Back Matter

Back Matter

Author(s):
Peter Heller, and Alan Tait
Published Date:
April 1982
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    Appendix
    Table 10.Share of Functional Expenditures in Gross Domestic Product, 19771
    CountryGeneral Public ServicesDefenseEducationHealthSocial Security and WelfareHousing and Community AmenitiesHealth, Social Security, and WelfareAgriculture, Forestry, and FisheriesMining, Manufacturing, and ConstructionElectricity, Natural Gas, and WaterTransportation and Communications
    Argentina1.41.81.30.43.70.44.10.21.11.8
    Australia2.02.75.94.56.40.510.90.82.1
    Austria5.41.13.74.714.21.219.00.80.42.5
    Bahamas3.10.45.13.00.80.13.80.41.31.0
    Bahrain4.42.23.23.50.87.04.30.40.15.82.3
    Bangladesh1.50.21.40.50.91.42.10.10.9
    Barbados4.90.26.43.64.51.58.01.50.64.3
    Belgium2.92.77.34.017.70.821.70.40.83.8
    Bolivia2.31.83.21.00.30.21.30.40.40.31.7
    Botswana8.42.07.92.50.11.92.53.30.51.44.9
    Brazil2.71.11.21.67.20.18.70.80.20.21.5
    Burma2.53.71.60.80.80.61.72.40.20.6
    Burundi3.52.44.51.00.71.82.60.30.52.1
    Cameroon5.31.73.01.01.32.31.40.70.23.3
    Canada2.11.75.94.99.31.414.21.87.4
    Chad3.33.92.00.60.30.10.93.10.10.7
    Chile4.63.54.22.08.51.410.50.70.11.2
    Costa Rica2.00.85.50.64.50.45.20.52.9
    Cyprus4.62.53.11.44.73.46.11.10.10.80.9
    Denmark3.22.43.64.814.30.619.12.00.31.0
    Dominican Rep.2.21.41.81.41.02.12.41.80.70.41.3
    Ecuador1.83.23.50.90.11.01.20.1
    Egypt5.64.75.01.76.31.48.02.20.20.70.6
    El Salvador2.40.92.91.40.40.51.81.00.21.4
    Ethiopia2.71.92.21.00.90.11.82.00.10.12.4
    Fiji5.70.55.72.20.71.02.91.80.61.02.1
    Finland2.31.47.15.28.50.713.73.30.70.32.6
    France2.62.65.85.416.11.121.60.60.40.10.5
    Gambia, The11.73.33.01.00.24.05.20.96.5
    Germany, Fed. Rep.1.22.94.75.515.11.120.50.73.1
    Ghana3.03.61.41.52.81.70.41.6
    Greece2.65.93.13.08.80.611.72.00.50.22.4
    Grenada1.43.74.33.71.20.34.81.22.8
    Guatemala1.51.41.40.81.20.32.00.51.80.9
    Honduras4.91.83.62.60.80.53.40.50.1
    Iceland3.03.75.64.19.73.51.40.10.91.8
    India1.02.90.30.30.40.30.71.1
    Iran2.210.03.61.21.31.62.51.31.83.72.1
    Ireland1.96.90.16.90.6
    Israel2.325.65.42.811.70.614.50.50.90.61.1
    Italy3.91.34.96.513.00.819.51.12.52.8
    Jamaica4.20.96.22.61.12.03.82.30.30.62.1
    Japan4.23.04.31.47.22.92.1
    Jordan8.117.35.92.76.00.78.72.34.13.19.3
    Kenya3.72.64.81.80.11.82.20.40.82.4
    Korea1.75.92.70.30.80.11.10.90.10.20.6
    Kuwait4.76.63.72.01.33.43.30.14.12.7
    Lesotho8.85.41.40.61.12.14.70.20.61.4
    Liberia9.81.24.12.20.40.52.62.20.22.5
    Luxembourg4.21.04.10.923.60.524.51.56.5
    Madagascar4.70.83.11.62.10.13.72.90.10.11.1
    Malawi3.51.72.20.80.41.22.80.22.6
    Malaysia5.54.96.62.10.60.12.61.00.11.0
    Mali4.83.54.51.20.72.01.50.50.10.7
    Malta3.51.23.53.513.21.816.71.02.10.82.6
    Mauritius6.90.24.82.74.20.86.94.50.61.2
    Mexico1.10.63.40.74.85.52.20.61.3
    Morocco13.97.05.91.32.20.93.5
    Nepal1.60.91.50.70.10.10.82.40.90.72.8
    Netherlands7.83.57.95.620.31.326.0
    New Zealand2.41.55.15.110.00.415.11.70.10.11.5
    Nicaragua2.02.02.70.63.12.13.81.10.10.1
    Niger7.21.35.11.30.61.91.40.50.41.8
    Nigeria3.44.52.40.60.30.80.80.63.80.65.8
    Norway3.23.27.74.311.72.516.03.40.70.23.6
    Oman8.520.71.02.11.72.10.54.14.26.8
    Pakistan1.85.40.40.30.40.60.70.60.60.41.7
    Panama6.15.74.23.80.58.01.00.81.12.4
    Papua New Guinea6.31.36.02.60.11.32.73.00.90.54.7
    Paraguay1.71.41.50.31.90.22.20.41.8
    Peru2.63.03.51.10.51.11.81.0
    Philippines2.63.11.80.70.40.21.11.60.40.42.3
    Portugal5.72.63.52.38.01.210.20.60.60.1
    Rwanda2.62.22.00.60.20.91.00.40.52.6
    Senegal4.01.73.01.00.70.31.70.80.20.2
    Sierra Leone5.51.63.41.60.60.22.11.10.20.70.8
    Singapore2.26.02.91.50.31.71.80.11.3
    Somalia9.87.45.22.20.72.12.95.01.12.1
    Spain1.11.12.02.210.30.512.40.90.21.1
    Sri Lanka2.40.62.71.45.90.17.31.80.1
    Sudan1.53.01.30.40.71.14.02.5
    Suriname15.56.73.62.91.66.50.82.10.92.7
    Swaziland7.51.85.91.80.11.31.93.60.70.93.4
    Sweden3.43.47.76.118.71.124.71.40.60.71.5
    Switzerland0.92.10.82.210.30.312.61.00.11.7
    Syrian Arab Rep.1.614.43.20.43.51.33.92.210.33.52.8
    Tanzania5.43.53.82.00.30.32.33.32.11.51.8
    Thailand1.63.33.80.80.60.41.41.80.10.31.8
    Tunisia3.21.47.62.44.00.56.42.71.43.0
    Turkey2.73.54.90.60.40.61.10.71.92.94.0
    United Arab Emirates3.34.31.40.80.30.31.10.10.4
    United Kingdom3.14.86.15.09.13.614.10.90.80.12.6
    United States0.85.05.03.08.60.711.60.20.5
    Upper Volta3.43.32.40.80.50.11.30.30.11.0
    Uruguay3.42.42.21.210.10.111.20.30.10.91.4
    Venezuela2.52.34.31.52.11.93.63.02.63.23.0
    Yemen Arab Rep.5.48.01.60.60.60.31.7
    Yugoslavia0.95.25.68.213.90.3
    Zambia10.85.82.50.10.62.64.91.20.33.2
    Sources: International Monetary Fund, Government Finance Statistics Yearbook, Vol. 4 (1980); Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development, National Accounts of OECD Countries, 1960–78, Vol. 2 (Paris, 1979), and Public Expenditure Trends (Paris, June 1978).

    See Table 1 for those countries for which the data relate to earlier years.

    Table 11.Functional Expenditures as Percentage of Total Expenditure, 19771
    CountryGeneral Public ServicesDefenseEducationHealthSocial Security and WelfareHousing and Community AmenitiesHealth, Social Security, and WelfareAgriculture, Forestry, and FisheriesMining, Manufacturing, and ConstructionElectricity, Natural Gas, and WaterTransportation and Communications
    Argentina8.610.87.92.522.12.349.10.90.16.53.9
    Australia6.89.020.315.622.21.723.93.11.3
    Austria14.73.110.113.039.03.242.22.11.03.4
    Bahamas15.20.225.214.74.10.318.82.06.44.9
    Bahrain10.95.37.88.62.017.119.10.90.214.33.2
    Bangladesh12.94.48.58.519.41.30.2
    Barbados14.30.619.010.613.24.517.74.41.99.1
    Belgium6.15.715.38.437.21.638.80.81.75.9
    Bolivia18.914.725.68.02.71.84.53.03.02.32.9
    Botswana21.95.220.56.40.24.85.18.61.43.70.7
    Brazil12.75.25.67.333.40.433.83.80.81.02.2
    Burma17.526.211.25.96.04.510.517.21.21.2
    Burundi16.211.220.64.73.43.412.01.22.24.2
    Cameroon27.99.115.75.76.912.07.60.30.917.0
    Canada9.77.615.112.523.63.527.14.54.2
    Chad22.425.813.54.21.90.42.320.90.50.11.9
    Chile14.611.113.36.227.04.331.32.20.10.31.9
    Costa Rica9.73.826.63.122.01.923.92.20.21.0
    Cyprus17.28.98.95.217.712.630.34.30.52.91.6
    Denmark9.97.49.911.835.11.536.64.90.92.5
    Dominican Rep.12.79.511.38.96.213.619.911.54.22.87.1
    Ecuador13.023.425.76.80.80.89.10.7
    Egypt9.07.58.02.710.12.212.43.60.31.10.5
    El Salvador15.95.719.59.02.73.66.36.90.11.34.2
    Ethiopia11.44.94.40.44.710.30.80.81.8
    Fiji23.72.023.89.03.04.17.17.62.64.21.9
    Finland7.24.218.313.422.21.723.98.72.20.95.7
    France6.76.815.114.242.12.844.91.61.00.21.7
    Gambia, The33.19.48.52.80.53.314.72.415.7
    Germany, Fed. Rep.3.99.712.114.238.92.941.81.83.8
    Ghana3.01.018.77.17.67.68.62.30.10.3
    Greece8.018.29.69.127.11.929.06.30.70.61.3
    Grenada5.814.717.214.74.71.25.94.711.4
    Guatemala13.112.111.87.010.02.412.44.50.215..21.3
    Honduras27.610.420.614.64.72.67.33.10.7
    Iceland9.511.617.412.94.417.310.90.32.90.6
    India5.416.11.71.52.52.54.26.3
    Iran4.223.08.62.93.13.97.03.24.28.72.5
    Israel3.235.97.63.916.40.817.30.71.20.91.2
    Italy5.72.812.616.833.52.135.52.86.4
    Jamaica10.82.315.96.82.95.17.95.80.71.52.2
    Japan19.013.319.26.425.613.00.2
    Jordan11..224.08.23.78.31.012.03.25.74.312.9
    Kenya16.111.120.57.70.20.60.79.41.63.32.6
    Korea9.130.814.31.54.30.75.04.50.61.30.4
    Kuwait12.116.79.35.13.48.612.00.110.57.03.7
    Lesotho34.321.15.62.54.57.018.40.92.40.2
    Liberia31.74.013.27.01.41.83.17.10.60.11.6
    Luxembourg9.12.28.81.851.21.052.33.20.17.9
    Madagascar22.84.014.87.810.00.210.213.90.50.30.4
    Malawi16.48.010.43.81.60.21.913.30.10.83.2
    Malaysia17.415.420.86.61.80.22.03.20.40.4
    Mali26.919.325.06.94.111.08.42.80.34.0
    Malta8.63.08.78.532.34.436.62.55.12.02.7
    Mauritius19.20.613.37.511.72.113.812.30.11.62.0
    Mexico6.53.519.34.227.127.112.63.65.3
    Morocco32.116.313.73.05.12.17.2
    Nepal12.47.111.25.50.60.51.118..36.75.34.2
    Netherlands14.66.714.99.838.22.440.6
    New Zealand6.33.913.613.526.61.027.54.60.30.21.4
    Nicaragua11.411.515.33.718.011.829.86.10.50.810.0
    Niger31.85.922.45.82.82.86.32.11.62.9
    Nigeria7.71.80.92.63.52.012.21.8
    Norway7.06.918.08.621.95.026.96.71.40.43.3
    Oman14.735.81.73.72.92.90.97.07.25.7
    Pakistan7.923.81.91.11.92.54.52.52.81.95.8
    Panama19.918.413.612.31.714.03.42.63.72.3
    Papua New Guinea19.94.318.98.20.24.04.29.32.81.66.3
    Paraguay15.312.413.22.716.71.718.43.60.40.2
    Peru12.714.817.55.50.22.52.79.15.04.5
    Philippines16.619.911.94.52.51.07.010.42.72.215.0
    Portugal18.514.311.27.225.63.929.52.01.90.35.9
    Rwanda19.115.815.04.81.60.21.87.42.93.31.8
    Senegal24.010.318.95.94.71.86.45.21.00.1
    Sierra Leone26.37.816.07.62.60.910.25.41.13.24.0
    Singapore9.425.412.56.31.17.38.50.30.13.8
    Solomon Islands34.914.111.61.00.71.714.60.91.14.7
    Somalia26.820.114.06.11.95.67.513.63.14.2
    Spain4.24.57.88.737.81.839.63.40.90.12.1
    Sri Lanka10.22.611.55.925.50.626.17.90.57.8
    Sudan5.911.55.11.42.70.12.815.40.18.9
    Suriname37.015.98.66.83.710.51.95.12.22.9
    Swaziland22.65.418.05.40.33.94.210.92.12.61.0
    Sweden7.77.514.111.034.22.036.22.51.41.21.4
    Switzerland4.310.23.910.749.51.250.74.80.24.1
    Syrian Arab Rep.2.725.05.50.76.02.38.33.817.86.00.5
    Tanzania19.212.213.57.01.21.22.411.57.35.40.6
    Thailand9.118.321.24.43.52.35.89.80.41.41.0
    Tunisia8.84.020.86.510.91.412.37.43.86.0
    Turkey10.613.619.12.41.72.34.12.87.211.10.8
    United Arab Emirates27.235.811.96.72.42.64.90.80.23.14.9
    United Kingdom7.112.614.812.221.88.830.62.01.90.21.6
    United States3.621.416.813.329.72.432.10.82.0
    Upper Volta14.45.12.70.53.21.60.8
    Uruguay14.210.39.14.942.40.447.31.20.43.85.8
    Venezuela7.06.512.34.35.85.411.38.67.59.13.2
    Yemen Arab Rep.25.237.57.42.91.50.12.4
    Yugoslavia3.719.923.634.734.71.3
    Zambia27.614.86.50.21.51.612.43.20.95.1
    Sources: International Monetary Fund, Government Finance Statistics Yearbook, Vol. 4 (1980); Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development, National Accounts of OECD Countries, 1960–78; Vol. II (Paris, 1979), and Public Expenditure Trends (Paris, June 1978).

    See Table 1 for those countries for which the data relate to earlier years.

    Table 12.Share of Economic Expenditures in Gross Domestic Product, 19771
    CountryCurrent Expenditures2 (1)Goods and Services3 (2)Wages and Salaries (3)Other Goods and Services (4)Interest (5)Subsidies and Transfers (6)Capital Expenditure4 (7)Acquisition of Capital Assets (8)Capital Transfers (9)
    Argentina11.14.51.81.94.32.51.8
    Australia32.818.23.011.74.34.2
    Austria33.010.14.65.81.321.63.01.41.4
    Bahamas16.413.69.93.71.31.52.7
    Bahrain15.313.27.06.20.21.921.713.38.0
    Barbados25.119.211.27.51.94.08.65.42.9
    Belgium43.111.18.03.03.228.84.02.31.4
    Bolivia10.28.15.71.80.31.82.11.50.6
    Botswana22.315.39.45.61.25.813.813.10.7
    Brazil17.04.42.61.81.910.72.42.4
    Burma11.82.2
    Cameroon11.810.15.84.36.21.56.86.40.4
    Canada36.119.84.112.13.23.2
    Chad12.42.7
    Chile27.312.98.73.12.711.83.43.30.1
    Congo, People’s Rep.6.13.50.80.7
    Costa Rica15.810.28.22.61.24.44.32.91.1
    Cyprus21.314.09.94.11.26.05.64.31.2
    Dominican Rep.8.16.54.71.80.21.66.04.61.2
    Egypt43.718.910.88.12.322.69.64.83.7
    El Salvador9.16.40.22.53.21.81.4
    Ethiopia16.014.47.37.10.60.93.43.3
    Fiji16.914.08.24.51.21.76.95.71.2
    Finland34.019.50.713.84.24.1
    France35.69.26.53.10.825.71.70.70.9
    Gambia, The21.118.57.311.20.32.312.212.10.1
    Germany, Fed. Rep.41.220.01.719.53.33.2
    Greece26.821.914.07.71.63.45.34.20.5
    Grenada21.018.210.67.60.82.02.5
    Guatemala7.25.33.51.70.61.23.51.22.3
    Honduras11.210.95.95.00.70.56.34.41.9
    Iceland22.110.26.82.91.710.25.72.53.2
    India12.04.32.22.11.66.12.31.30.9
    Indonesia9.65.60.63.58.87.71.1
    Iran27.819.510.78.80.38.015.614.50.5
    Ireland38.98.75.83.05.524.73.51.12.5
    Israel63.029.27.421.810.423.52.81.31.5
    Italy33.27.55.71.94.321.44.51.72.8
    Jamaica25.815.010.24.83.57.37.95.02.7
    Japan12.42.31.38.73.30.92.2
    Jordan43.831.31.111.324.319.83.9
    Kenya16.811.97.14.71.43.55.04.2
    Korea13.87.82.85.00.85.22.61.41.0
    Kuwait26.215.87.08.710.47.54.6
    Lesotho18.713.46.96.50.25.16.96.40.4
    Liberia17.913.78.94.90.73.49.59.5
    Luxembourg40.110.88.81.70.928.44.12.71.0
    Madagascar15.811.38.13.10.34.24.74.7
    Malawi12.29.63.36.31.41.37.87.30.4
    Malaysia22.414.210.43.93.05.25.63.62.0
    Mali16.713.410.92.50.13.31.51.5
    Malta32.719.912.67.20.812.05.95.9
    Mauritius24.012.810.02.81.59.77.24.62.5
    Mexico12.87.55.61.91.93.43.82.71.1
    Morocco22.015.511.04.51.64.820.920.40.2
    Netherlands48.88.65.92.71.738.43.12.0
    Nicaragua10.57.94.83.11.11.45.32.62.1
    Niger17.912.16.15.91.94.84.03.30.7
    Nigeria14.57.33.24.20.51.610.78.32.4
    Norway45.718.52.824.31.61.6
    Oman32.826.75.021.70.65.525.123.01.7
    Pakistan12.98.51.82.63.53.5
    Panama24.717.611.46.23.04.15.42.92.4
    Papua New Guinea26.623.21.71.73.62.90.6
    Paraguay8.46.73.92.80.31.32.82.40.4
    Peru13.99.12.22.64.83.31.5
    Philippines11.88.84.04.30.62.62.2
    Rwanda8.87.84.23.60.11.04.64.6
    Senegal14.111.56.84.70.42.31.81.30.5
    Sierra Leone17.413.85.68.31.22.33.6
    Singapore16.412.86.36.52.70.93.73.2
    Somalia28.97.8
    South Africa19.610.51.57.63.42.11.0
    Spain20.410.67.23.30.49.43.31.81.4
    Sri Lanka17.67.35.02.22.87.55.52.92.6
    Sudan15.59.92.47.41.24.410.710.7
    Suriname27.624.116.08.10.23.414.313.80.2
    Swaziland17.815.510.15.30.12.29.89.8
    Sweden57.829.62.825.44.74.7
    Switzerland30.312.92.215.21.7
    Tanzania19.816.07.78.41.32.58.34.04.3
    Thailand13.29.53.95.61.12.64.43.80.6
    Tunisia22.013.19.52.81.07.912.26.85.4
    Turkey17.610.67.12.50.56.57.06.20.5
    United Arab Emirates8.83.3
    United Kingdom35.212.76.16.23.419.12.00.91.1
    United States33.518.92.611.91.71.7
    Upper Volta12.610.53.80.90.61.52.70.50.4
    Uruguay20.89.76.82.60.410.82.22.00.2
    Venezuela16.712.39.42.90.63.815.73.112.6
    Yemen Arab Rep.13.812.68.04.60.21.07.6
    Yugoslavia25.57.717.80.50.5
    Zaire24.819.811.4842.62.46.85.01.8
    Zambia29.019.610.49.13.65.85.94.11.9
    Sources: International Monetary Fund, Government Finance Statistics Yearbook, Vol. 4 (1980); Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development, National Accounts of OECD Countries, 1960–78, Vol. 2 (Paris, 1979), and Public Expenditure Trends (Paris, June 1979).

    See Table 2 for those countries for which the data relate to earlier years.

    The sum of columns 2, 5, and 6. Note that where columns 3 and 4 do not round up to column 2, the discrepancy is due to government contributions to employee pension plans.

    The sum of columns 3 and 4.

    The sum of columns 8 and 9. Note that where columns 8 and 9 do not round up to column 7, the discrepancy is due to the purchases or sales of stocks, land, and intangible assets.

    Table 13.Economic Expenditures as Percentage of Total Expenditure, 19771
    CountryCurrent Expenditures2 (1)Goods and Services3 (2)Wages and Salaries (3)Other Goods and Services (4)Interest (5)Subsidies and Transfers (6)Capital Expenditure4 (7)Acquisition of Capital Assets (8)Capital Transfers (9)
    Argentina66.526.810.729.025.715.210.5
    Australia88.449.08.031.511.611.2
    Austria90.327.711.015.83.559.18.23.93.9
    Bahamas81.668.049.518.56.47.213.3
    Bahrain37.432.217.215.10.44.753.132.619.5
    Barbados74.256.633.022.25.611.925.416.08.5
    Belgium90.723.416.86.36.760.58.54.83.0
    Bolivia82.665.746.214.62.514.317.312.35.0
    Botswana58.039.824.414.63.115.235.834.01.8
    Brazil79.320.511.98.69.049.811.411.3
    Burma83.915.9
    Cameroon61.952.930.222.71.37.835.833.52.3
    Canada91.850.510.530.88.28.2
    Chad82.517.6
    Chile86.741.627.79.98.537.210.810.30.4
    Costa Rica76.449.139.89.75.821.420.614.15.3
    Cyprus77.451.136.214.94.521.920.315.54.5
    Dominican Rep.55.143.731.712.01.410.740.331.08.4
    Egypt70.330.417.413.03.736.315.47.76.0
    El Salvador60.242.31.616.321.211.99.3
    Ethiopia82.174.137.636.53.24.817.217.10.1
    Fiji70.558.434.218.65.26.928.823.94.9
    Finland89.151.01.936.210.910.8
    France92.923.916.98.22.067.04.41.82.5
    Gambia, The59.852.420.731.70.86.634.534.30.2
    Germany, Fed. Rep.92.544.93.943.77.57.1
    Greece82.767.543.423.94.810.316.312.91.4
    Grenada84.373.142.730.53.38.09.9
    Guatemala61.345.529.614.55.110.729.610.119.5
    Honduras63.561.833.628.13.72.736.024.711.0
    Iceland69.232.021.49.25.232.118.07.810.1
    India65.823.812.311.58.733.312.77.04.9
    Indonesia47.927.72.917.343.938.45.5
    Iran64.144.924.620.30.718.435.933.31.0
    Ireland83.918.912.56.411.853.27.62.35.3
    Israel88.440.910.330.514.533.03.91.82.2
    Italy73.716.712.54.19.547.510.03.76.3
    Jamaica66.238.426.112.39.018.820.312.86.9
    Japan77.414.58.354.520.45.813.8
    Jordan60.643.41.615.733.727.45.3
    Kenya72.451.1.30.520.36.215.021.518.0
    Korea72.141.014.626.44.027.113.57.25.3
    Kuwait66.740.217.822.226.519.111.7
    Lesotho72.351.626.625.00.919.826.724.71.7
    Liberia58.044.528.715.82.411.130.830.8
    Luxembourg86.923.419.23.72.061.59.06.02.2
    Madagascar76.354.639.415.21.320.423.022.70.2
    Malawi57.245.015.629.36.45.936.434.42.0
    Malaysia71.145.232.812.39.416.517.711.46.3
    Mali93.474.760.714.10.518.28.28.2
    Malta79.848.530.817.62.129.314.514.5
    Mauritius72.038.530.08.54.529.021.613.77.6
    Mexico72.842.631.611.010.719.421.615.56.0
    Morocco51.136.125.710.43.811.248.547.50.5
    Netherlands91.616.211.15.23.372.15.83.8
    Nicaragua60.145.427.617.96.68.130.314.712.3
    Niger78.652.926.926.08.221.317.514.63.0
    Norway96.639.26.051.43.53.5
    Oman56.646.18.737.41.09.543.439.72.9
    Pakistan56.637.48.011.215.415.30.1
    Panama80.257.137.020.09.813.417.49.47.8
    Papua New Guinea86.475.35.55.611.79.32.0
    Paraguay73.358.934.624.32.711.724.921.53.4
    Peru68.945.011.212.723.916.57.3
    Philippines76.557.326.228.63.616.614.1
    Rwanda65.057.230.926.30.77.133.533.5
    Senegal83.868.140.427.72.213.610.87.63.2
    Sierra Leone82.266.026.539.55.811.017.2
    Singapore70.054.726.827.911.53.916.013.70.2
    Solomon Islands68.749.927.720.718.726.021.14.9
    Somalia78.821.2
    South Africa73.039.65.728.212.77.83.7
    Spain81.342.128.813.31.637.613.27.25.7
    Sri Lanka75.431.321.79.612.032.223.612.511.1
    Sudan58.937.59.228.34.816.740.640.6
    Suriname65.857.338.119.20.58.034.032.90.4
    Swaziland54.147.030.816.20.46.729.729.7
    Sweden92.547.44.540.67.57.5
    Tanzania70.156.727.129.64.58.929.314.015.3
    Thailand73.552.921.631.36.214.424.721.13.6
    Tunisia60.936.426.47.82.721.833.718.714.9
    Turkey68.440.927.39.72.125.427.324.21.8
    United Arab Emirates72.427.1
    United Kingdom91.733.215.816.28.949.65.32.32.8
    United States95.153.87.533.84.94.8
    Uruguay87.740.828.811.11.645.39.48.41.0
    Venezuela48.435.527.28.31.911.045.58.936.5
    Yemen Arab Rep.64.559.037.421.70.84.735.5
    Yugoslavia98.229.668.61.81.8
    Zaire78.462.536.626.5837.621.515.95.6
    Zambia73.950.026.623.29.114.815.110.44.7
    Sources: International Monetary Fund, Government Finance Statistics Yearbook, Vol. 4 (1980); Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development, National Accounts of OECD Countries, 1960–78, Vol. 2 (Paris, 1979), and Public Expenditure Trends (Paris, June 1978).

    See Table 2 for those countries for which the data relate to earlier years.

    The sum of columns 2, 5, and 6. Note that where columns 3 and 4 do not round up to column 2, the discrepancy is due to government contribution to employee pension plans.

    The sum of columns 3 and 4.

    The sum of columns 8 and 9. Note that where columns 8 and 9 do not round up to column 7, the discrepancy is due to purchases or sales of stocks, land, and intangible assets.

    Table 14.Variables Used in Estimating Expenditure Equations: 1977 or Latest Available Year
    CountryIncome per Capita (in $)Share of Total Public Expenditure in GDPShare of Total Public Expenditure (Net of Defense) in GDPShare of Population Under 15Share of Population Over 65Infant Mortality RateShare of Population in Urban AreasPopulation Growth Rate in Urban AreasShare of Labor Force in AgricultureShare of Labor Force in Industry
    Argentina1,98817142983811.91429
    Australia6,84330272791872.0635
    Austria6,366373523151530.61241
    Bahamas3,86820204144583.3720
    Bahrain6,04841394536
    Bangladesh8011114632396.3787
    Barbados1,95534343293451.31025
    Belgium8,066484522141710.5443
    Bolivia481121143322304.25123
    Botswana524383646423118.9834
    Brazil1,46321204239614.54220
    Burma133141041415253.85519
    Burundi13122194332821.7855
    Cameroon412171543327278.0746
    Canada8,65722202681781.9630
    Benin184462272310.44715
    Chad150151139430146.8876
    Chile1,40032283455792.52127
    Congo, People’s Rep.41843327363.03626
    Costa Rica1,49121204133413.33029
    Cyprus1,74027242892421.63528
    Denmark9,780373421141821.1837
    Dominican Rep.816161447310465.45816
    Ecuador854141046310424.14724
    Egypt358625740418442.75126
    El Salvador67315144638403.14715
    Ethiopia114191845237127.0817
    Fiji1,29524233631393.64416
    Finland6,653333121111572.81438
    France7,210383624131751.71041
    Gambia, The2083542434243.4798
    Germany, Fed. Rep.8,420302721141830.8548
    Ghana3701948323325.15419
    Greece2,822322723131572.44027
    Grenada54925214464153121
    Guatemala851121043315373.65719
    Honduras403181647314325.36315
    Iceland7,690322891871.81340
    India162181542318213.17311
    Indonesia3302041319183.36012
    Iran1,950423246314455.04132
    Ireland2,8694630111552.32136
    Israel3,79071463381873.3837
    Italy3,439393723121671.51347
    Jamaica1,46639384463463.62427
    Japan6,593162481752.41437
    Jordan790522847316534.52839
    Kenya278232147314127.0799
    Korea97119133735495.44533
    Kuwait11,55439334822847.8234
    Lesotho10625253942138.1884
    Liberia396313043323305.67314
    Luxembourg9,640464520131742.7844
    Madagascar183212045327164.3845
    Malawi1632120443272018.4875
    Malaysia1,04632274333304.84420
    Mali114201744332175.3895
    Malta1,80841402311790.7542
    Mauritius77336363644441.03025
    Mexico1,14918174646634.63425
    Morocco566433646217374.15319
    Nepal10513124232344.4932
    Netherlands7,690535024111760.5645
    New Zealand5,02638362991832.21035
    Nicaragua826171548217504.54414
    Niger144232147232106.8923
    Nigeria551312746224184.65618
    Norway8,905464323141473.1837
    Oman2,22458374342963
    Pakistan202231747317264.15820
    Panama1,226314243514.13018
    Papua New Guinea558323042319138.0848
    Paraguay74211104538383.35119
    Peru767201744316634.54020
    Philippines46715124637343.55115
    Portugal1,563312826112282.32736
    Rwanda17614114722745.6923
    Senegal415161444332242.9779
    Sierra Leone206232243327215.66818
    Singapore2,954231731411001.6232
    Solomon Islands4844.94515
    Somalia107372945231275.0837
    South Africa1,539274143110482.93030
    Spain3,299252426111712.41942
    Sri Lanka19523233842243.75415
    Sudan349262345331206.97910
    Suriname1,575424935503.21924
    Swaziland614333145327149.3756
    Sweden9,24845412115851.2537
    Switzerland9,583211922121561.0648
    Syrian Arab Rep.886584346414474.74923
    Tanzania19728254632098.5846
    Thailand42218154536143.5778
    Togo29246327155.56914
    Tunisia852373543415483.64323
    Turkey1,158262241510434.76214
    United Arab Emirates20,840128444296520.5
    United Kingdom4,018423723141900.5243
    United States8,431231824111701.3333
    Upper Volta12517134433283.68411
    Uruguay1,47223212893830.41232
    Venezuela2,80835334435804.42127
    Yemen Arab Rep.40221134533187.37611
    Yugoslavia2,02724192592383.04234
    Zaire1883043327355.47613
    Zambia4843947323345.46911
    Sources: International Monetary Fund, Government Finance Statistics Yearbook, Vol. 4 (1980), and International Financial Statistics; International Bank for Reconstruction and Development, World Tables (1980, 2nd ed.).
    Table 15.Variables Used in Estimating Expenditure Equations: 1977 or Latest Available Year
    CountryPrimary School Enrollment RateSecondary School Enrollment RatePupil-Teacher Ratio, Primary SchoolIndex of Access to Clean WaterPopulation per Hospital BedShare of GDP in ManufacturingShare of GDP in AgricultureShare of Other Manufacturing and Fuel in Total Exports
    Argentina108561866170341216
    Australia9273211008021631
    Austria10277211009030558
    Bahamas13575446523099
    Bahrain10025021237
    Bangladesh832355534,43085362
    Barbados1087833100116101048
    Belgium106891910011026259
    Bolivia80322334510131796
    Botswana92183345340626
    Brazil90182277260241016
    Burma802252171,22010488
    Burundi223317602
    Cameroon12017512638014333
    Canada106942510011019431
    Benin531048207808348
    Chad41375261,1407484
    Chile117483983300211192
    Congo, People’s Rep.155526138190161369
    Costa Rica111433377260202321
    Cyprus69612695200141239
    Denmark103771610010019632
    Dominican Rep.110245455350192116
    Ecuador102423840430172161
    Egypt72424066460202649
    El Salvador77214853500153428
    Ethiopia2364662,9809474
    Fiji110503269340102221
    Finland103971910070281050
    France108851810010027542
    Gambia, The32927121,291251
    Germany, Fed. Rep.12966231008038343
    Ghana4450303560093822
    Greece105833095160161449
    Grenada994238381492271
    Guatemala3540470
    Honduras891335466601530
    Iceland101792110070105
    India792842331,231153650
    Indonesia822030121,560103269
    Iran9848315165012998
    Ireland10990311009040
    Israel12839179017019570
    Italy10571181009033857
    Jamaica9858398626020977
    Japan101922510010030541
    Jordan8449365695013728
    Kenya105153317760123527
    Korea1096349621,430222169
    Kuwait93601689210696
    Lesotho119155317560119
    Liberia6216412069052976
    Luxembourg114532010090343
    Madagascar92146126410143914
    Malawi565613376014435
    Malaysia94453262270173023
    Mali2872791,35012391
    Malta10175219010028577
    Mauritius10345246028015192
    Mexico116374662860291051
    Morocco65174055710161622
    Nepal60123196,6301062
    Netherlands10192271009027452
    New Zealand111852310014016
    Nicaragua85213970400202416
    Niger21341271,20011453
    Nigeria4910341,17083294
    Norway10289171007020643
    Oman442243264013100
    Pakistan501742292,020142962
    Panama124533079266151735
    Papua New Guinea5812312015093416
    Paraguay106202813610173414
    Peru110494047500171450
    Philippines105562939880252824
    Portugal97852765170301157
    Rwanda6125335580144236
    Senegal45114937730172927
    Sierra Leone371132121,08053681
    Singapore110553010028026250
    Solomon Islands2631325
    Somalia40335335709152
    South Africa107184115021761
    Spain11473297519027949
    Sri Lanka77552920330143713
    Sudan391339469606411
    Suriname105423218061094
    Swaziland1033538372902125
    Sweden9670181007024438
    Switzerland9052241009058
    Syrian Arab Rep.103503375980101974
    Tanzania703503968494413
    Thailand83263022800192817
    Togo10323611668082829
    Tunisia10020407041091674
    Turkey104293475460162623
    United Arab Emirates75142198
    United Kingdom105812210011025350
    United States1091002010015024330
    Upper Volta16248101,51811333
    Uruguay95622398150261032
    Venezuela10438317534016699
    Yemen Arab Rep.2643842,0606459
    Yugoslavia975522851702914116
    Zaire8613421633082610
    Zambia95154842250191478
    Sources: International Monetary Fund, Government Finance Statistics Yearbook, Vol. 4 (1980), and International Financial Statistics; and International Bank for Reconstruction and Development, World Tables (1980, 2nd.ed.).

    Occasional Papers of the International Monetary Fund

    1. International Capital Markets: Recent Developments and Short-Terrn Prospects, by a Staff Team Headed by R.C. Williams, Exchange and Trade Relations Department. 1980.

    2. Economic Stabilization and Growth in Portugal, by Hans O. Schmitt. 1981.

    3. External Indebtedness of Developing Countries, by a Staff Team Headed by Bahram Nowzad and Richard C. Williams. 1981.

    4. World Economic Outlook: A Survey by the Staff of the International Monetary Fund. 1981.

    5. Trade Policy Developments in Industrial Countries, by S.J. Anjaria, Z. Iqbal, L.L. Perez, and W.S. Tseng. 1981.

    6. The Multilateral System of Payments: Keynes, Convertibility, and the International Monetary Fund’s Articles of Agreement, by Joseph Gold. 1981.

    7. International Capital Markets: Recent Developments and Short-Term Prospects, 1981, by a Staff Team Headed by Richard C. Williams, with G.G. Johnson. 1981.

    8. Taxation in Sub-Saharan Africa. Part I: Tax Policy and Administration in Sub Saharan Africa, by Carlos A. Aguirre, Peter S. Griffith, and M. Zuhtu Yucelik. Part II: A Statistical Evaluation of Taxation in Sub-Saharan Africa, by Vito Tanzi. 1981.

    9. World Economic Outlook: A Survey by the Staff of the International Monetary Fund. 1982.

    10. International Comparisons of Government Expenditure, by Alan A. Tait and Peter S. Heller. 1982.

    International Monetary Fund, Washington, D.C. 20431, U.S.A.

    Telephone number: 202 477 2945

    Cable address: Interfund

    The authors would like to acknowledge the research assistance rendered by Ms. Tarja Papavassiliou and Ms. Erika Kaufman.

    See Alan A. Tait, Wilfrid L. M. Gratz, and Barry J. Eichengreen, “International Comparisons of Taxation for Selected Developing Countries, 1972–76,” Staff Papers, Vol. 26, No. 1 (March 1979), pp. 123–56.

    For example, Richard A. Musgrave, Fiscal Systems (New Haven and London, Yale University Press, 1969), pp. 110–24.

    It should be noted that all functional relationships have been estimated to include and exclude net lending (domestic and foreign); no significant difference in ranking occurred. The regressions in this paper have been estimated with net lending omitted.

    International Monetary Fund, Government Finance Statistics Yearbook, Vol. 4 (1980); hereinafter referred to as the GFS Yearbook. When data are unavailable for 1977, the next nearest available year has been used (see Table 4).

    International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD), World Tables, 1980 (Baltimore, The Johns Hopkins University Press, 1980).

    Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development, National Accounts of OECD Countries, 1960–78, Vol. 2 (Paris, 1980).

    Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development, Public Expenditure Trends (Paris, 1978).

    A. T. Peacock and J. Wiseman, The Growth of Public Expenditure in the United Kingdom (London, Oxford University Press, 1961).

    Concentration on only one functional expenditure for a single country, e.g., defense in the United Kingdom, can yield more subtle and much better estimated equations. See R. P. Smith, “The Demand for Military Expenditure,” Economic Journal, Vol. 90, No. 360 (December 1980), pp. 811–20.

    A low infant mortality rate could, of course, reflect the effectiveness of high public health expenditures.

    It should be noted that European Economic Community agricultural subsidies that do not move through the consolidated national government budgets (for example, adjusted artificial agricultural exchange rates) will not be included in these functional categories.

    Presumably, utilities in these countries charge rates that negate the need for recourse to budget financing.

    Many developing countries, particularly in Africa, use government employment as a substitute for unemployment relief; as development occurs, this form of hidden welfare payment affects government wages and salaries less and less.

    One could, of course, observe a country with B1 < 0 and still find that its share of wages in GDP exceeds what might have been predicted!

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