- Nada Choueiri, Klaus-Stefan Enders, Yuri Sobolev, Jan Walliser, and Sherwyn Williams
- Published Date:
- May 2002
© 2002 International Monetary Fund
Production: IMF Graphics Section
Figures: IMF Graphics Section
Typesetting: Danielle Bujosa, Choon Lee
Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data
Yemen in the 1990s: from unification to economic reform/ Klaus Enders …
[et al.] — Washington, D.C.: International Monetary Fund, 2001.
p. cm. — (Occasional paper; 208)
Includes bibliographical references.
1. Yemen—Economic conditions. 2. Yemen—Economic policy.
I. Enders, K. II. Occasional paper (International Monetary Fund); 208.
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The following symbols have been used throughout this paper:
. . . to indicate that data are not available;
n.a. to indicate not applicable;/m.o
— to indicate that the figure is zero or less than half the final digit shown, or that the item does not exist;
– between years or months (i.e., 1994–95 or January-June) to indicate the years or months covered, including the beginning and ending years or months;
/ between years (i.e., 1994/95) to indicate a fiscal (financial) year.
“Billion” means a thousand million.
Minor discrepancies between constituent figures and totals are due to rounding.
The term “country,” as used in this paper, does not in all cases refer to a territorial entity that is a state as understood by international law and practice; the term also covers some territorial entities that are not states, but for which statistical data are maintained and provided internationally on a separate and independent basis.
Most of the material presented in this Occasional Paper was originally prepared as background for discussions in the IMF Executive Board. It has been updated to take account of developments through early 2001. The authors are grateful to the Yemeni authorities for extensive discussions and comments and for their assistance in providing data and other source material.
This Occasional Paper has benefited from valuable analytical analyses from David Moore, Rodney Ramcharan, and Manmohan Singh. The authors are grateful for valuable comments from the staff in the Middle Eastern Department as well as the World Bank. The authors would also like to express their appreciation for valuable research assistance that was provided by Aminata Toure and for careful and patient secretarial assistance from Anne-Barbara Hyde, Wilma Gonzalez Buenaobra, Rochelle Gittens, and Melissa Wills. The authors are also indebted to the External Relations Department, to Mike Treadway who edited the paper, and to Gail Berre who coordinated its production and publication.
The opinions expressed are solely those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of the International Monetary Fund, the Executive Directors, or the Yemeni authorities.
List of AbbreviationsARC
Aden Refinery CompanyCanOxy
Canadian Occidental PetroleumCBY
Central Bank of YemenCMEA
Council of Mutual Economic AssistanceCPI
Consumer Price IndexCSF
Civil Service FundCSO
Central Statistics OrganizationDSA
Debt Sustainability AnalysisGAVTT
General Authority for Vocational and Technical TrainingGIA
General Investment AuthorityGPC
General People’s CongressGST
General Sales TaxHBS
Household Budget SurveyHC
Human Development IndexHIPC
Highly Indebted Poor CountryHNS
Harmonized Nomenclature SystemIDA
International Development AgencyIMF
International Monetary FundKUFPEC
Kuwait Foreign Petroleum Exploration CompanyLCCD
Local Councils for Cooperative DevelopmentLMIS
Labor Market Information System DatabaseLNG
Liquefied Natural GasLPG
Liquefied Petroleum GasMENA
Middle East and Northern AfricaMOLVT
Ministry of Labor and Vocational TrainingMOP
Ministry of PlanningMPH
Ministry of Public HealthNGO
Non Governmental OrganizationNPC
Nimir Petroleum CompanyNPEC
Nimir Petroleum Exploration CompanyNPV
Net Present ValuePAR
Poverty Assessment ReviewPDRY
People’s Democratic Republic of YemenPEC
Public Electricity CorporationPTC
Public Telephone CorporationRGDI
Real Gross Domestic IncomeRGDP
Real Gross Domestic ProductRO
Social Fund for DevelopmentSWF
Social Welfare FundTFP
Total Factor ProductivityTIN
Taxpayer Identification NumberTPCS
Tax on Production, Consumption, and ServicesTPO
Technical Privatization OfficeUNCTAD
United Nations Conference on Trade and DevelopmentUNHCR
United Nations High Commissioner for RefugeesWEO
World Economic OutlookWTO
World Trade OrganizationYAR
Yemen Arab RepublicYBRD
Yemen Bank for Reconstruction and DevelopmentYCIOM
Yemeni Company for Investment in Oil and Mineral ResourcesYFZPA
Yemen Free Zones Public authorityYPC
Yemen Petroleum CompanyYRG
Yemeni Reform GroupYSP
Yemeni Socialist Party