Back Matter

Back Matter

Author(s):
Reint Gropp, Liam Ebrill, and Janet Stotsky
Published Date:
July 1999
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    Appendix I Summary Measures for the Countries in the Comparative Analysis
    Table 8.Argentina: Summary Measures of Economic Performance and Revenue Trends
    Measure1980198119821983198419851986198719881989199019911992199319911995
    GDP (at current market prices,
    in pesos)13,8407,47421,852109,500790,9205,3059,98423,332111,0623,24468,922180,898226,847257,570281,645280,000
    Exchange rate
    (in pesos to the U.S. dollar)0.020.040.261.050.010.060.090.210.880.040.490.950.991.001.001.00
    Value of trade = value of imports + exports
    In billions of U.S. dollars19.2520.5413.4012.3412.6812.2111.5812.1814.4613.7716.4320.2527.1128.6637.4341.09
    In pesos13549043,47312,993867351,0922,61112,6535838,01319,31226,85328,63137,39541,080
    In percent of GDP9.2112.1015.8911.8710.8613.8510.9311.1911.3917.9711.6310.6811.8411.1213.2814.67
    Value of imports
    In billions of U.S. dollars10.1710.535.584.504.593.814.725.825.324.204.088.2814.8715.5421.5920.12
    In pesos11874641,4464,743312304451,2484,6581781,9897,89114,73315,52821,57020,118
    In percent of GDP4.876.206.624.333.934.334.465.354.195.482.894.366.496.037.667.18
    Value of exports
    In billions of U.S. dollars9.0810.017.827.838.108.406.856.369.139.5712.3511.9812.2313.1215.8420.97
    In pesos11674412,0278,250555056461,3647,9954056,02411,42212,12013,10315,82520,962
    In percent of GDP4.345.909.277.536.949.526.475.857.2012.498.746.315.345.095.627.49
    Tax revenue
    In pesos1,25649572,46911,06083,0478061,5283,36014,6604318,47725,50737,20343,78747,03544,800
    In percent of GDP14.7012.8011.3010.1010.5015.2015.3014.4013.2013.3012.3014.1016.4017.0016.7016.00
    International trade taxes
    In pesos1,258972621,64311,8641332003731,444919651,6281,8152,5762,8161,960
    In percent of GDP1.501.301.201.501.502.502.001.601.302.801.400.900.801.001.000.70
    In percent of total revenue10.2010.1610.6214.8514.2916.4513.0711.119.8521.0511.386.384.885.885.994.38
    Import duties in pesos
    In pesos1,242751535483,9553790257888162077241,8152,5762,8161,960
    In percent of GDP1.101.000.700.500.500.700.901.100.800.500.300.400.801.001.000.70
    Collected international trade tax rate = international trade taxes/value of trade (in percent)16.2910.747.5512.6413.8118.0518.2914.3011.4115.5812.048.436.769.007.534.77
    Collected tariff rate = import duties/value of imports (in percent)1,222.6116.1210.5711.5412.7316.1820.1720.5719.079.1310.409.1712.3216.5913.069.74
    Domestic taxes on goods and services
    In pesos1,2253.44560.551,398.535,913.0012.73355.44718.851,446.586,330.53168.693,928.5513,024.6619,735.6921,378.3122,249.9622,120.00
    In percent of GDP6.607.506.405.405.506.707.206.205.705.205.707.208.708.307.907.90
    In percent of total tax revenue44.9058.5956.6453.4752.3844.0847.0643.0643.1839.1046.3451.0653.0548.8247.3149.38
    Fiscal balance
    In pesos1−119.50−406.10−923.00−8,231.60−29,980.30−283.70−239.40−628.30−1,487.10−21.50−226.10−963.00−73.00−1,574.00−1,885.70−1,426.00
    In percent of GDP−3.11−5.43−4.22−7.52−3.79−5.35−2.40−2.69−1.34−0.66−0.33−0.53−0.03−0.61−0.67−0.51
    Current account balance
    In billions of U.S. dollars2.575.722.922.442.490.952.864.231.571.094.660.436.477.8510.344.30
    In percent of GDP
    Excluding official transfers1.233.373.462.342.141.082.703.901.231.343.300.232.833.053.671.54
    Including official transfers1.233.373.462.342.141.082.703.901.231.343.300.232.833.053.671.54
    Sources: Argentine authorities; IMF staff estimates; and IMF, International Financial Statistics; and World Economic Outlook (October 1997).

    In pesos from 1980 to 1984; in thousands of pesos from 1985 to 1988; in millions of pesos beginning 1989.

    Nominal figures are derived from the product of the ratio of the variable to GDP and GDP in national currency

    Table 9.Malawi: Summary Measures of Economic Performance and Revenue Trends
    Measure1985/861986/871987/881988/891989/901990/911991/921992/931993/941994/951995/961996/97
    GDP (at current market prices, in millions of kwacha)2,010.202,332.502,992.203,660.504,558.605,338.506,252.607,255.209,648.1013,867.5024,743.1034,912.80
    Exchange rates (in kwacha to the U.S. dollar)1.721.862.212.562.762.732.803.604.408.7415.2815.29
    Value of trade = value of imports + exports
    In billions of U.S. dollars0.540.510.570.660.670.901.091.110.960.930.961.10
    In millions of kwacha9239401,2581,7011,8592,4623,0593,9994,2138,10414,67816,888
    In percent of GDP45.8940.3142.0646.4640.7946.1248.9255.1243.6758.4459.3248.37
    Value of imports
    In billions of U.S. dollars0.290.260.290.370.400.490.620.710.630.550.560.61
    In millions of kwacha4934786439491,1181,3391,7252,5672,7874,8478,5149,350
    In percent of GDP24.5220.4921.5025.9224.5225.0827.5935.3828.8934.9534.4126.78
    Value of exports
    In billions of U.S. dollars0.250.250.280.290.270.410.480.400.320.370.400.49
    In millions of kwacha4304626157527421,1231,3331,4321,4263,2576,1647,537
    In percent of GDP21.3719.8220.5620.5416.2721.0421.3219.7414.7823.4824.9121.59
    Tax revenue
    In millions of kwacha373.40391.10450.20653.60844.70888.101,021.701,126.701,407.602,031.503,854.405,651.20
    In percent of GDP18.5816.7715.0517.8618.5316.6416.3415.5314.5914.6515.5816.19
    International trade taxes
    In millions of kwacha92.6080.2086.60113.80152.20162.80211.50256.40269.90458.601,121.401,358.70
    In percent of GDP4.613.442.893.113.343.053.383.532.803.314.533.89
    In percent of total tax revenue24.8020.5119.2417.4118.0218.3320.7022.7619.1722.5729.0924.04
    Import duties
    In millions of kwacha74.3075.8086.40117.10152.20162.80210.00255.50267.90457.00746.401,018.20
    In percent of GDP3.703.252.893.203.343.053.363.522.783.303.022.92
    Collected international trade tax rate = international trade taxes/value of trade (in percent)10.048.536.886.698.196.616.926.416.415.667.648.05
    Collected tariff rate = import duties/value of imports (in percent)15.0715.8613.4312.3413.6212.1612.179.959.619.438.7710.89
    Domestic taxes on goods and services
    In millions of kwacha129.30146.20189.70258.40336.30347.20391.00423.00619.40816.601,439.901,965.00
    In percent of GDP6.436.276.347.067.386.506.255.836.425.895.825.63
    In percent of total tax revenue34.6337.3842.1439.5339.8139.0938.2737.5444.0040.2037.3634.77
    Budget deficit excluding grants
    In millions of kwacha−201.50−304.10−273.10−266.80−301.40−359.00−395.00−1,048.00−799.00−3,891.60−3,427.30−2,793.70
    In percent of GDP−10.02−13.04−9.13−7.29−6.61−6.72−6.32−14.44−8.28−28.06−13.85−8.00
    Budget deficit including grants
    In millions of kwacha−156.70−224.50−197.00−57.70−91.50−246.30−187.00−874.00−515.00−2,376.30−1,441.10−1,086.00
    In percent of GDP−7.80−9.62−6.58−1.58−2.01−4.61−2.99−12.05−5.34−17.14−5.82−3.11
    Current account balance
    In billions of U.S. dollars−0.07−0.04−0.03−0.02−0.14−0.06−0.15−0.22−0.22−0.15−0.11−0.11
    In percent of GDP
    Excluding official transfers−8.55−5.98−5.19−8.23−13.97−8.02−9.77−19.99−16.96−17.93−15.95−8.49
    Including official transfers−6.38−3.54−2.60−1.36−9.07−3.52−7.05−12.08−11.00−11.42−7.84−5.19
    Sources: Ministry of Finance; IMF staff estimates; and IMF, World Economic Outlook (October 1997).
    Table 10.Morocco: Summary Measures of Economic Performance and Revenue Trends
    Measure1980198119821983198419851986198719881989199019911992199319941995
    GDP (at current market prices,
    in millions of dirhams)74,09079,03492,89899,143112,345129,507154,725156,690181,230193,931212,820242,360242,910249,223279,295276,878
    Exchange rates
    (in dirham to the U.S. dollar)3.95.26.07.18.810.19.18.48.28.58.28.78.59.39.28.5
    Value of trade = value of imports + exports
    In billions of U.S. dollars6.26.25.95.45.75.75.96.68.08.310.510.510.711.913.216.1
    In millions of dirham24,490.031,867.035,456.038,239.050,578.057,121.053,797.055,435.065,544.770,670.086,625.591,729.091,074.9110,807.0121,166.0137,829.0
    In percent of GDP33.140.338.238.645.044.134.835.436.036.440.737.837.544.543.449.8
    Value of imports
    In billions of U.S. dollars3.83.83.83.33.63.53.53.94.45.06.36.36.77.07.69.3
    In millions of dirhams14,845.019,864.022,986.023,482.031,460.035,370.031,691.032,184.035,789.242,400.051,767.554,445.057,114.964,911.070,201.079,149.0
    In percent of GDP20.025.124.723.728.027.320.520.519.621.924.322.523.526.025.128.6
    Value of exports
    In billions of U.S. dollars2.52.32.12.12.22.22.42.83.63.34.24.34.04.95.56.9
    In millions of dirhams9,645.012,003.012,470.014,757.019,118.021,751.022,106.023,251.029,755.428,270.034,858.037,284.033,960.045,896.050,965.058,680.0
    In percent of GDP13.015.213.414.917.016.814.314.816.314.616.415.414.018.418.221.1
    Tax revenue
    In millions of dirhams13,888.015,321.018,141.019,093.021,173.023,695.027,835.030,702.037,577.040,458.046,462.050,452.057,952.057,868.059,386.060,885.0
    In percent of GDP18.719.419.519.318.818.318.019.620.620.921.820.823.923.221.322.0
    International trade taxes
    In millions of dirhams4,121.04,892.05,792.05,262.05,627.05,771.05,600.05,639.07,345.08,512.010,038.011,466.012,286.012,556.012,990.011,843.0
    In percent of GDP5.66.26.25.35.04.53.63.64.04.44.74.75.15.04.74.3
    In percent of total tax revenue29.731.931.927.626.624.420.118.419.521.021.622.721.221.721.919.5
    Import duties
    In millions of dirhams3,907.04,635.05,546.05,039.05,331.05,438.05,376.05,456.07,176.08,335.09,875.011,346.012,258.012,547.012,978.011,811.0
    In percent of GDP5.35.96.05.14.74.23.53.53.94.34.64.75.05.04.64.3
    Collected international trade tax rate = international trade taxes/value of trade (in percent)16.815.416.313.811.110.110.410.211.212.011.612.513.511.310.78.6
    Collected tariff rate = import duties/value of imports (in percent)26.323.324.121.516.915.417.017.020.119.719.120.821.519.318.514.9
    Domestic taxes on goods and services
    In millions of dirhams5,806.06,040.07,813.08,693.09,561.010,847.014,710.016,530.019,923.020,469.020,926.023,042.026,380.027,528.028,629.030,299.0
    In percent of GDP7.87.68.48.88.58.49.510.510.910.69.89.510.911.010.310.9
    In percent of total tax revenue41.839.443.145.545.245.852.853.853.050.645.045.745.547.648.249.8
    Overall fiscal balance
    Payment-order basis,
    in millions of dirhams−7,510.0−11,098.0−11,522.0−11,985.0−12,575.0−12,457.0−8,290.0−9,270.0−8,397.0−11,589.0−7,526.0−7,515.0−5,338.0−7,521.0−8,854.0−14,553.0
    In percent of GDP−10.1−14.0−12.4−12.1−11.2−9.6−5.4−5.9−4.6−6.0−3.5−3.1−2.2−3.0−3.2−5.3
    Overall fiscal balance
    Cash basis, in millions of dirhams−7,246.0−11,229.0−8,561.0−11,413.0−9,061.0−11,104.0−8,834.0−9,938.0−10,482.0−9,389.0−9,830.0−7,518.0−4,997.0−8,932.0−9,143.0−9,430.0
    In percent of GDP−9.8−14.2−9.2−11.5−8.1−8.6−5.7−6.3−5.8−4.8−4.6−3.1−2.1−3.6−3.3−3.4
    Current account balance
    In billions of U.S. dollars−1.5−1.6−1.9−1.0−1.4−0.7−0.7−0.2−0.2−0.2−0.1−0.1−0.6−0.5−0.7−1.5
    In percent of GDP
    Excluding official transfers0.68−4.81−2.71−2.11−2.37−2.08−2.53−4.91
    Including official transfers−7.76−10.75−12.29−7.32−10.95−5.79−3.88−1.07−1.08−4.65−0.36−0.22−2.03−1.97−2.35−4.69
    Source: Moroccan authorities; IMF staff estimates; and IMF, World Economic Outlook (October 1997).
    Table 11.Philippines: Summary Measures of Economic Performance and Revenue Trends
    Measure19851986198719361989199019911992199319941995
    GNP (at current market prices, in billions of pesos)595.10619.80673.10795.20913.801,078.001,255.001,375.001,500.001,737.001,968.00
    Exchange rate (in pesos to the U.S. dollar)18.6120.3920.5721.0921.7024.3027.5025.5027.1226.4225.71
    Value of trade = value of imports + exports
    In billions of U.S. dollars9.779.8912.4615.2318.2420.3920.8924.3428.9734.8243.84
    In billions of pesos181.72201.53256.21321.34395.81495.53574.50620.75785.72919.841,127.07
    In percent of GNP30.5432.5238.0640.4143.3145.9745.7845.1552.3852.9657.27
    Value of imports
    In billions of U.S. dollars5.145.046.748.1610.4212.2112.0514.5217.6021.3326.38
    In billions of pesos95.59102.83138.56172.11226.09296.63331.40370.24477.23563.60678.20
    In percent of GNP16.0616.5920.5921.6424.7427.5226.4126.9331.8232.4534.46
    Value of exports
    In billions of U.S. dollars4.634.845.727.077.828.188.849.8211.3813.4817.46
    In billions of pesos86.1398.71117.65149.22169.72198.89243.11250.51308.49356.24448.87
    In percent of GNP14.1715.9317.4818.7718.5718.4519.3718.2220.5720.5122.81
    Tax revenue
    In billions of pesos61.1965.4085.5090.40122.50151.70182.30208.70230.30271.40310.60
    In percent of GNP10.2810.5512.7011.3713.4114.0714.5315.1815.3515.6215.78
    International trade taxes
    In billions of pesos18.1717.8026.0025.6038.9046.5065.0073.6082.7082.3097.90
    In percent of GNP3.052.873.863.224.264.315.185.355.514.744.97
    In percent of total tax revenue29.7027.2230.4128.3231.7630.6535.6635.2735.9130.3231.52
    Import duties
    In billions of pesos15.9716.8025.7025.0038.4045.9064.4072.9082.0081.6097.60
    In percent of GNP2.682.713.823.144.204.265.135.305.474.704.96
    Collected international trade tax rate = international trade taxes/value of trade (in percent)10.008.8310.157.979.839.3811.3111.8610.538.958.69
    Collected tariff rate = import duties/value of imports (in percent)16.7016.3418.5514.5316.9815.4719.4319.6917.1814.4814.39
    Domestic taxes on goods and services
    In billions of pesos22.9326.7035.9033.0042.0049.2049.6055.4063.3076.1084.40
    In percent of GNP3.854.315.334.154.604.563.954.034.254.384.29
    In percent of total tax revenue37.4840.8341.9936.5034.2932.4327.2126.5527.7028.0427.17
    Overall deficit excluding grants
    In percent of GNP−1.88−5.05−2.99−2.92−2.14−3.45−2.10−1.16−1.46−0.00−0.19
    Excluding central bank restructuring (in percent of GNP)0.940.57
    Current account balance
    In billions of U.S. dollars0.521.210.200.32−1.46−2.70−1.03−0.86−3.02−2.95−3.26
    In percent of GDP
    Excluding official transfers−6.92−3.05−2.27−6.10−5.34−5.01
    Including official transfers1.704.040.600.84−3.41−6.11−2.27−1.62−5.55−4.60−4.40
    Sources: Philippine authorities; IMF staff estimates; and IMF, World Economic Outlook (October 1997).
    Table 12.Poland: Summary Measures of Economic Performance and Revenue Trends
    Measure19911992199319941995l996
    GDP (at current market prices,
    in billions of zlotys)80.90114.90155.80212.00286.80360.00
    Exchange rates (in zlotys to the U.S. dollar)1.061.361.812.272.422.70
    Value of trade = value of imports + exports
    In billions of U.S. dollars26.7929.3131.6737.9553.8464.15
    In billions of zlotys28.3339.9357.1686.23130.54172.95
    In percent of GDP35.0234.7636.6940.6745.5148.04
    Value of imports
    In billions of U.S. dollars12.7113.4815.8817.7924.7032.57
    In billions of zlotys13.4418.3728.6640.4259.8987.82
    In percent of GDP16.6115.9918.4019.0620.8824.40
    Value of exports
    In billions of U.S. dollars14.0815.8215.7920.1629.1431.57
    In billions of zlotys14.8921.5628.5045.8170.6485.12
    In percent of GDP18.4118.7618.2921.6124.6323.65
    Tax revenue
    In billions of zlotys28.5042.0060.9083.30111.50140.00
    In percent of GDP35.2336.5539.0939.2938.8838.89
    International trade taxes
    In billions of zlotys1.702.704.407.509.109.40
    In percent of GDP2.102.352.823.543.172.61
    In percent of total tax revenue5.966.437.229.008.166.71
    Import duties
    In billions of zlotys1.702.704.407.509.109.40
    In percent of GDP2.102.352.823.543.172.61
    Collected international trade tax rate = international trade taxes/value of trade (in percent)6.006.767.708.706.975.44
    Collected tariff rate = import duties/value of imports (in percent)12.6514.6915.3518.5615.1910.70
    Domestic taxes on goods and services
    In billions of zlotys6.1010.3017.8024.2032.8043.50
    In percent of GDP7.548.9611.4211.4211.4412.08
    In percent of total tax revenue21.4024.5229.2329.0529.4231.07
    Fiscal balance
    In billions of zlotys
    Overall−5.40−7.60−4.50−4.20−7.80−7.70
    State budget−5.70−8.90−5.30−5.40−9.90−7.80
    Rest of general government0.301.300.801.202.100.10
    In percent of GDP
    Overall−6.67−6.61−2.89−1.98−2.72−2.14
    State budget−7.05−7.75−3.40−2.55−3.45−2.17
    Rest of general government0.371.130.510.570.730.03
    Current account balance
    In billions of U.S. dollars−0.90−1.57−0.08−2.13−3.96−1.35
    In percent of GDP
    Excluding official transfers−1.24−1.54−0.222.12−3.10−1.07
    Including official transfers−1.18−1.87−0.102.28−3.35−1.01
    Sources: Polish authorities: IMF staff estimates; and IMF, World Economic Outlook (October 1997)
    Table 13.Senegal: Summary Measures of Economic Performance and Revenue Trends
    Measure1985/861986/871987/881988/891989/901990/911991/9219921993199419951996
    GDP (at current market prices, in billions of CFA francs)1,244.301,342.601,432.801,479.901,514.601,551.201,581.401,612.801,586.602,155.102,429.802,637.50
    Exchange rates (in CFA francs to the U.S. dollar)449.26346.30300.54297.85319.01272.26282.11264.69283.16555.20499.10511.60
    Value of trade = value of imports + exports
    In billions of U.S. dollars1.311.541.631.631.772.061.922.021.791.812.192.25
    In billions of CFA francs588.62533.42488.83486.80564.09560.40540.78534.59507.951,006.571,090.881,152.86
    In percent of GDP47.3139.7334.1232.8937.2436.1334.2033.1532.0246.7144.9043.71
    Value of imports
    In billions of U.S. dollars0.800.880.960.961.001.161.111.191.091.021.221.27
    In billions of CFA francs357.47305.93287.23284.66320.32317.04314.33315.49307.67567.45607.46648.40
    In percent of GDP28.7322.7920.0519.2421.1520.4419.8819.5619.3926.3325.0024.58
    Value of exports
    In billions of U.S. dollars0.510.660.670.680.760.890.800.830.710.790.970.99
    In billions of CFA francs231.15227.49201.60202.14243.77243.36226.46219.10200.28439.13483.42504.47
    In percent of GDP18.5816.9414.0713.6616.0915.6914.3213.5912.6220.3819.9019.13
    Tax revenue
    In billions of CFA francs185.10196.00205.50196.20219.00241.40264.10247.10220.20267.90330.30369.30
    In percent of GDP14.8814.6014.3413.2614.4615.5616.7015.3213.8812.4313.5914.00
    International trade taxes
    In billions of CFA francs55.3560.1562.7355.9068.3378.0886.7083.5571.6393.00116.78133.73
    In percent of GDP4.454.484.383.784.515.035.485.184.514.324.815.07
    In percent of total tax revenue29.9030.6930.5228.4931.2032.3432.8333.8132.5334.7135.3536.21
    Import duties
    In billions of CFA francs’55.0559.5562.0355.2068.3378.0886.7033.5571.6393.00116.78133.73
    In percent of GDP14.424.444.333.734.515.035.485.184.514.324.815.07
    Collected international trade tax rate = international trade taxes/value of trade (in percent)9.4011.2812.8311.4812.1113.9316.0315.6314.109.2410.7011.60
    Collected tariff race = import dudes/value of imports (in percent)15.4019.4721.5919.3921.3324.6327.5826.4823.2816.3919.2220.62
    Domestic taxes on goods and services
    In billions of CFA francs76.3580.2579.9876.6083.0888.9386.3085.3579.58100.00122.63139.18
    In percent of GDP6.145.985.585.185.485.735.465.295.024.645.055.28
    In percent of total tax revenue41.2540.9438.9239.0437.9336.8432.6834.5436.1437.3337.1337.69
    Overall fiscal balance (commitment basis, in percent of GDP)
    Including grants−2.30−1.50−1.20−2.10−3.10−2.000.20−2.50−3.00−1.80−0.20−0.20
    Excluding grants−3.80−2.60−2.60−4.00−4.40−0.30−1.00−3.80−4.00−5.70−3.20−2.00
    Overall fiscal balance (cash basis, in percent of GDP)−3.30−3.40−3.80−2.40−1.900.40−0.50−0.20−9.30−2.70−0.20
    Current account balance
    In billions of U.S. dollars−0.27−0.27−0.31−0.41−0.38−0.44−0.45−0.48−0.50−0.19−0.24−0.27
    In percent of GDP
    Excluding official transfers−16.82−12.09−11.61−10.63−10.22−8.92−9.39−9.09−9.99−8.92−7.56−6.87
    Including official transfers−10.54−7.11−6.65−8.32−8.23−7.79−8.20−7.84−8.90−4.94−4.84−5.32
    Sources: Senegalese authorities: IMF staff estimates: and IMF, World Economic Outlook (October 1997).

    For some years the authorities did not distinguish between VAT on imports and customs duties: for those years the VAT on imports has been estimated and reclassified under VAT.

    Appendix II Collected Tariff Rates and Tariff Revenue for Selected Countries
    Table 14.Selected Countries: Collected Tariff Rates(Tariff revenue of a percent of value of imports)
    Country1975198019851990Last
    Available
    Year1
    OECD2
    Australia11.259.609.326.653.98
    Austria3.751.551.481.460.41
    Belgium1.471.331.061.020.99
    Canada5.544.453.682.861.41
    Denmark1.541.010.920.960.82
    Finland3.171.900.981.421.01
    France1.581.240.990.920.77
    Germany2.431.881.361.441.15
    Greece2.835.434.741.400.95
    Iceland19.9717.2413.2810.481.68
    Ireland1.020.901.090.940.97
    Italy0.420.671.131.110.84
    Japan3.352.722.612.993.65
    Mexico15.2710.529.067.563.20
    Netherlands1.791.481.191.411.52
    New Zealand4.014.354.743.624.25
    Norway1.350.860.770.761.29
    Portugal4.744.993.443.110.87
    Spain5.214.034.364.000.99
    Sweden2.411.712.512.590.96
    Switzerland2.981.541.221.191.21
    Turkey36.1215.608.656.403.63
    United Kingdom2.382.461.761.521.49
    United States4.803.183.823.342.59
    Africa
    Botswana18.8123.2518.4615.4419.07
    Burundi24.7520.4618.2314.90
    Cameroon22.1122.4325.9119.7719.03
    Congo, Dem. Rep, of38.6522.0818.1822.898.73
    Côte d’Ivoire28.0731.9622.7311.73
    Ethiopia34.7618.9817.4421.3713.97
    Gabon21.6331.7424.9024.6824.69
    Gambia, The17.1821.4726.7916.0514.55
    Ghana18.5614.4518.0616.0611.18
    Kenya14.9511.7815.8314.2514.28
    Lesotho27.5922.0518.3529.00
    Malawi25.3211.4815.0712.1610.89
    Mauritius11.1216.7122.8619.2214.54
    Rwanda25.3419.9224.7027.30
    Senegal318.1715.7315.4024.6319.22
    Sierra Leone19.9818.7817.1813.0122.86
    South Africa4.023.083.886.211.04
    Zambia5.347.438.9312.1911.39
    Zimbabwe4.5722.4523.4015.85
    Non-OECD Asia and Pacific
    Fiji15.8213.4720.9616.1412.61
    India29.7725.7248.1948.2125.54
    Indonesia8.726.884.535.835.01
    Korea46.257.738.587.994.70
    Malaysia11.019.008.774.864.02
    Myanmar27.5820.2425.2236.3442.90
    Nepal17.1115.7214.4314.149.16
    Papua New Guinea6.826.4911.9817.1317.28
    Philippines320.8817.2416.7015.4714.39
    Singapore1.370.920.730.340.26
    Solomon Islands14.0511.2614.7521.5818.38
    Sri Lanka9.6210.6514.3915.609.02
    Thailand13.6811.1613.9910.967.35
    Middle East
    Bahrain2.262.243.532.613.61
    Egypt43.2425.8428.579.5816.72
    Iran, Islamic Rep. of9.4920.9311.236.4912.28
    Israel4.434.961.580.63
    Jordan11.9416.4714.059.5112.31
    Kuwait2.983.775.433.52
    Morocco325.3826.3215.3719.0814.92
    Oman0.121.323.683.363.07
    Pakistan19.5424.6125.5331.6528.73
    Syrian Arab Rep.16.4011.568.439.93
    Tunisia19.8420.9129.9719.9819.62
    Non-OECD Western Hemisphere
    Argentina35.7022.6116.1810.409.74
    Bahamas, The26.2126.1230.8028.6729.06
    Bolivia12.347.854.755.01
    Brazil16.426.5910.538.88
    Chile17.337.2916.6910.3710.56
    Colombia12.2610.3714.8218.549.06
    Costa Rica5.966.9610.6410.298.26
    Dominican Republic322.2215.5614.5810.6012.80
    Ecuador14.9316.3524.2613.148.27
    El Salvador8.494.354.254.695.88
    Guatemala9.137.6011.897.038.42
    Nicaragua7.158.146.448.6113.45
    Panama5.936.2610.9011.389.59
    Paraguay10.519.445.145.887.95
    Peru22.5717.1128.1811.0111.77
    Uruguay8.0217.1813.5012.726.07
    Venezuela9.2211.3611.449.999.65
    Sources: IMF, Government Finance Statistics, various issues, and World Economic Outlook (October 1997); and OECD, Revenue Statistics, various issues, except as noted.Note: Data are unweighted averages.

    Last year for which data are available is 1995 for most countries and an earlier year or 1996 for some countries.

    Excluding the Czech Republic, Hungary, Luxembourg, and Poland. The OECD data for the countries of the European Union are for tariff collections at the borders of those countries and accordingly differ from the tariff collections on goods used in each EU country to the extent that there is transshipment within the union.

    Data provided by the country authorities; and IMF staff estimates.

    Korea joined the OECD in December 1996.

    Table 15.Selected Countries: Tariff Revenuein percent of GDP
    Country1975198019851990Last
    Available
    Year1
    OECD2
    Australia1.251.291.370.880.65
    Austria0.960.490.480.520.14
    Belgium0.560.710.650.580.52
    Canada1.091.000.820.600.42
    Denmark0.400.300.280.230.20
    Finland0.750.540.240.280.23
    France0.220.230.190.170.13
    Germany0.420.410.330.310.21
    Greece1.421.881.250.360.23
    Iceland6.504.593.712.520.38
    Ireland0.450.510.570.430.51
    Italy0.070.130.210.170.15
    Japan0.330.320.230.210.21
    Mexico31.001.010.650.900.61
    Netherlands0.680.640.560.590.59
    New Zealand1.061.011.200.690.92
    Norway0.450.240.200.190.30
    Portugal2.431.541.051.070.28
    Spain0.750.610.760.690.19
    Sweden0.590.460.710.610.27
    Switzerland0.720.560.420.380.33
    Turkey3.831.671.450.960.76
    United Kingdom0.510.490.400.330.35
    United States0.290.280.310.300.27
    Africa
    Botswana11.2113.228.166.605.85
    Burundi32.973.742.372.51
    Cameroon4.964.812.882.042.56
    Congo, Dem. Rep. of35.891.943.173.261.33
    Côte d’Ivoire7.416.386.176.17
    Ethiopia2.902.762.782.192.30
    Gabon37.216.146.073.344.47
    Gambia, The7.2612.5610.428.768.76
    Ghana2.630.841.923.113.37
    Kenya3.533.893.283.833.94
    Lesotho14.0429.2621.9532.27
    Malawi32.814.093.703.053.02
    Mauritius35.507.509.4810.216.74
    Rwanda3.052.982.173.22
    Senegal36.024.984.425.034.81
    Sierra Leone5.246.012.182.253.62
    South Africa1.110.720.730.980.18
    Zambia2.322.072.863.533.06
    Zimbabwe1.064.575.204.30
    Non-OECD Asia and Pacific
    Fiji5.355.387.027.614.95
    India1.702.423.603.852.76
    Indonesia1.380.990.631.221.43
    Korea41.982.672.412.051.32
    Malaysia3.583.883.252.953.04
    Myanmar2.012.382.161.440.89
    Nepal2.012.342.272.593.00
    Papua New Guinea2.962.944.325.883.85
    Philippines34.624.232.684.264.96
    Singapore1.781.741.000.510.35
    Solomon Islands4.694.718.5912.2911.43
    Sri Lanka1.264.404.985.223.68
    Thailand2.752.883.024.193.15
    Middle East
    Bahrain2.612.183.002.422.79
    Egypt10.278.125.573.163.59
    Iran, Islamic Rep. of2.522.421.691.352.34
    Israel1.881.890.460.19
    Jordan6.478.797.016.477.74
    Kuwait0.700.911.010.95
    Morocco33.635.274.204.644.27
    Oman0.070.421.190.800.95
    Pakistan3.355.184.855.924.88
    Syrian Arab Rep.4.243.551.372.48
    Tunisia5.897.519.178.428.14
    Non-OECD Western Hemisphere
    Argentina30.401.100.700.300.70
    Bahamas, The9.4711.2512.889.78.32
    Bolivia1.050.941.05
    Brazil1.610.390.500.46
    Chile2.931.392.962.402.20
    Colombia1.311.581.712.301.43
    Costa Rica1.901.982.713.592.97
    Dominican Republic34.963.433.604.053.80
    Ecuador3.793.122.452.151.64
    El Salvador2.071.101.191.292.12
    Guatemala1.681.421.251.521.87
    Nicaragua3.144.631.723.135.25
    Panama2.652.372.672.752.62
    Paraguay1.712.000.961.721.75
    Peru3.272.552.970.991.54
    Uruguay1.183.172.022.040.96
    Venezuela1.581.771.381.39
    Sources: IMF, Government Finance Statistics, various issues, and World Economic Outlook (October 1997); and OECD, Revenue Statistics, various issues, except as noted.Note: Data are unweighted averages.

    Last year for which data are available is 1995 for most countries and an earlier year or 1996 for some countries.

    Excluding the Czech Republic, Hungary, Luxembourg, and Poland. The OECD data for the countries of the European Union are for tariff collections at the borders of those countries and accordingly differ from the tariff collections on goods used in each EU country to the extent that there is transshipment within the union.

    Data provided by the country authorities; and IMF staff estimates.

    Korea joined the OECD in December 1996.

    Table 16.Countries Included in the Sample for Model A
    CountryYear of Trade Liberalization
    Argentina1988 and 1989
    Bangladesh1985 and 1991
    Brazil1987
    Cameroon1989
    Colombia1985
    Costa Rica1986
    Côte d’Ivoire1990
    Ghana1989
    India1991
    Indonesia1986
    Ken/a1988
    Korea1987
    Madagascar1988
    Malawi1988
    Malaysia1988
    Mali1986
    Mexico1986
    Pakistan1987
    Peru1989
    Philippines1986
    Senegal1986–88
    South Africa1984
    Sri Lanka1987
    Tanzania1984
    Thailand1988
    Uganda1987
    Venezuela1989
    Source: IMF staff.
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    Recent Occasional Papers of the International Monetary Fund

    180. Revenue Implications of Trade Liberalization, by Liam Ebrill, Janet Stotsky, and Reint Gropp. 1999

    179. Disinflation in Transition: 1993–97, by Carlo Cottarelli and Peter Doyle. 1999.

    178. IMF-Supported Programs in Indonesia, Korea, and Thailand: A Preliminary Assessment, by Timothy Lane, Atish Ghosh, Javier Hamann, Steven Phillips, Marianne Schulze-Ghattas, and Tsidi Tsikata. 1999.

    177. Perspectives on Regional Unemployment in Europe, by Paolo Mauro, Esawar Prasad, and Antonio Spilimbergo. 1999.

    176. Back to the Future: Postwar Reconstruction and Stabilization in Lebanon, edited by Sena Eken and Thomas Helbling. 1999.

    175. Macroeconomic Developments in the Baltics, Russia, and Other Countries of the Former Soviet Union, 1992–97, by Luis M. Valdivieso. 1998.

    174. Impact of EMU on Selected Non-European Union Countries, by R. Feldman, K. Nashashibi, R. Nord, P. Allum, D. Desruelle, K. Enders, R. Kahn, and H. Temprano-Arroyo. 1998.

    173. The Baltic Countries: From Economic Stabilization to EU Accession, by Julian Berengaut, Augusto Lopez-Claros, Françoise Le Gall, Dennis Jones, Richard Stern, Ann-Margret Westin, Effie Psalida, Pietro Garibaldi. 1998.

    172. Capital Account Liberalization: Theoretical and Practical Aspects, by a staff team led by Barry Eichengreen and Michael Mussa, with Giovanni Dell’Ariccia, Enrica Detragiache, Gian Maria Milesi-Ferretti, and Andrew Tweedie. 1998.

    171. Monetary Policy in Dollarized Economies, by Tomaás Balinñ Adam Bennett, and Eduardo Borensztein. 1998.

    170. The West African Economic and Monetary Union: Recent Developments and Policy Issues, by a staff team led by Ernesto Hernández-Catá and comprising Christian A. François, Paul Masson, Pascal Bouvier, Patrick Peroz, Dominique Desruelle, and Athanasios Vamvakidis. 1998.

    169. Financial Sector Development in Sub-Saharan African Countries, by Hassanali Mehran, Piero Ugolini, Jean Phillipe Briffaux, George Iden, Tonny Lybek, Stephen Swaray, and Peter Hay ward. 1998.

    168. Exit Strategies: Policy Options for Countries Seeking Greater Exchange Rate Flexibility, by a staff team led by Barry Eichengreen and Paul Masson with Hugh Bredenkamp, Barry Johnston, Javier Hamann, Esteban Jadresic, and Inci ötker. 1998.

    167. Exchange Rate Assessment: Extensions of the Macroeconomic Balance Approach, edited by Peter Isard and Hamid Faruqee. 1998

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    165. Algeria: Stabilization and Transition to the Market, by Karim Nashashibi, Patricia Alonso-Gamo, Siefania Bazzoni, Alain Féler. Nicole Laframboise, and Sebastian Paris Horvitz. 1998.

    164. MULTIMOD Mark III: The Core Dynamic and Steady-State Model, by Douglas Laxton, Peter Isard, Hamid Faruqee, Eswar Prasad, and Ban Turtelboom. 1998.

    163. Egypt: Beyond Stabilization, Toward a Dynamic Market Economy, by a staff team led by Howard Handy. 1998.

    162. Fiscal Policy Rules, by George Kopits and Steven Symansky. 1998.

    161. The Nordic Banking Crises: Pitfalls in Financial Liberalization? by Burkhard Dress and Ceyla Pazarbaşiogğlu. 1998.

    160. Fiscal Reform in Low-Income Countries: Experience Under IMF-Supported Programs, by a staff team led by George T. Abed and comprising Liam Ebrill, Sanjeev Gupta, Benedict Cléments, Ronald McMorran, Anthony Pellechio, Jerald Schiff, and Marijn Verhoeven. 1998.

    159. Hungary: Economic Policies for Sustainable Growth, Carlo Cottarelli, Thomas Krueger, Reza Moghadam, Perry Perone, Edgardo Ruggiero, and Rachel van Elkan. 1998.

    158. Transparency in Government Operations, by George Kopits and Jon Craig. 1998.

    157. Central Bank Reforms in the Baltics, Russia, and the Other Countries of the Former Soviet Union, by a staff team led by Malcolm Knight and comprising Susana Almuinña. John Dalton, Inci Otker, Ceyla PazarbaşiogğIu, Arne B. Petersen, Peter Quirk, Nicholas M. Roberts, Gabriel Sensenbrenner, and Jan Willem van der Vossen. 1997.

    156. The ESAF at Ten Years: Economic Adjustment and Reform in Low-Income Countries, by the staff of the International Monetary Fund. 1997.

    155. Fiscal Policy Issues During the Transition in Russia, by Augusto Lopez-Claros and Sergei V. Alexashenko. 1998.

    154. Credibility Without Rules? Monetary Frameworks in the Post-Bretton Woods Era, by Carlo Cottarelli and Curzio Giannini. 1997.

    153. Pension Regimes and Saving, by G.A. Mackenzie, Philip Gerson, and Alfredo Cuevas. 1997.

    152. Hong Kong, China: Growth, Structural Change, and Economic Stability During the Transition, by John Dodsworth and Dubravko Mihaljek. 1997.

    151. Currency Board Arrangements: Issues and Experiences, by a staff team led by Tomás J.T. Baliño and Charles Enoch. 1997.

    150. Kuwait: From Reconstruction to Accumulation for Future Generations, by Nigel Andrew Chalk, Mohamed A. El-Erian, Susan J. Fennell, Alexei P. Kireyev, and John F. Wilson. 1997.

    149. The Composition of Fiscal Adjustment and Growth: Lessons from Fiscal Reforms in Eight Economies, by G.A. Mackenzie, David W.H. Orsmond, and Philip R. Gerson. 1997.

    148. Nigeria: Experience with Structural Adjustment, by Gary Moser, Scott Rogers, and Reinold van Til, with Robin Kibuka and Inutu Lukonga. 1997.

    147. Aging Populations and Public Pension Schemes, by Sheetal K. Chand and Albert Jaeger. 1996.

    146. Thailand: The Road to Sustained Growth, by Kalpana Kochhar, Louis Dicks-Mireaux, Balazs Horvath, Mauro Mecagni, Erik Offerdal, and Jianping Zhou.1996.

    145. Exchange Rate Movements and Their Impact on Trade and Investment in the APEC Region, by Takatoshi Ito, Peter Isard, Steven Symansky, and Tamim Bayoumi. 1996.

    144. National Bank of Poland: The Road to Indirect Instruments, by Piero Ugolini. 1996.

    143. Adjustment for Growth: The African Experience, by Michael T. Hadjimichael, Michael Nowak, Robert Sharer, and Amor Tahari. 1996.

    142. Quasi-Fiscal Operations of Public Financial Institutions, by G.A. Mackenzie and Peter Stella, 1996.

    141. Monetary and Exchange System Reforms in China: An Experiment in Gradualism, by Hassanali Mehran, Marc Quintyn, Tom Nordman, and Bernard Laurens. 1996.

    140. Government Reform in New Zealand, by Graham C. Scott. 1996.

    139. Reinvigorating Growth in Developing Countries: Lessons from Adjustment Policies in Eight Economies, by David Goldsbrough, Sharmini Coorey, Louis Dicks-Mireaux, Balazs Horvath, Kalpana Kochhar, Mauro Mecagni, Erik Offerdal, and Jianping Zhou. 1996.

    138. Aftermath of the CFA Franc Devaluation, by Jean A.P. Clemént, with Johannes Mueller, Stéphane Cossé, and Jean Le Dem. 1996.

    137. The Lao People’s Democratic Republic: Systemic Transformation and Adjustment, edited by Ichiro Otani and Chi Do Pham. 1996.

    136. Jordan: Strategy for Adjustment and Growth, edited by Edouard Maciejewski and Ahsan Mansur. 1996.

    135. Vietnam: Transition to a Market Economy, by John R. Dodsworth, Erich Spitäller, Michael Braulke, Keon Hyok Lee, Kenneth Miranda, Christian Mulder, Hisanobu Shishido, and Krishna Srinivasan. 1996.

    Note: For information on the title and availability of Occasional Papers not listed, please consult the IMF-Publications Catalog or contact IMF Publication Services.

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