- Michael Marrese, Mark Lutz, Tapio Saavalainen, Vincent Koen, Biswajit Banerjee, and Thomas Krueger
- Published Date:
- September 1995
© 1995 International Monetary Fund
Road maps of the transition: the Baltics, the Czech Republic, Hungary, and Russia / Biswajit Banerjee… [et al.].—Washington, D.C.: International Monetary Fund, 
p. cm.—(Occasional paper, 0251–6365; 127)
1. Europe, Eastern—Economic policy—1989–2. Economic stabilization—Europe, Eastern. 3. Europe, Eastern—Economic conditions—1989–I. Banerjee, Biswajit. II. Series: Occasional paper (International Monetary Fund); no. 127.
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Tapio O. Saavalainen
Mark S. Lutz and Thomas H. Krueger
Vincent Koen and Michael Marrese
The following symbols have been used throughout this paper:
… to indicate that data are not available;
—to indicate that the figure is zero or less than half the final digit shown, or that the item does not exist;
–between years or months (e.g., 1991–92 or January-June) to indicate the years or months covered, including the beginning and ending years or months;
/ between years (e.g., 1991/92) to indicate a crop or fiscal (financial) year.
“Billion” means a thousand million.
Minor discrepancies between constituent figures and totals are due to rounding.
The term “country,” as used in this paper, does not in all cases refer to a territorial entity that is a state as understood by international law and practice; the term also covers some territorial entities that are not states, but for which statistical data are maintained and provided internationally on a separate and independent basis.
This collection of papers analyzes the process of transition to a market economy in the Baltic countries, the Czech Republic, Hungary, and Russia. These studies were prepared by economists of the European I and European II Departments of the IMF and incorporate their experience with these countries through early 1995.
Earlier versions of these contributions were presented in January 1995 in two panels sponsored by the Association for Comparative Economic Studies in the context of the annual meetings of the Allied Social Sciences Association. The papers on the Baltic countries and on Russia were delivered in the panel “Economic Diversity and Evolution Among States of the Former Soviet Union and the Baltic Countries,” chaired by Thomas A. Wolf of the European II Department of the IMF. The discussants were Donal Donovan (IMF), Herb Levine (Pennsylvania University), and Ben Slay (Middlebury College). The papers on the Czech Republic and Hungary were delivered in the panel “Economic Success in Central and Eastern Europe,” chaired by Michael Marrese. The discussants were Gérard Bélanger (IMF), Josef Brada (Arizona State University), and David Kemme (University of Memphis). The authors are grateful to the discussants and to the other participants in those sessions for their comments. They also acknowledge valuable contributions from a number of IMF colleagues. Juanita Roushdy of the External Relations Department edited the manuscripts and coordinated production of the publication, and Alicia Etchebarne-Bourdin and the IMF Graphics Section provided composition and artwork.
The views expressed in these papers, as well as any errors, are the sole responsability of the authors and should not be construed as those of the national authorities, Executive Directors of the IMF, or other members of the IMF staff.