2011.

In constant 2009 US dollars. The Zimbabwe dollar ceased circulating in early 2009. Data are based on IMF staff estimates of price and exchange rate developments in U.S. dollars. Staff estimates of U.S. dollar values may differ from authorities’ estimates.

Table SA3. Real Per Capita GDP Growth (Percent)
2004-08 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012
Oil-exporting countries 5.8 8.2 4.7 4.7 6.9 4.3 2.4 3.4 3.9 4.0
Excluding Nigeria 8.2 9.2 8.1 6.7 11.1 6.0 -0.1 0.1 3.7 4.6
Angola 14.6 8.0 17.2 16.2 20.6 10.9 -0.2 -1.3 4.6 7.3
Cameroon 0.2 0.9 -0.5 0.4 0.6 -0.2 -0.8 0.5 1.0 2.0
Chad 5.7 30.4 5.3 -2.3 -2.3 -2.8 -2.2 2.5 1.5 3.5
Congo, Rep. of 1.4 0.6 4.7 3.2 -4.4 2.6 4.4 6.0 4.8 1.7
Equatorial Guinea 12.9 34.1 6.7 -1.6 18.0 7.6 2.8 -3.6 4.1 1.1
Gabon 0.4 -1.1 0.5 -1.3 3.0 0.8 -2.8 4.2 4.1 1.8
Nigeria 4.2 7.6 2.6 3.4 4.1 3.1 4.1 5.5 4.0 3.7
Middle-income countries 3.7 3.7 3.9 4.4 4.5 1.9 -2.8 2.0 2.5 2.8
Excluding South Africa 3.4 5.1 1.0 4.2 3.8 2.6 -1.4 4.8 3.7 4.1
Botswana 3.0 4.8 0.8 4.3 3.5 1.8 -4.9 7.1 4.6 5.2
Cape Verde 5.5 2.5 5.0 8.3 7.1 4.7 0.7 3.4 2.6 3.8
Lesotho 1.8 0.1 0.6 2.8 2.6 2.8 1.2 0.6 1.3 2.2
Mauritius 3.8 4.6 0.7 3.7 4.9 5.2 2.5 3.6 3.5 3.6
Namibia 4.4 10.4 0.7 5.2 3.5 2.4 -1.6 3.5 4.0 3.6
Seychelles 2.7 -2.5 6.2 4.2 9.0 -3.4 0.3 5.8 3.6 4.4
South Africa 3.7 3.5 4.3 4.5 4.6 1.8 -2.9 1.6 2.3 2.6
Swaziland 1.6 1.8 1.3 1.8 1.5 1.6 1.4 2.4 0.9 1.9
Low-income countries 3.6 2.9 4.0 3.6 3.7 3.7 2.1 2.7 3.4 3.9
Excluding fragile countries 4.4 3.8 4.8 4.4 4.5 4.4 2.5 3.0 4.5 4.2
Benin 0.9 -0.3 -0.4 0.9 1.8 2.2 -0.1 -0.3 0.6 1.4
Burkina Faso 2.9 1.3 6.1 3.1 1.2 2.8 0.9 3.4 3.1 3.2
Ethiopia 8.9 8.9 9.8 8.7 8.9 8.3 7.2 5.5 6.0 5.5
Ghana 3.6 2.7 3.5 1.9 3.8 5.7 2.0 3.1 10.8 4.6
Kenya 2.4 2.6 4.0 3.2 3.9 -1.4 -0.4 2.0 2.7 3.5
Madagascar 2.8 2.4 1.8 2.2 3.4 4.3 -6.2 -4.5 -1.9 2.1
Malawi 3.4 3.3 0.5 4.7 2.9 5.6 4.6 3.7 3.2 2.8
Mali 2.1 -0.2 3.6 2.8 1.9 2.5 2.0 1.4 2.9 2.3
Mozambique 5.7 5.8 6.3 6.6 5.2 4.7 4.2 4.9 5.4 5.7
Niger 2.0 -3.8 5.2 2.6 0.2 6.0 -3.8 4.3 2.3 11.9
Rwanda 6.6 5.9 7.5 7.3 3.3 8.9 2.0 4.3 4.3 4.8
Senegal 2.0 3.4 3.2 0.0 2.5 0.8 -0.2 1.8 2.0 2.3
Tanzania 5.1 5.5 5.1 5.1 4.9 5.2 4.6 4.4 4.4 4.5
Uganda 4.7 3.4 2.9 7.2 4.9 5.2 3.5 1.5 2.3 2.8
Zambia 3.3 3.1 3.0 3.7 3.6 3.1 3.8 5.0 4.2 4.8
Fragile countries 0.3 -0.4 0.8 0.0 0.5 0.6 0.1 1.1 -2.2 2.7
Including Zimbabwe -0.1 -1.0 0.5 -0.2 0.2 -0.3 0.4 1.5 -1.7 2.9
Burundi 1.8 2.8 -1.1 3.1 1.5 2.5 1.4 1.8 2.4 2.7
Central African Republic 0.6 -1.0 0.4 1.8 1.7 0.0 -1.9 0.8 1.6 2.4
Comoros -0.7 -2.3 2.1 -0.8 -1.6 -1.1 -0.3 0.0 0.3 1.3
Congo, Dem. Rep. of 3.4 3.5 4.7 2.5 3.2 3.1 -0.2 4.1 3.4 2.9
Côte d’Ivoire -1.7 -3.3 -0.8 -2.2 -1.4 -0.7 0.7 -0.4
Eritrea -4.5 -2.6 -1.2 -4.3 -1.9 -12.6 0.7 -0.9 4.6 2.9
Gambia, The 1.0 3.4 -3.2 -0.2 2.4 2.7 3.1 2.2 2.0 2.0
Guinea 0.8 0.4 1.0 0.4 -0.4 2.6 -2.7 -0.5 1.4 1.9
Guinea-Bissau 0.8 0.3 1.8 -0.2 0.9 1.0 0.8 1.2 2.1 2.3
Liberia 2.7 0.8 2.4 3.7 4.4 1.9 -0.2 0.8 2.1 6.3
São Tomé & Príncipe 4.4 4.8 3.9 5.0 4.3 4.1 2.4 2.8 3.3 4.3
Sierra Leone 3.4 3.1 3.4 3.9 3.5 2.9 0.7 2.3 2.4 3.3
Togo -0.2 -0.5 -1.4 1.5 -0.2 -0.1 0.7 0.9 1.1 1.5
Zimbabwe 1 -7.3 -7.9 -3.3 -3.4 -3.9 -18.2 6.0 9.0 7.3 5.7
Sub-Saharan Africa 4.3 4.9 4.2 4.3 5.1 3.3 0.6 2.7 3.3 3.6
Median 2.9 2.7 2.9 3.1 3.2 2.6 0.7 2.3 2.8 2.9
Including Zimbabwe 4.3 4.9 4.2 4.2 5.0 3.2 0.6 2.7 3.3 3.6
Excluding Nigeria and South Africa 4.7 4.6 4.7 4.4 5.7 4.1 1.2 2.2 3.5 4.1
Oil-importing countries 3.6 3.3 3.9 4.0 4.1 2.7 -0.4 2.3 2.9 3.4
Excluding South Africa 3.5 3.1 3.5 3.6 3.7 3.4 1.7 3.0 3.4 4.0
CFA franc zone 2.0 4.5 2.2 0.2 1.9 1.4 0.1 1.3 0.7 2.7
WAEMU 0.8 -0.6 2.0 0.5 0.7 1.5 0.3 1.3 -1.4 3.3
CEMAC 3.3 9.6 2.4 -0.2 3.1 1.4 0.0 1.4 2.7 1.9
EAC-5 4.1 3.9 4.2 4.9 4.3 3.0 2.3 2.8 3.3 3.8
SADC 4.9 4.1 5.2 5.6 6.3 3.4 -1.6 1.7 2.9 3.6
SACU 3.7 3.7 4.0 4.5 4.4 1.8 -2.9 1.9 2.4 2.8
COMESA 4.4 3.9 4.5 4.9 4.9 3.7 2.6 3.0 3.6 3.9
Resource-intensive countries 5.1 7.2 4.0 4.2 6.1 3.8 1.9 3.3 3.1 4.0
Oil 5.8 8.2 4.7 4.7 6.9 4.3 2.4 3.4 3.9 4.0
Non-oil resource-intensive countries 1.1 1.7 0.3 1.4 1.2 1.1 -1.7 2.5 -1.7 3.6
Non-resource-intensive countries 3.9 3.5 4.3 4.3 4.4 2.8 -0.3 2.3 3.3 3.4
Coastal Non-resource-intensive countries 3.6 3.4 4.0 4.0 4.3 2.2 -1.4 1.9 3.1 3.1
Landlocked Non-resource-intensive countries 4.8 3.6 5.3 5.5 4.6 5.2 3.7 3.8 4.0 4.3
MDRI 4.0 3.5 4.2 4.0 3.8 4.5 2.5 3.1 4.4 3.9
Fixed exchange rate regimes 2.0 4.5 2.0 0.4 1.9 1.3 0.1 1.4 0.9 2.7
Floating exchange rate 4.8 5.0 4.7 5.0 5.7 3.6 0.7 2.9 3.7 3.8
Sources: IMF, African Department database, April 1, 2011; and IMF, World Economic Outlook (WEO) database, April 1, 2011.

In constant 2009 US dollars. The Zimbabwe dollar ceased circulating in early 2009. Data are based on IMF staff estimates of price and exchange rate developments in U.S. dollars. Staff estimates of U.S. dollar values may differ from authorities’ estimates.

Table SA4. Real Per Capita GDP (U.S. dollars, at 2000 prices, using 2000 exchange rates)
2004-08 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012
Oil-exporting countries 681 625 649 675 715 742 761 788 818 850
Excluding Nigeria 916 804 856 901 983 1,033 1,032 1,034 1,070 1,114
Angola 990 708 829 963 1,162 1,288 1,285 1,268 1,326 1,423
Cameroon 679 679 675 678 682 681 675 678 685 698
Chad 296 293 308 301 294 286 280 287 291 301
Congo, Rep. of 1,170 1,120 1,173 1,211 1,158 1,188 1,241 1,316 1,379 1,402
Equatorial Guinea 3,923 3,449 3,679 3,620 4,272 4,596 4,722 4,552 4,740 4,792
Gabon 4,070 4,030 4,051 3,998 4,118 4,152 4,034 4,203 4,374 4,452
Nigeria 596 559 574 593 617 637 663 699 727 754
Middle-income countries 3,399 3,141 3,263 3,406 3,558 3,625 3,525 3,593 3,680 3,782
Excluding South Africa 2,529 2,404 2,424 2,521 2,615 2,682 2,645 2,760 2,856 2,966
Botswana 4,390 4,179 4,211 4,391 4,544 4,624 4,396 4,710 4,925 5,183
Cape Verde 1,588 1,398 1,467 1,590 1,703 1,783 1,795 1,856 1,905 1,977
Lesotho 395 380 382 393 403 415 420 422 428 437
Mauritius 4,677 4,413 4,444 4,610 4,833 5,084 5,212 5,397 5,585 5,784
Namibia 2,668 2,524 2,542 2,674 2,768 2,835 2,789 2,887 3,001 3,110
Seychelles 7,467 6,742 7,159 7,456 8,128 7,849 7,871 8,331 8,631 9,011
South Africa 3,565 3,281 3,422 3,576 3,739 3,806 3,694 3,752 3,838 3,938
Swaziland 1,531 1,485 1,505 1,532 1,555 1,580 1,601 1,640 1,655 1,686
Low-income countries 278 259 269 278 288 297 303 311 320 332
Excluding fragile countries 303 277 290 303 316 328 336 347 361 376
Benin 350 345 343 347 353 361 360 359 361 366
Burkina Faso 278 258 273 282 285 293 296 306 316 326
Ethiopia 161 134 147 160 174 189 203 214 227 239
Ghana 462 432 447 456 473 500 510 526 583 610
Kenya 441 414 430 444 461 455 453 462 474 491
Madagascar 241 229 233 239 247 257 241 231 226 231
Malawi 149 141 142 149 153 162 169 175 181 186
Mali 314 296 307 315 321 329 336 341 351 359
Mozambique 346 307 327 348 366 383 400 419 442 467
Niger 178 166 174 179 179 190 183 191 195 218
Rwanda 298 261 280 301 311 339 345 360 376 394
Senegal 508 490 506 506 518 523 522 531 542 554
Tanzania 377 341 358 376 394 415 434 453 473 494
Uganda 320 290 299 320 336 353 366 371 380 391
Zambia 364 341 351 364 377 389 404 424 442 463
Fragile countries 213 212 213 213 214 215 215 217 212 218
Including Zimbabwe
Burundi 109 107 105 109 110 113 115 117 120 123
Central African Republic 218 214 215 218 222 222 218 220 223 228
Comoros 380 379 387 384 378 373 372 373 374 379
Congo, Dem. Rep. of 89 83 87 89 92 95 95 99 102 105
Côte d’Ivoire 541 555 551 539 531 528 532 530
Eritrea 167 179 177 169 166 145 146 145 152 156
Gambia, The 501 507 491 490 502 516 532 543 554 565
Guinea 391 385 389 391 389 399 389 386 392 400
Guinea-Bissau 267 262 267 266 269 272 274 277 283 289
Liberia 127 119 122 126 132 134 134 135 138 147
São Tomé & Príncipe 720 660 686 720 751 782 801 824 851 887
Sierra Leone 249 232 240 249 258 265 267 273 280 289
Togo 226 227 223 227 226 226 227 229 232 235
Zimbabwe
Sub-Saharan Africa 635 593 613 634 659 676 674 688 706 727
Median 387 379 382 384 389 399 404 422 435 450
Including Zimbabwe
Excluding Nigeria and South Africa 379 350 364 377 395 409 413 421 434 450
Oil-importing countries 618 582 599 619 639 652 642 651 664 681
Excluding South Africa 321 302 311 321 332 342 346 355 365 379
CFA franc zone 497 485 494 495 503 509 509 515 517 530
WAEMU 363 355 361 362 365 369 370 374 368 379
CEMAC 805 781 797 797 818 829 827 838 860 875
EAC-5 358 329 342 359 375 386 396 407 420 436
SADC 1,029 951 987 1,029 1,076 1,103 1,076 1,089 1,111 1,141
SACU 3,379 3,121 3,245 3,389 3,538 3,602 3,497 3,561 3,647 3,747
COMESA 244 225 233 244 255 264 269 276 285 295
Resource-intensive countries 676 629 649 671 704 728 741 766 788 818
Oil 681 625 649 675 715 742 761 788 818 850
Non-oil resource-intensive countries 659 648 649 658 665 673 663 679 671 693
Non-resource-intensive countries 622 582 602 623 645 659 649 658 673 690
Coastal Non-resource-intensive countries 1,120 1,049 1,084 1,122 1,162 1,182 1,156 1,170 1,197 1,225
Landlocked Non-resource-intensive countries 189 171 180 189 198 208 215 222 230 239
MDRI 278 257 267 278 287 299 306 315 328 340
Fixed exchange rate regimes 514 502 510 512 520 526 525 530 533 546
Floating exchange rate 665 616 638 664 693 713 710 727 748 771
Sources: IMF, African Department database, April 1, 2011; and IMF, World Economic Outlook (WEO) database, April 1, 2011.
Table SA5. Consumer Prices (Annual average, percent change)
2004-08 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012
Oil-exporting countries 10.8 14.9 14.8 8.1 5.6 10.4 11.1 11.5 10.3 8.9
Excluding Nigeria 9.5 14.6 10.2 7.9 6.0 8.8 8.9 8.2 9.1 8.0
Angola 20.9 43.6 23.0 13.3 12.2 12.5 13.7 14.5 14.6 12.4
Cameroon 2.7 0.3 2.0 4.9 1.1 5.3 3.0 1.3 3.0 2.5
Chad 1.5 -4.8 3.7 7.7 -7.4 8.3 10.1 1.0 3.0 3.0
Congo, Rep. of 3.9 3.7 2.5 4.7 2.6 6.0 4.3 5.0 5.9 5.2
Equatorial Guinea 4.3 4.2 5.7 4.5 2.8 4.3 7.2 7.5 7.3 7.0
Gabon 2.1 0.4 1.2 -1.4 5.0 5.3 1.9 0.6 2.3 3.4
Nigeria 11.6 15.0 17.9 8.2 5.4 11.6 12.5 13.7 11.1 9.5
Middle-income countries 5.9 1.9 3.6 5.1 7.1 11.6 7.1 4.3 5.2 5.8
Excluding South Africa 7.7 5.3 5.5 8.3 7.5 11.9 7.2 4.8 7.0 5.9
Botswana 9.4 7.0 8.6 11.6 7.1 12.6 8.1 6.9 7.8 7.0
Cape Verde 2.9 -1.9 0.4 4.8 4.4 6.8 1.0 2.1 4.4 5.4
Lesotho 6.7 5.0 3.4 6.1 8.0 10.7 7.2 3.8 5.4 5.6
Mauritius 7.4 4.7 4.9 8.7 8.6 9.7 2.5 2.9 7.4 4.6
Namibia 5.7 4.1 2.3 5.1 6.7 10.4 8.8 4.5 5.9 5.6
Seychelles 9.0 3.9 0.6 -1.9 5.3 37.0 31.9 -2.4 3.1 4.3
South Africa 5.6 1.4 3.4 4.7 7.1 11.5 7.1 4.3 4.9 5.8
Swaziland 7.3 3.5 4.8 5.3 9.7 13.1 7.5 4.5 7.9 6.1
Low-income countries 9.0 7.1 9.2 7.8 7.8 13.3 13.6 6.6 7.9 7.2
Excluding fragile countries 9.0 7.5 8.6 7.5 7.7 13.6 13.9 6.0 7.6 7.3
Benin 3.9 0.9 5.4 3.8 1.3 8.0 2.2 2.1 4.2 3.0
Burkina Faso 3.8 -0.4 6.4 2.4 -0.2 10.7 2.6 0.4 2.0 2.0
Ethiopia 13.8 8.6 6.8 12.3 15.8 25.3 36.4 2.8 12.9 11.2
Ghana 13.0 12.6 15.1 10.2 10.7 16.5 19.3 10.7 8.7 8.7
Kenya 9.6 11.8 9.9 6.0 4.3 16.2 9.3 3.9 7.2 5.0
Madagascar 12.5 14.0 18.4 10.8 10.4 9.2 9.0 9.0 8.8 7.5
Malawi 11.5 11.4 15.5 13.9 8.0 8.8 8.7 6.9 6.6 6.9
Mali 3.1 -3.1 6.4 1.5 1.5 9.1 2.2 1.2 4.5 2.7
Mozambique 10.2 12.6 6.4 13.2 8.2 10.3 3.3 12.7 9.5 7.2
Niger 3.8 0.4 7.8 0.1 0.1 10.5 1.1 0.9 3.8 2.0
Rwanda 10.9 12.0 9.1 8.8 9.1 15.4 10.3 2.3 3.1 5.5
Senegal 3.2 0.5 1.7 2.1 5.9 5.8 -1.7 1.2 3.9 2.5
Tanzania 5.8 4.1 4.4 5.6 6.3 8.4 11.8 10.5 6.3 7.0
Uganda 6.7 5.0 8.0 6.6 6.8 7.3 14.2 9.4 6.1 11.0
Zambia 13.7 18.0 18.3 9.0 10.7 12.4 13.4 8.5 9.0 6.5
Fragile countries 9.4 5.8 11.5 9.1 8.5 12.1 12.5 9.3 9.1 6.9
Including Zimbabwe 12.2 9.0 8.8 6.9
Burundi 11.4 8.0 13.5 2.7 8.3 24.4 10.7 6.4 8.4 13.4
Central African Republic 3.5 -2.2 2.9 6.7 0.9 9.3 3.5 1.5 2.7 2.9
Comoros 4.0 4.5 3.0 3.4 4.5 4.8 4.8 2.7 3.9 3.6
Congo, Dem. Rep. of 14.7 4.0 21.4 13.2 16.7 18.0 46.2 23.5 12.0 11.0
Côte d’Ivoire 3.2 1.5 3.9 2.5 1.9 6.3 1.0 1.4 5.0 2.5
Eritrea 16.4 25.1 12.5 15.1 9.3 19.9 33.0 12.7 13.3 12.3
Gambia, The 6.2 14.3 5.0 2.1 5.4 4.5 4.6 5.0 5.9 5.5
Guinea 25.0 17.5 31.4 34.7 22.9 18.4 4.7 15.5 19.6 15.1
Guinea-Bissau 4.0 0.8 3.2 0.7 4.6 10.4 -1.6 1.1 4.0 2.0
Liberia 9.8 3.6 6.9 7.2 13.7 17.5 7.4 7.3 9.7 6.0
São Tomé & Príncipe 19.5 12.8 17.2 23.1 18.5 26.0 17.0 14.4 10.6 6.7
Sierra Leone 12.5 14.2 12.0 9.5 11.6 14.8 9.2 17.8 14.7 8.8
Togo 3.8 0.4 6.8 2.2 0.9 8.7 1.9 3.2 6.2 2.0
Zimbabwe 6.5 3.0 4.8 6.1
Sub-Saharan Africa 8.4 7.6 8.8 6.9 6.9 11.7 10.5 7.5 7.8 7.3
Median 6.8 4.2 6.4 6.0 6.7 10.4 7.4 4.5 6.2 5.6
Including Zimbabwe 10.5 7.5 7.8 7.3
Excluding Nigeria and South Africa 9.0 8.8 9.1 7.9 7.3 11.9 11.8 6.9 8.1 7.3
Oil-importing countries 7.3 4.2 6.1 6.3 7.5 12.4 10.2 5.4 6.5 6.5
Excluding South Africa 8.9 6.9 8.7 7.9 7.8 13.1 12.8 6.4 7.8 7.0
CFA franc zone 3.1 0.4 3.7 3.1 1.5 6.8 2.8 2.0 4.1 3.2
WAEMU 3.4 0.3 4.7 2.2 2.0 7.9 1.0 1.3 4.1 2.4
CEMAC 2.8 0.4 2.7 4.1 1.0 5.7 4.7 2.8 4.1 3.9
EAC-5 7.8 7.7 7.7 6.1 5.8 11.7 11.3 7.2 6.4 7.2
SADC 7.7 6.0 6.5 6.6 8.0 11.5 9.2 6.9 6.9 7.0
SACU 5.8 1.8 3.6 5.0 7.1 11.6 7.2 4.4 5.1 5.8
COMESA 10.9 9.0 10.2 9.2 9.9 16.3 19.5 6.1 9.0 8.6
Resource-intensive countries 10.3 13.4 13.8 8.2 5.8 10.5 10.2 10.8 10.0 8.5
Oil 10.8 14.9 14.8 8.1 5.6 10.4 11.1 11.5 10.3 8.9
Non-oil resource-intensive countries 8.1 5.8 8.3 9.2 6.9 10.6 5.0 5.8 8.0 6.0
Non-resource-intensive countries 7.2 4.0 5.9 6.0 7.5 12.5 10.6 5.4 6.3 6.5
Coastal Non-resource-intensive countries 6.6 3.7 5.2 5.5 7.0 11.7 7.9 5.3 5.7 5.9
Landlocked Non-resource-intensive countries 9.5 5.1 8.9 8.3 9.5 15.8 20.4 5.6 8.4 8.5
MDRI 8.3 5.8 8.1 7.6 7.7 12.4 14.2 6.7 7.4 7.3
Fixed exchange rate regimes 3.6 1.1 3.8 3.5 2.2 7.4 3.7 2.4 4.4 3.5
Floating exchange rate 9.4 9.0 9.9 7.6 7.8 12.6 11.9 8.5 8.5 8.1
Sources: IMF, African Department database, April 1, 2011; and IMF, World Economic Outlook (WEO) database, April 1, 2011.
Table SA6. Consumer Prices (End of period, percent change)
2004-08 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012
Oil-exporting countries 9.7 10.8 10.2 7.7 6.7 12.9 11.6 10.5 9.5 7.9
Excluding Nigeria 8.7 12.2 8.0 6.4 6.9 9.8 8.1 8.7 8.0 7.0
Angola 17.3 31.0 18.5 12.2 11.8 13.2 14.0 15.3 13.0 11.2
Cameroon 3.1 1.0 3.5 2.4 3.4 5.3 0.9 2.6 3.0 2.5
Chad 3.2 9.2 -3.4 -0.9 1.7 9.7 4.7 -2.2 -2.0 -2.0
Congo, Rep. of 4.4 1.1 3.1 8.1 -1.7 11.4 2.5 5.4 5.0 4.2
Equatorial Guinea 4.4 5.1 3.2 3.8 3.7 6.2 8.1 7.5 7.3 7.0
Gabon 2.3 -0.5 1.1 -0.7 5.9 5.6 0.9 0.7 3.5 3.2
Nigeria 10.4 10.0 11.6 8.5 6.6 15.1 13.9 11.7 10.5 8.5
Middle-income countries 6.6 3.7 3.9 6.0 9.0 10.3 6.1 3.7 6.0 5.6
Excluding South Africa 8.3 5.9 6.7 8.0 8.6 12.3 4.4 5.5 6.5 5.5
Botswana 9.9 7.9 11.3 8.5 8.1 13.7 5.8 7.4 7.5 6.4
Cape Verde 3.5 -0.3 1.8 5.8 3.4 6.7 -0.4 3.4 5.7 4.3
Lesotho 7.2 5.0 3.5 6.4 10.5 10.6 4.2 3.1 5.6 5.7
Mauritius 7.3 5.6 3.9 11.6 8.6 6.8 1.5 6.1 5.8 4.4
Namibia 6.4 4.3 3.5 6.0 7.1 10.9 7.0 3.1 5.7 5.5
Seychelles 16.5 3.9 -1.6 0.2 16.8 63.3 -2.5 0.4 5.5 3.5
South Africa 6.4 3.5 3.6 5.8 9.0 10.1 6.3 3.5 5.9 5.6
Swaziland 8.1 3.2 6.3 5.5 12.6 12.9 4.5 4.5 7.3 5.4
Low-income countries 10.2 7.9 8.8 8.4 7.7 18.2 7.3 6.7 8.9 6.4
Excluding fragile countries 10.2 7.7 8.4 8.0 7.9 18.9 6.4 6.2 8.8 6.5
Benin 4.4 2.6 3.7 5.3 0.3 9.9 -2.9 4.0 4.5 3.0
Burkina Faso 4.1 0.7 4.5 1.5 2.3 11.6 -0.3 1.4 2.0 2.0
Ethiopia 19.3 1.7 13.0 11.6 15.1 55.3 2.7 7.3 16.0 9.0
Ghana 13.7 11.8 14.8 10.9 12.7 18.1 16.0 8.6 9.0 8.5
Kenya 10.5 17.1 4.7 7.3 5.6 17.8 5.3 4.5 6.7 5.5
Madagascar 13.6 27.3 11.5 10.8 8.2 10.1 8.0 9.2 8.5 6.5
Malawi 11.6 13.7 16.6 10.1 7.5 9.9 7.6 6.3 7.0 6.8
Mali 3.7 1.5 3.4 3.6 2.6 7.4 1.7 1.9 5.0 3.1
Mozambique 9.2 9.1 11.1 9.4 10.3 6.2 4.2 16.6 8.4 5.6
Niger 4.5 3.7 4.2 0.4 4.7 9.4 -0.6 2.7 3.5 2.0
Rwanda 11.4 10.2 5.6 12.1 6.6 22.3 5.7 0.2 6.0 5.0
Senegal 3.5 1.7 1.4 3.9 6.2 4.3 -3.4 4.3 2.7 2.3
Tanzania 6.2 4.1 5.0 6.8 5.8 9.3 10.7 7.2 7.5 5.5
Uganda 7.1 0.9 10.7 7.2 4.4 12.5 12.3 4.2 12.0 10.0
Zambia 13.4 17.5 15.9 8.2 8.9 16.6 9.9 7.9 7.0 6.0
Fragile countries 10.3 9.1 10.5 10.2 6.6 15.1 11.8 8.8 9.1 5.8
Including Zimbabwe 10.8 8.5 9.0 5.9
Burundi 12.5 11.8 1.0 9.3 14.7 25.7 4.6 4.1 13.9 12.9
Central African Republic 4.7 -0.3 2.2 7.1 -0.2 14.5 -1.2 2.3 3.4 2.4
Comoros 4.4 3.3 7.2 1.7 2.2 7.4 2.2 3.2 4.3 2.9
Congo, Dem. Rep. of 17.2 9.2 21.3 18.2 10.0 27.6 53.4 9.8 13.0 9.0
Côte d’Ivoire 3.9 4.4 2.5 2.0 1.5 9.0 -1.7 5.1 5.0 2.5
Eritrea 17.5 17.4 18.5 9.0 12.6 30.2 22.2 14.2 12.3 12.3
Gambia, The 5.2 8.1 4.8 0.4 6.0 6.8 2.7 5.8 6.0 5.0
Guinea 24.6 27.6 29.7 39.1 12.8 13.5 7.9 20.8 17.1 12.3
Guinea-Bissau 4.6 2.9 -1.0 3.2 9.3 8.7 -6.4 5.7 1.8 2.0
Liberia 9.5 7.5 7.0 8.9 14.7 9.4 9.7 6.6 9.0 4.7
São Tomé & Príncipe 21.9 15.2 17.2 24.6 27.6 24.8 16.1 12.9 8.5 5.0
Sierra Leone 12.4 14.4 13.1 8.3 13.8 12.2 10.8 18.4 13.1 8.0
Togo 4.9 3.9 5.5 1.5 3.4 10.3 -2.4 6.9 6.9 -2.1
Zimbabwe -7.7 3.2 7.1 6.5
Sub-Saharan Africa 8.7 7.3 7.4 7.3 7.8 13.6 8.3 7.0 8.1 6.7
Median 6.9 5.0 4.8 7.1 7.1 10.6 4.6 5.4 6.7 5.4
Including Zimbabwe 8.3 7.0 8.1 6.7
Excluding Nigeria and South Africa 9.6 8.8 8.4 7.8 7.6 15.3 7.2 7.1 8.4 6.5
Oil-importing countries 8.2 5.6 6.1 7.1 8.4 13.9 6.6 5.2 7.4 6.0
Excluding South Africa 10.0 7.7 8.5 8.3 7.8 17.5 6.9 6.5 8.6 6.3
CFA franc zone 3.7 2.6 2.4 2.5 2.9 7.8 0.7 3.3 3.7 2.6
WAEMU 4.0 2.8 3.0 2.7 2.9 8.5 -1.5 3.7 4.0 2.3
CEMAC 3.3 2.5 1.8 2.4 3.0 7.1 2.9 2.9 3.5 3.0
EAC-5 8.4 8.7 6.0 7.5 5.6 14.2 8.7 5.0 8.2 6.6
SADC 8.1 7.0 6.3 7.3 9.1 10.9 8.4 6.1 7.4 6.5
SACU 6.6 3.7 4.0 5.9 9.0 10.3 6.3 3.7 6.0 5.6
COMESA 12.9 9.4 10.0 10.0 9.1 25.8 8.5 6.0 10.8 7.6
Resource-intensive countries 9.5 10.4 9.9 7.8 6.6 12.7 10.4 10.2 9.3 7.6
Oil 9.7 10.8 10.2 7.7 6.7 12.9 11.6 10.5 9.5 7.9
Non-oil resource-intensive countries 8.6 8.4 8.6 8.7 6.1 11.3 3.4 7.8 7.6 5.5
Non-resource-intensive countries 8.2 5.3 5.9 6.9 8.5 14.1 6.9 4.9 7.4 6.0
Coastal Non-resource-intensive countries 7.3 5.7 4.8 6.5 8.5 10.9 6.5 4.8 6.3 5.6
Landlocked Non-resource-intensive countries 11.7 3.6 10.4 8.8 8.8 27.1 8.0 5.2 10.8 7.4
MDRI 9.5 5.5 8.7 7.9 7.6 17.7 7.6 6.3 8.7 6.3
Fixed exchange rate regimes 4.1 3.0 2.9 2.9 3.6 8.3 1.4 3.5 4.1 3.0
Floating exchange rate 9.6 8.3 8.4 8.2 8.7 14.7 9.7 7.7 8.9 7.4
Sources: IMF, African Department database, April 1, 2011; and IMF, World Economic Outlook (WEO) database, April 1, 2011.
Table SA7. Total Investment (Percent of GDP)
2004-08 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012
Oil-exporting countries 21.3 22.0 20.6 20.9 21.1 21.9 25.2 22.7 21.0 20.9
Excluding Nigeria 18.5 19.8 17.0 18.3 18.7 18.7 21.6 19.6 18.5 19.4
Angola 12.1 9.9 8.8 12.0 13.5 16.2 15.2 10.4 11.0 12.9
Cameroon 16.8 20.4 16.8 14.3 15.0 17.5 16.6 16.4 18.5 19.0
Chad 25.7 24.3 20.2 32.6 26.6 24.8 31.5 39.7 35.9 33.8
Congo, Rep. of 20.9 22.5 20.2 21.6 21.9 18.4 22.5 20.8 20.1 21.8
Equatorial Guinea 35.4 43.7 39.9 32.5 35.3 25.9 48.1 48.3 35.4 34.7
Gabon 23.4 24.4 21.3 25.1 24.7 21.8 26.2 25.7 25.3 25.9
Nigeria 23.1 23.3 22.8 22.6 22.8 24.0 27.6 24.7 22.6 21.9
Middle-income countries 20.6 19.0 18.7 20.2 21.8 23.4 20.2 22.4 22.5 22.2
Excluding South Africa 25.8 25.8 24.3 23.9 25.8 29.4 24.6 27.4 26.3 25.3
Botswana 28.3 33.2 26.3 24.0 25.8 32.4 24.0 27.4 23.7 22.7
Cape Verde 41.4 39.5 36.0 38.0 47.0 46.6 39.4 47.1 48.7 45.4
Lesotho 25.8 24.4 23.6 24.8 26.9 29.5 34.9 37.5 39.1 42.8
Mauritius 25.6 24.4 22.7 26.7 26.9 27.3 21.5 25.1 25.8 25.3
Namibia 22.7 19.1 19.7 22.3 23.7 28.9 28.7 27.6 31.0 28.4
Seychelles 31.2 20.5 35.4 30.5 29.5 40.1 29.3 54.0 37.2 29.4
South Africa 19.9 18.1 18.0 19.7 21.2 22.5 19.6 21.7 21.9 21.7
Swaziland 16.0 9.0 23.8 13.9 19.2 13.9 14.4 12.5 11.6 12.6
Low-income countries 20.6 18.7 19.7 20.3 21.3 22.9 22.2 22.8 23.2 23.7
Excluding fragile countries 22.2 20.0 21.2 22.1 23.1 24.6 23.9 24.3 24.6 24.5
Benin 19.0 18.5 18.6 17.2 20.5 20.0 23.3 18.7 20.2 20.2
Burkina Faso 18.4 16.2 20.3 16.4 18.9 20.2 16.4 20.3 22.8 21.1
Ethiopia 24.0 26.5 23.8 25.2 22.1 22.4 22.7 22.3 24.0 23.9
Ghana 20.9 18.0 19.1 21.6 22.9 23.0 24.4 21.8 20.5 20.6
Kenya 17.7 14.4 16.9 17.9 19.1 20.3 20.9 22.6 25.2 25.2
Madagascar 28.8 25.8 23.8 25.0 28.3 40.9 32.2 25.8 20.6 24.3
Malawi 24.0 18.2 22.7 25.7 27.0 26.3 24.9 30.1 23.4 22.8
Mali 17.0 16.5 15.5 16.9 16.9 19.0 20.3 19.2 21.7 22.4
Mozambique 17.2 18.3 17.7 17.0 15.3 17.6 14.8 21.9 23.3 23.7
Niger 23.3 14.6 23.1 23.6 22.8 32.3 33.0 47.0 38.4 32.0
Rwanda 20.9 19.9 20.9 19.7 20.2 23.5 22.4 23.4 24.1 22.3
Senegal 30.2 26.0 28.5 28.2 34.0 34.1 27.9 29.8 30.8 30.9
Tanzania 26.1 21.5 23.9 26.4 28.7 29.7 29.4 28.8 28.8 28.9
Uganda 22.1 20.2 22.4 21.2 23.7 23.0 23.5 24.3 24.7 24.7
Zambia 22.7 24.9 23.7 22.1 22.0 20.9 21.6 23.8 24.1 25.5
Fragile countries 13.6 13.4 13.5 12.8 13.1 15.2 14.0 15.5 16.1 19.3
Including Zimbabwe
Burundi 16.0 13.3 10.8 16.3 17.5 22.3 22.1 20.6 20.7 20.6
Central African Republic 10.0 6.8 9.8 10.1 10.7 12.7 13.2 13.9 13.5 14.8
Comoros 10.3 9.0 8.9 9.2 10.7 13.7 11.9 16.5 17.3 18.1
Congo, Dem. Rep. of 16.1 12.8 13.8 13.2 18.2 22.4 19.4 27.0 29.5 34.8
Côte d’Ivoire 9.7 10.8 9.7 9.3 8.7 10.1 10.2 9.6
Eritrea 15.9 20.3 20.3 13.7 12.7 12.7 9.3 9.3 10.0 9.6
Gambia, The 20.4 24.2 21.6 23.8 18.3 14.0 18.0 17.4 12.2 12.4
Guinea 17.8 20.7 19.5 17.2 14.2 17.5 11.4 10.5 18.1 22.3
Guinea-Bissau 8.2 7.6 6.6 6.4 11.7 8.7 10.1 9.8 11.1 11.7
Liberia
São Tomé & Príncipe 47.6 41.6 75.5 39.8 49.9 31.0 48.5 39.2 62.5 38.7
Sierra Leone 14.3 10.8 17.4 15.2 13.2 14.8 14.9 18.3 18.0 19.2
Togo 15.9 14.5 16.3 16.8 14.6 17.3 18.0 16.9 19.3 19.5
Zimbabwe
Sub-Saharan Africa 20.8 19.9 19.6 20.5 21.4 22.7 22.5 22.6 22.2 22.2
Median 21.1 20.0 20.3 21.4 21.6 22.3 22.2 22.5 23.3 22.7
Including Zimbabwe
Excluding Nigeria and South Africa 20.5 19.7 19.4 20.1 21.0 22.3 22.2 22.3 22.2 22.6
Oil-importing countries 20.6 18.9 19.2 20.2 21.5 23.1 21.1 22.6 22.8 22.9
Excluding South Africa 21.2 19.6 20.3 20.8 21.8 23.7 22.4 23.3 23.5 23.8
CFA franc zone 20.3 20.6 19.8 19.8 20.7 20.6 23.1 24.0 22.7 23.0
WAEMU 18.0 16.2 17.7 17.1 18.7 20.5 19.3 20.5 20.3 20.7
CEMAC 22.6 25.0 21.9 22.6 22.7 20.8 27.0 27.6 25.2 25.3
EAC-5 21.5 18.2 20.4 21.4 23.2 24.2 24.4 25.1 26.2 26.1
SADC 20.1 18.3 18.1 19.6 21.2 23.1 20.4 21.5 21.5 21.8
SACU 20.4 18.8 18.5 19.9 21.5 23.1 20.1 22.1 22.2 22.0
COMESA 21.5 19.8 20.6 21.2 21.9 23.7 22.5 23.6 24.3 24.7
Resource-intensive countries 20.8 21.6 20.1 20.3 20.5 21.7 24.1 22.1 20.5 20.6
Oil 21.3 22.0 20.6 20.9 21.1 21.9 25.2 22.7 21.0 20.9
Non-oil resource-intensive countries 18.4 19.8 17.5 16.8 17.0 20.8 17.3 18.1 17.4 18.7
Non-resource-intensive countries 20.8 18.8 19.3 20.6 22.0 23.4 21.5 23.0 23.3 23.3
Coastal Non-resource-intensive countries 20.8 18.6 19.0 20.6 22.2 23.6 21.3 22.7 22.9 22.9
Landlocked Non-resource-intensive countries 21.0 19.5 20.8 20.7 21.2 22.5 22.2 24.1 24.7 24.8
MDRI 21.8 20.4 20.8 21.3 22.4 23.9 23.2 23.7 23.9 24.2
Fixed exchange rate regimes 20.3 20.3 19.9 19.7 20.7 20.9 23.1 23.9 22.9 23.1
Floating exchange rate 20.9 19.8 19.6 20.6 21.5 23.1 22.4 22.4 22.0 22.1
Sources: IMF, African Department database, April 1, 2011; and IMF, World Economic Outlook (WEO) database, April 1, 2011.
Table SA8. Gross National Savings (Percent of GDP)
2004-08 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012
Oil-exporting countries 32.2 23.6 26.9 41.6 35.3 33.6 29.3 24.3 30.7 30.7
Excluding Nigeria 23.7 14.7 23.2 29.8 26.1 24.5 11.5 13.7 20.3 23.2
Angola 26.8 13.6 27.0 39.4 29.3 24.8 5.2 8.6 17.2 22.4
Cameroon 15.8 17.0 13.4 15.9 16.4 16.3 12.9 11.9 14.9 15.4
Chad -2.8 -20.8 -4.6 -0.3 5.4 6.2 -11.5 -3.7 6.5 6.8
Congo, Rep. of 18.9 14.9 22.2 23.7 14.0 19.6 13.6 23.5 32.5 37.8
Equatorial Guinea 34.0 22.1 33.6 39.5 39.6 34.9 31.0 24.4 25.2 25.8
Gabon 41.6 35.5 44.2 40.6 41.9 45.5 34.0 37.5 42.3 41.2
Nigeria 37.8 28.9 29.3 49.2 41.6 39.8 41.0 31.1 37.2 35.2
Middle-income countries 16.5 16.5 16.2 16.3 16.4 17.0 15.9 20.0 18.5 17.8
Excluding South Africa 29.4 27.1 28.8 30.5 31.8 28.7 18.1 20.2 19.0 19.9
Botswana 39.9 36.2 41.4 41.2 40.8 39.9 18.5 24.9 21.2 22.7
Cape Verde 30.7 25.1 32.5 32.6 32.3 30.8 24.1 35.3 30.6 29.8
Lesotho 26.4 13.9 13.5 26.5 40.7 37.4 34.4 21.3 15.8 25.0
Mauritius 19.7 21.9 18.3 18.0 22.1 18.3 15.3 16.2 14.2 15.7
Namibia 30.2 26.0 24.4 36.1 32.9 31.6 27.9 26.6 30.1 25.1
Seychelles 9.8 14.7 16.6 17.3 9.0 -8.8 -10.7 3.3 4.5 10.9
South Africa 14.7 15.0 14.5 14.4 14.3 15.4 15.6 20.0 18.4 17.5
Swaziland 12.2 12.2 19.7 6.6 17.0 5.7 0.3 -5.3 -1.6 2.6
Low-income countries 15.1 15.9 14.7 15.1 15.5 14.1 15.6 15.8 15.5 16.6
Excluding fragile countries 16.2 16.9 16.1 15.8 17.0 15.4 16.7 16.8 16.3 16.7
Benin 11.6 11.6 12.4 11.9 10.4 12.0 14.4 12.4 15.0 13.3
Burkina Faso 8.1 5.2 8.7 7.3 10.6 8.7 11.5 16.0 18.8 13.6
Ethiopia 21.1 24.6 20.0 18.1 23.5 19.2 19.5 20.8 17.9 17.5
Ghana 14.4 15.6 13.9 15.5 15.1 12.0 22.5 14.6 13.7 15.5
Kenya 16.0 17.2 17.2 16.8 15.5 13.0 14.5 14.7 16.0 17.3
Madagascar 16.4 16.6 13.2 16.2 15.6 20.4 11.5 12.4 13.4 17.9
Malawi 14.5 7.0 8.0 13.2 28.0 16.1 19.0 28.8 19.6 19.1
Mali 9.0 8.6 7.0 12.9 10.0 6.3 12.8 10.7 14.9 14.4
Mozambique 6.3 7.7 6.1 6.3 5.6 5.7 4.3 9.3 11.3 11.6
Niger 14.1 7.3 14.2 15.0 14.6 19.3 4.3 16.3 15.7 17.9
Rwanda 19.1 21.8 21.9 15.4 18.0 18.6 13.9 16.6 15.0 16.1
Senegal 19.9 19.1 19.5 18.7 22.2 19.8 20.2 21.5 19.3 20.1
Tanzania 18.3 20.4 19.3 18.3 16.2 17.3 19.5 19.7 19.3 19.0
Uganda 19.9 20.2 21.0 17.8 20.6 19.9 16.7 14.4 14.2 15.5
Zambia 16.3 13.7 15.2 23.3 15.4 13.8 25.8 27.6 30.0 28.8
Fragile countries 10.0 11.7 9.1 12.0 9.0 8.2 10.7 11.4 12.0 16.0
Including Zimbabwe
Burundi 5.1 4.9 9.6 1.8 1.8 7.3 6.1 8.7 4.9 5.7
Central African Republic 4.4 5.1 3.2 7.1 4.5 2.3 5.3 5.2 4.4 6.2
Comoros 3.5 4.8 1.9 2.9 4.9 3.2 3.4 9.7 5.2 8.0
Congo, Dem. Rep. of 8.6 9.8 0.5 10.5 17.1 4.9 8.9 20.2 26.7 34.2
Côte d’Ivoire 10.9 12.4 10.0 12.1 8.0 12.1 17.6 13.5
Eritrea 12.7 18.9 20.8 10.2 6.4 7.2 1.7 3.5 9.2 9.9
Gambia, The 9.8 17.2 8.1 13.6 8.7 1.3 8.1 5.4 0.2 -0.4
Guinea 15.1 18.0 19.1 24.2 4.0 10.0 0.6 -2.2 6.7 10.2
Guinea-Bissau 5.1 9.1 4.5 0.8 7.3 3.9 4.1 3.7 5.6 7.4
Liberia
São Tomé & Príncipe 21.9 25.5 66.0 12.3 12.3 -6.8 20.5 7.2 17.8 -3.8
Sierra Leone 7.2 4.8 10.2 9.7 7.7 3.3 6.6 8.5 6.1 7.8
Togo 7.4 6.2 8.2 9.0 6.0 7.7 11.1 9.0 10.9 12.1
Zimbabwe
Sub-Saharan Africa 21.2 18.6 19.2 24.1 22.3 21.6 20.4 20.2 21.8 21.9
Median 14.8 15.0 14.9 15.4 15.3 13.4 13.7 14.5 15.0 15.7
Including Zimbabwe
Excluding Nigeria and South Africa 18.7 16.6 18.2 20.4 19.9 18.3 14.7 15.6 17.1 18.6
Oil-importing countries 15.8 16.2 15.5 15.7 16.0 15.7 15.8 18.0 17.0 17.2
Excluding South Africa 16.8 17.3 16.5 17.0 17.5 15.9 15.9 16.3 15.9 17.0
CFA franc zone 16.4 13.2 15.9 17.4 17.4 18.1 15.7 16.4 18.4 19.1
WAEMU 12.0 11.3 11.6 12.6 12.0 12.6 14.6 14.7 14.2 14.8
CEMAC 20.8 15.0 20.2 22.3 22.9 23.6 16.7 18.0 22.7 23.5
EAC-5 17.6 18.9 18.8 17.1 16.7 16.2 16.5 16.3 16.4 17.2
SADC 17.3 16.0 16.6 18.5 17.8 17.5 14.2 18.1 18.3 18.8
SACU 16.4 16.4 16.1 16.2 16.2 17.0 15.9 20.1 18.6 17.8
COMESA 17.2 18.4 16.5 16.0 19.1 15.8 15.0 16.8 16.3 17.8
Resource-intensive countries 30.8 23.3 26.2 39.1 33.3 32.0 27.6 23.3 28.6 28.9
Oil 32.2 23.6 26.9 41.6 35.3 33.6 29.3 24.3 30.7 30.7
Non-oil resource-intensive countries 22.7 21.7 22.3 25.6 21.2 22.8 16.9 16.8 15.2 17.0
Non-resource-intensive countries 15.2 15.7 14.8 14.8 15.5 15.0 15.7 18.1 17.2 17.2
Coastal Non-resource-intensive countries 15.0 15.6 14.9 14.9 14.6 15.0 15.9 18.3 17.3 17.1
Landlocked Non-resource-intensive countries 15.9 15.9 14.6 14.7 19.2 15.3 15.1 17.5 16.9 17.7
MDRI 15.7 16.2 14.9 15.4 16.7 15.1 15.9 16.7 16.9 17.7
Fixed exchange rate regimes 17.0 13.9 16.4 18.1 18.3 18.6 15.9 16.3 18.4 19.0
Floating exchange rate 22.0 19.6 19.8 25.3 23.1 22.2 21.2 20.9 22.4 22.5
Sources: IMF, African Department database, April 1, 2011; and IMF, World Economic Outlook (WEO) database, April 1, 2011.
Table SA9. Overall Fiscal Balance, Including Grants (Percent of GDP)
2004-08 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012
Oil-exporting countries 7.8 6.0 8.9 13.8 3.7 6.5 -8.1 -2.5 4.1 5.0
Excluding Nigeria 9.7 2.3 8.3 18.7 9.7 9.2 -4.6 4.7 8.9 8.3
Angola 9.4 1.5 9.4 16.0 11.3 8.9 -8.6 7.9 12.2 10.6
Cameroon 8.5 -0.7 3.2 33.1 4.5 2.3 -0.1 -1.0 -0.6 0.4