Back Matter

Back Matter

Author(s):
Alan Tait, and Peter Heller
Published Date:
October 1983
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    References

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      Berg,Elliot,“Wage Structures in Less Developed Countries,”in Wage Policy in Economic Development,ed. byAnthonyD. Smith (ed) (New York, 1969), pp. 294337.

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    Appendix I Statistical Tables and Charts
    Table 19.Data Requested From 139 Countries1
    Response
    CountryLetterPublicationSpecially prepared data
    Industrial countries
    AustraliaXXX
    BelgiumXXX
    CanadaXXX
    DenmarkXX
    IcelandXXX
    IrelandXX
    ItalyXX
    JapanXX
    NetherlandsXX
    Netherlands AntillesXX
    New ZealandXXX
    NorwayXX
    SwedenXX
    United KingdomXXX
    United StatesXX
    Developing countries
    Oil exporting countries
    IndonesiaX
    KuwaitXX
    OmanXX
    Non-oil developing countries
    Africa
    CameroonXX
    EthiopiaX
    KenyaXXX
    LiberiaX
    MauritiusXXX
    SenegalX
    Sierra LeoneX
    South AfricaX
    TanzaniaXX
    TogoXXX
    UgandaXX
    ZambiaXX
    Asia
    IndiaXX
    KoreaXX
    PhilippinesXX
    SingaporeXX
    Solomon IslandsX
    Sri LankaXX
    ThailandXX
    Europe
    CyprusXXX
    PortugalX
    Middle East
    BahrainXXX
    EgyptXX
    Western Hemisphere
    ArgentinaXX
    BahamasXX
    EcuadorXX
    El SalvadorXX
    GuatemalaXXX
    GuyanaXX
    JamaicaXX
    PanamaXX
    St. LuciaXX

    Countries not mentioned did not respond.

    Table 20.Employees by Level of Government(In Thousands of Persons)
    CountryYearCentral GovernmentState and Local GovernmentNonfinancial Public EnterprisesGeneral GovernmentPublic Sector
    Australia1980302.01,135.4166.01,437.41,603.4
    Austria1979289.2319.0605.0
    Belgium1980481.6184.6198.4666.0864.4
    Canada1981360.11,146.0383.41,506.11,889.5
    Denmark1981131.5449.560.3581.0641.3
    Finland1979386.0
    France19803,078.0
    Germany, Fed. Rep. of1980800.62,931.71,006.93,732.24,739.1
    Iceland198012.42.12.814.517.3
    Ireland197876.073.073.0149.0222.0
    Italy19801,692.71,208.0439.03,046.03,485.0
    Japan19801,210.03,190.3808.04,380.85,188.8
    Luxembourg197917.0
    Netherlands1980354.1418.646.0772.1818.1
    New Zealand1981212.747.160.9259.8320.7
    Norway1979130.0228.0358.0
    Spain19791,488.0
    Sweden1979211.31,0044136.11,215.71,351.8
    Switzerland1979303.0
    United Kingdom19802,327.63,027.02,036.65,354.07,390.0
    United States19814,252.013,445.0668.017,697.018,365.0
    Benin197925.44.021.929.451.3
    Botswana197917.85.124.0
    Burundi197818.03.613.721.635.3
    Cameroon198156.156.1
    Congo197837.9
    Kenya1980344.840.0100.1365.0465.1
    Liberia198249.26.449.255.6
    Madagascar198093.5131.0
    Mauritius198049.15.420.054.574.5
    Senegal197645.918.045.963.9
    South Africa1982204.770.0274.7
    Sudan1978279.0
    Swaziland198218.41.518.419.9
    Tanzania1978249.2171.7249.2420.9
    Togo198040.240.2
    Uganda1982137.254.080.0191.2271.2
    Zimbabwe1979105.722.0127.7
    India19774,186.07,119.03,675.011,305.014,980.0
    Korea19811,015.7160.4220.21,176.01,396.2
    Philippines1979798.5161.71,066.7960.22,026.9
    Singapore1981128.8128.8
    Sri Lanka1980400.645.0757.9445.61,203.5
    Thailand19791,370.0
    Cyprus198020.30.620.9
    Portugal1977254.0
    Bahrain198022.50.523.0
    Egypt1979572.61,067.7575.41,640.32,215.7
    Oman198038.838.8
    Argentina1981573.5703.0313.81,276.51,590.3
    Bahamas197811.21.811.213.0
    Barbados198127.0
    Belize19813.33.3
    Ecuador1980163.3
    El Salvador1982111.513.9
    Guatemala1981105.018.87.3123.8131.1
    Honduras198127.0
    Jamaica198063.243.7106.9
    Panama197963.74.138.571.7110.2
    St. Lucia19814.60.45.0
    Table 21.Government Employees Per Capita(Number of employees per hundred inhabitants)
    CountryYearCentral GovernmentState and Local GovernmentNonfinancial Public EnterprisesGeneral GovernmentPublic Sector
    Australia19802.077.771.149.8310.97
    Austria19793.854.258.06
    Belgium19804.881.872.016.75877
    Canada19811.494.731.586.227.80
    Denmark19812.578.781.1811.3512.53
    Finland19798.11
    France19805.73
    Germany, Fed. Rep. of19801.304.761.646.067.70
    Iceland19805.490.931.246.427.65
    Ireland19782.302.212.214.506.71
    Italy19802.972.120.775.346.11
    Japan19801.042.730.693.754.44
    Luxembourg19794.68
    Netherlands19802.502.960.335.465.79
    New Zealand19816.861.521.968.3810.35
    Norway19793.195.608.80
    Spain19794.00
    Sweden19792.5512.121.6414.6616.31
    Switzerland19794.76
    United Kingdom19804.165.413.649.5713.21
    United States19811.875.910.297.778.07
    Benin19790.760.120.660.881.54
    Botswana19792.250.653.04
    Burundi19780.420.080.320.510.83
    Cameroon19810.660.66
    Congo19782.60
    Kenya19802.100.240.612.232.84
    Liberia19822.410.312.412.73
    Madagascar19801.071.50
    Mauritius19805.400.592.205.998.19
    Senegal19760.900.350.901.25
    South Africa19820.700.240.94
    Sudan19781.61
    Swaziland19823.350.273.353.62
    Tanzania19781.430.981.432.41
    Togo19801.531.53
    Uganda19821.010.400.591.401.99
    Zambia19812.470.082.132.604.73
    Zimbabwe19791.530.321.85
    India19770.671.140.591.812.39
    Korea19812.660.420.583.083.65
    Philippines19791.710.352.292.064.35
    Singapore19815.395.39
    Sri Lanka19802.720.315.143.028.16
    Thailand19792.97
    Cyprus19803.250.103.34
    Portugal19772.61
    Bahrain19806.250.146.39
    Egypt19791.402.611.404.005.41
    Oman19804.364.36
    Argentina19812.122.601.164.725.88
    Bahamas19784.980.804.985.78
    Barbados198110.71
    Belize19811.941.94
    Ecuador19801.96
    El Salvador19822.320.29
    Guatemala19811.450.260.101.711.81
    Honduras19810.73
    Jamaica19802.892.004.88
    Panama19793.390.222.053.815.86
    St. Lucia19813.850.334.18
    Table 22.Government Employees as Share of Nonagricultural Sector Employment(In percent)
    CountryYearCentral GovernmentState and Local GovernmentNonfinancial Public EnterprisesGeneral GovernmentPublic Sector
    Australia19805.1719.452.8424.6227.46
    Austria197910.4511.5321.86
    Belgium198018.287.017.5325.2832.82
    Canada19813.139.953.3313.0716.40
    Denmark19815.7319.602.6325.3427.97
    Finland197920.49
    France198017.66
    Germany. Fed. Rep. of19803.3712.354.2415.7219.96
    Iceland198012.282.082.7714.3617.13
    Ireland19789.178.818.8117.9726.78
    Japan19802.426.381.618.7510.37
    Italy19809.626.862.4917.3019.80
    Luxembourg197911.41
    Netherlands19808.229.701.0717.9218.99
    New Zealand198124.205.366.9329.5636.48
    Norway19798.2514.4722.72
    Spain197915.63
    Sweden19795.2925.143.4130.4333.84
    Switzerland197911.05
    United Kingdom19809.7012.628.4922.3130.80
    United States19814.5314.310.7118.8319.55
    Benin197943.056.7837.1249.8386.95
    Botswana197925.077.1833.80
    Cameroon14818.468.46
    Central African Rep.197929.90
    Ghana197973.90
    Kenya198028.953.368.4030.6539.05
    Liberia198252.906.8852.9059.78
    Malawi197939.20
    Mauritius198034.823.8314.1838.6552.84
    Senegal197632.7912.8632.7945.64
    South Africa19824.441.525.96
    Swaziland198222.441.8322.4424.27
    Tanzania197846.2331.8646.2378.09
    Togo198042.9542.95
    Uganda198242.20
    Zambia198042.321.2936.4744.5681.03
    Zimbabwe197916.313.4019.71
    India197720.1334.2317.6754.3572.02
    Korea198111.571.832.5113.4015.91
    Philippines197910.442.1213.9512.5626.51
    Singapore198112.1712.17
    Sri Lanka198015.171.7028.7116.8845.59
    Thailand197923.9520.10
    Cyprus198015.150.4515.60
    Portugal19779.49
    Bahrain198016.920.3817.29
    Egypt197910.2919.1910.3429.4939.83
    Oman198025.8725.87
    Argentina19818.1910.044.4818.2422.72
    Bahamas197816.002.5716.0018.57
    Barbados198124.11
    Ecuador198011.59
    El Salvador198274.839.3349.30
    Guatemala198113.462.410.9415.8716.81
    Honduras19815.25
    Jamaica198013.839.5623.39
    Panama197917.121.1010.3519.2729.62
    St. Lucia198125.992.2628.25
    Table 23.Distribution of Government Employees by Level of Government(In percent)
    CountryYearCentral Government Employees in General GovernmentState and Local Government Employees in General GovernmentCentral Government Employees in Public SectorState and Local Government Employees in Public SectorGeneral Government Employees in Public SectorNonfinancial Public Enterprise Employees in Public Sector
    Australia198021.0178.9918.8370.8189.6510.35
    Austria197947.8052.73
    Belgium198072.3127.7255.7121.3677.0522.95
    Canada198123.9176.0919.0660.6579.7120.29
    Denmark198122.6377.3720.5170.0990.609.40
    Germany, Fed. Rep. of198021.4578.5516.8961.8678.7521.25
    Iceland198085.5214.4871.6812.1483.8216.18
    Ireland197851.0148.9934.2332.8867.1232.88
    Italy198055.5739.6648.5734.6687.4012.60
    Japan198027.6272.8223.3261.4884.4315.57
    Netherlands198045.8654.1443.2851.0994.385.62
    New Zealand198181.8718.1366.3214.6981.0118.99
    Norway197936.3163.69
    Sweden197917.3882.6215.6374.3089.9310.07
    United Kingdom198043.4656.5431.4940.9672.4527.55
    United States198124.0375.9723.1573.2196.363.64
    Benin197986.3913.6149.517.8057.3142.69
    Botswana197974.1721.25
    Burundi197883.3016.7050.9410.2161.1538.85
    Cameroon1981100.00
    Kenya198094.4710.9674.138.6078.4821.52
    Liberia1982100.0088.4988.4911.51
    Madagascar198071.37
    Mauritius198090.099.9165.917.2573.1526.85
    Senegal1976100.0071.8371.8328.17
    South Africa198274.5225.48
    Swaziland198210O.0092.4692.467.54
    Tanzania1978100.0059.2159.2140.79
    Togo1980100.00
    Uganda198271.7628.2450.5919.9170.5029.50
    Zambia198094.982.9052.231.6054.9945.01
    Zimbabwe197982.7717.23
    India197737.0362.9727.9447.5275.4724.53
    Korea198186.3713.6472.7511.4984.2315.77
    Philippines197983.1616.8439.407.9847.3752.63
    Singapore1981100.00
    Sri Lanka198089.9010.1033.293.7437.0362.97
    Cyprus198097.132.87
    Bahrain198097.832.17
    Egypt197934.9165.0925.8448.1974.0325.97
    Oman1980100.00
    Argentina198144.9355.0736.0644.2180.2719.73
    Bahamas1978100.0086.1586.1513.85
    Belize1981100.00
    Guatemala198184.8115.1580.0914.3194.435.57
    Jamaica198059.1240.88
    Panama197988.845.7257.803.7265.0634.94
    St. Lucia198192.008.00
    Table 24.Distribution of Government Wages by Level of Government(In percent)
    CountryYearCentral Government Employees in General GovernmentState and Local Government Employees in General GovernmentCentral Government Employees in Public SectorState and Local Government Employees in Public SectorGeneral Government Employees in Public SectorNonfinancial Public Enterprise Employees in Public Sector
    Canada198124.4875.5219.0258.6577.6722.33
    Denmark198130.3069.70
    France198076.4223.58
    Germany, Fed. Rep. of198024.0175.99
    Italy198077.4522.5569.8320.3490.169.84
    Japan198030.9669.04
    Netherlands198041.7758.23
    New Zealand198181.8618.1468.5615.2083.7616.24
    Norway197934.9265.08
    United Kingdom198049.2650.7432.8833.8866.7633.24
    United States198129.6170.3927.9466.4294.375.63
    Botswana197983.7416.26
    Cameroon1981100.00
    Kenya198089.8010.2070.017.9577.9622.04
    Liberia1982100.0088.7588.7511.25
    Senegal1976100.00
    Swaziland1982100.0091.2391.238.77
    Tanzania1978100.00
    Togo1980100.00
    Zambia198097.022.9853.651.6555.3044.70
    Singapore1981100.00
    Sri Lanka1980100.00
    Cyprus1980100.00
    Bahrain1980100.00
    Oman1980100.00
    Argentina198149.7650.2437.7338.0975.8224.18
    Bahamas1978100.00
    Belize1981100.00
    Brazil197939.4260.5819.8230.4550.2749.73
    Costa Rica197857.1842.8248.1336.0484.1715.83
    El Salvador1982100.0088.4388.4311.57
    Guatemala198184.8315.1777.9213.9391.858.15
    Panama197996.533.47
    St. Lucia1981100.00
    Table 25.Share of Government Wages in National Income at Market Prices(in percent)
    CountryYearCentral GovernmentState and Local GovernmentGeneral GovernmentNonfinancial Public EnterprisesPublic Sector
    Australia19802.98
    Austria19792.68
    Belgium19809.98
    Canada19812.969.1212.073.4715.54
    Denmark19817.7917.9225.71
    Finland19794.40
    France19807.572.349.91
    Germany, Fed. Rep. of19803.129.8813.00
    Iceland198013.634.78
    Ireland19806.86
    Italy19807.002.049.040.9910.03
    Japan19802.806.249.03
    Luxembourg19798.85
    Netherlands19807.099.8916.98
    New Zealand198113.322.9516.273.1519.42
    Norway19796.2811.7017.97
    Spain19799.31
    Sweden19794.92
    Switzerland19791.54
    United Kingdom19808.658.9217.578.7526.32
    United States19813.799.0112.790.7613.56
    Benin19798.581.69
    Botswana197911.512.2313.74
    Burundi19786.98
    Ghana19795.62
    Kenya198011.121.2612.383.5015.88
    Liberia198215.1215.121.9217.03
    Malawi19794.64
    Mauritius198013.41
    Morocco197912.88
    Sierra Leone19798.80
    South Africa19823.57
    Sudan19782.47
    Swaziland198213.0013.001.2514.25
    Togo198011.8411.84
    Tunisia197811.89
    Zaire197814.68
    Zambia198014.440.4414.8812.0326.91
    Zimbabwe197911.65
    India19773.832.10
    Korea198115.622.78
    Malaysia198010.45
    Philippines19794.29
    Sri Lanka19805.945.94
    Thailand19794.69
    Cyprus198011.1511.15
    Greece197818.63
    Turkey197910.20
    Egypt19799.30
    Israel197913.27
    Argentina19814.614.669.272.9512.22
    Belize19815.445.44
    Brazil19793.004.607.607.5215.12
    Chile197911.275.07
    Colombia19803.11
    Costa Rica19788.866.6315.492.9118.41
    Ecuador19805.06
    El Salvador198212.4612.461.6314.09
    Guyana197916.15
    Jamaica198015.50
    Mexico19795.73
    Nicaragua19766.72
    Panama197913.020.4713.49
    Uruguay19797.77
    Table 26.Share of Government Wages in Total Wages in the Economy(In percent)
    CountryYearCentral GovernmentState and Local GovernmentGeneral GovernmentNonfinancial Public EnterprisesPublic Sector
    Australia19804.23
    Austria19793.59
    Belgium198014.03
    Canada19813.9912.3116.314.6921.00
    Denmark198110.6724.5535.23
    Finland19795.84
    France198010.763.3214.08
    Germany, Fed. Rep. of19804.4013.9318.33
    Ireland197810.19
    Italy19809.852.8712.721.3914.10
    Japan19804.209.3613.56
    Luxembourg197912.84
    Netherlands19809.7713.6123.38
    New Zealand198119.794.3924.174.6928.86
    Norway197910.8320.1931.02
    Spain197914.65
    Sweden19795.48
    Switzerland19792.21
    United Kingdom198010.9111.2422.1411.0333.17
    United States19814.9211.6916.610.9917.60
    Benin197929.705.86
    Botswana197923.204.5027.70
    Burundi197839.15
    Kenya198027.623.1430.768.6939.45
    Malawi197916.94
    Mauritius198026.57
    Morocco197932.15
    Sierra Leone197927.87
    South Africa19825.13
    Sudan19784.26
    Swaziland198223.1823.182.2325.41
    Togo198020.6520.65
    Zambia198021.170.6521.8217.6439.46
    Zimbabwe197918.66
    India19778.544.69
    Korea198134.596.15
    Sri Lanka198010.3810.38
    Thailand197915.34
    Greece197841.28
    Turkey197932.31
    Egypt197921.78
    Israel197922.69
    Argentina19819.669.7619.426.1925.61
    Belize19816.076.07
    Brazil19796.279.6315.9015.7331.63
    Chile197926.4411.88
    Colombia19807.59
    Costa Rica197814.7111.0121.724.8430.56
    Ecuador198012.78
    Guyana197926.80
    Jamaica198022.40
    Mexico197912.09
    Nicaragua197610.21
    Panama197917.430.6318.06
    Uruguay197918.72
    Table 27.Measures of the Level of Government Wages
    Ratio of
    CountryYearAverage Wage of Central Government Employees (in U.S. dollars)Central government average wage to per capita incomeAverage state and local government wage to central government wageAverage nonfinancial public enterprise wage to average central government wage
    Australia198011,5041.16
    Austria197910,4641.06
    Belgium198018,5751.66
    Canada198117,8621.510.911.10
    Denmark198121,1152.290.67
    Germany, Fed. Rep. of198025,9822.100.86
    Iceland198015,5591.601.55
    Ireland19789,7712.46
    Italy198112,0001.880.410.54
    Japan198021,1642.140.85
    Netherlands198025,1232.281.18
    New Zealand198112,1021.591.000.83
    Norway197917,4961.481.06
    Sweden197919,8591.49
    United Kingdom198015,3661.600.791.16
    United States198118,5401.640.751.28
    Benin19792,8269.810.23
    Botswana19793,6334.490.68
    Burundi19782,17615.11
    Cameroon19815,1567.39
    Congo19783,7455.60
    Kenya19801,8564.440.981.08
    Liberia19823,1915.520.97
    Mauritius19802,0202.04
    Senegal19763,5739.90
    South Africa198210,5233.78
    Swaziland19822,7732.721.18
    Tanzania19781,4005.42
    Togo19802,1295.85
    Uganda19823393.90
    Zambia19802,6154.051.010.97
    Zimbabwe19793,5606.73
    India19778434.800.63
    Korea19812,7544.760.82
    Philippines19791,2762.01
    Singapore19816,4451.16
    Sri Lanka19804431.77
    Cyprus19809,8042.96
    Bahrain198012,8251.27
    Egypt19792,4775.70
    Oman198010,4141.75
    Argentina19815,4581.960.821.17
    Bahamas19788,4641.98
    Belize19813,348
    Ecuador19803,1602.32
    El Salvador19823,2464.611.05
    Guatemala19812,9512.731.001.50
    Jamaica19805,1854.28
    Panama19794,5903.040.56
    St. Lucia19812,8342.59
    Table 28.Other Measures of Public/Private Sector Wage Differentials
    Ratio of
    CountryYearAverage central government wage to average wage of employees outside central government1Average general government wage in average wage of employees outside general government2Average public sector wage to average wage of employees in private sectorAverage central government wage to average wage in manufacturing
    Australia19800.810.82
    Austria19790.320.94
    Belgium19800.731.29
    Canada19811.291.301.351.11
    Denmark19811.961.601.23
    France19800.76
    Germany. Fed. Rep. of19801.321.201.86
    Ireland19781.121.00
    Italy19801.030.700.671.14
    Japan19801.771.631.46
    Netherlands19801.211.401.88
    New Zealand19810.770.760.711.13
    Norway19791.351.531.23
    Sweden19791.041.11
    United Kingdom19801.140.991.121.38
    United States19811.090.860.881.11
    Benin19790.56
    Botswana19790.900.75
    Burundi19782.84
    Cameroon19812.38
    Kenya19800.941.011.020.95
    Mauritius19800.682.56
    South Africa19821.161.79
    Swaziland19821.041.041.060.55
    Togo19800.350.35
    Zambia19800.370.350.150.96
    Zimbabwe19791.180.58
    India19770.371.23
    Korea19814.400.91
    Sri Lanka19800.650.571.11
    Cyprus19802.11
    Egypt19792.433.54
    Oman19800.60
    Argentina19811.201.081.175.31
    Bahamas19781.49
    Ecuador19801.121.34
    El Salvador19821.49
    Guatemala19811.71
    Jamaica19801.80
    Panama19791.020.921.64

    Includes employees in the private sector, state and local government sector, and nonfinancial public enterprise sector.

    Includes employees in the private sector and nonfinancial public enterprise sector.

    Table 29.Average Wage of 15 Different Government Jobs Relative to that of Clerical Officer(Clerical officer = 100)
    CountryStandard Deviation Across PositionPrimary TeacherSecondary TeacherCertified NurseMedical DoctorPolice SergeantPolice CorporalPolice ConstableEngineerMechanicRoad InspectorAgricultural OfficerAgricultural AssistantAnimal Health OfficerAnimal Health AssistantMeat Inspector
    Australia2910610616820716014111312911212012710814998127
    Belgium5913814212323010910595230115230230230
    Canada45140110254160148118164102156156209209133
    Denmark38119130119228139117100160979598
    New Zealand165414461332633459201488186541186366
    Norway20120145149130122156
    Sweden1810612110215411310411690102
    United Kingdom103165253128432237188354113347221157110156
    United States88185203219367401293216243265
    Kenya20816444911770815411782571170317533137533137157
    Seychelles126151202182523182100377110377222182222
    Swaziland120137194194473240194100427155215267121427121267
    Togo7813610826349652184949
    Uganda123100244237446140126100407100172319172428172300
    Zambia69117153113328121622061862051489720696224
    India1261572481484311198864466200310219397219219
    Singapore476419471643515143398439843084
    Cyprus4248561001726859431721341348813488120
    Bahrain66176176100115270100147228100270100100
    Bahamas651181378429211510081236801261696880
    El Salvador791241401642819493333104177162108296104116
    Guatemala64901141249023783246119246102119
    Jamaica58180158300193163117240200277200185
    Panama132189311265553326113326174326140
    St. Lucia13516828420945021519015048077453219162
    Trinidad and Tobago2472883703111,000342290190623223311
    Table 30.Central Government Employees by Functional Sector per 100 Inhabitants1
    CountryYearAdministrationEducationHealthDefensePoliceFinance and Planning
    Austria19790.16
    Belgium19800.243.180.320.730.330.40
    Canada19810.271.8111.240.460.45
    Denmark19810.252.745.350.630.37
    Finland19790.69
    France19800.57
    Germany, Fed. Rep. of19800.031.320.590.720.480.07
    Iceland19800.351.682.430.270.27
    Ireland19780.341.360.010.420.280.02
    Italy19800.94
    Japan19800.121.120.i90.260.280.02
    Netherlands19800.151.790.031.150.170.27
    New Zealand19810.470.520.02
    Spain19790.28
    Sweden19790’482.924.250.540.360.06
    United States19810.072.330.671.380.360.06
    Benin19790.12
    Cameroon19810.070.150.060.170.02
    Congo19780.380.790.400.11
    Kenya19800.610.760.180.080.25
    Liberia19820.800.490.250.340.170.11
    Mauritius19800.591.210.850.550.23
    Senegal19760.030.230.110.150.130.07
    South Africa19820.140.160.070.140.03
    Swaziland19820.310.730.240.690.270.11
    Tanzania19780.36
    Togo19800.060.630.140.210.100.11
    Uganda19820.130.190.100.120.120.01
    Zambia19800.200.540.290.340.310.07
    Zimbabwe19790.220.180.140.350.250.01
    India19770.080.450.110.180.10
    Korea19810.170.700.021.690.390.01
    Philippines19790.59
    Singapore19810.100.800.642.580.530.31
    Sri Lanka19800.220.930.380.140.150.06
    Cyprus19800.180.850.342.770.590.18
    Portugal19770.90
    Bahrain19801.751.310.560.11
    Oman19801.601.070.522.130.04
    Argentina19810.091.830.360.430.720.07
    Bahamas19780.531.821.110.040.620.18
    Belize19810.180.240.350.290.12
    Brazil19790.96
    Ecuador19800.060.740.190.430.200.06
    El Salvador19820.110.640.340.230.070.09
    Guatemala19810.080.540.170.190.150.07
    Jamaica19800.330.940.520.100.340.03
    Panama19790.261.380.500.600.14
    St. Lucia19810.331.510.500.330.25
    Uruguay19791.03
    CountryYearAgricultureMining Manufacturing and ConstructionUtilitiesTransport and CommunicationPostsLabor and Social SecurityOther
    Belgium19800.030.100.020.020.01
    Canada19810.070.010.050.100.260.080.22
    Denmark19811.20
    Germany, Fed. Rep. of19800.010.010.030.01
    Iceland19800.180.090.130.040.04
    Ireland19780.290.140.040.770.11
    Japan19800.070.020.040.270.020.03
    Netherlands19800.080.140.180.210.14
    New Zealand19810.460.510.260.150.210.35
    Sweden19790.090.100.100.200.08
    United States19810.050.010.270.210.18
    Cameroon19810.030.010.030.03
    Congo19780.180.040.010.030.89
    Kenya19800.160.040.020.02
    Liberia19820.060.210.020.010.05
    Mauritius19800.870.740.190.050.100.02
    Senegal19760.080.050.010.03
    South Africa19820.070.060.010.01
    Swaziland19820.240.040.130.05
    Togo19800.120.030.060.010.08
    Uganda19820.150.080.030.010.010.05
    Zambia19800.270.320.080.020.01
    Zimbabwe19790.030.070.050.180.020.01
    India19770.070.310.110.02
    Korea19810.030.010.010.01
    Singapore19810.060.120.060.070.050.10
    Sri Lanka19800.120.070.030.210.200.030.18
    Cyprus19800.110.050.050.030.050.060.40
    Bahrain19800.110.330.670.220.060.111.00
    Oman19800.210.070.200.280.040.100.22
    Argentina19810.030.070.010.070.050.11
    Bahamas19780.090.220.130.090.040.18
    Belize19810.410.120.060.060.020.12
    Ecuador19800.100.010.010.110.03
    El Salvador19820.110.030.500.160.01
    Guatemala19810.050.080.090.01
    Jamaica19800.210.180.010.150.O40.03
    Panama19790.180.310.080.080.070.09
    St. Lucia19810.330.080.250.250.08

    The number of employees in the police, health, and education sectors have been augmented by the number of such employees at the state and local government levels.

    Table 31.Central Government Employees by Functional Sector as a Share of Total Central Government Employment1(In percent)
    CountryYearAdministrationEducationHealthDefensePoliceFinance and Planning
    Austria19794.15
    Belgium19804.2857.875.7713.326.057.19
    Canada19817.0047.716.3112.0511.77
    Denmark19811.9220.9140.784.822.83
    Germany, Fed. Rep. of19800.7536.4016.3119.8413.251.97
    Iceland19806.4530.6544.354.844.84
    Ireland19788.7534.910.2310.687.120.39
    Italy198031.61
    japan19804.9745.767.8610.4611.310.96
    Netherlands19803.4141.400.6226.733.986.36
    Sweden19795.2731.8546.415.873.960.96
    United States19811.2641.5812.0124.726.481.03
    Benin197915.75
    Cameroon198110.7022.109.8025.853.74
    Congo197814.5130.6115.304.22
    Kenya198028.8035.998.563.7711.86
    Liberia198233.1320.1210.3714.237.114.67
    Mauritius198011.0022.4015.6810.184.28
    Senegal19763.7026.1411.9816.5614.168.28
    South Africa198219.3922.189.9219.354.25
    Swaziland19829.2421.747.0720.658.153.26
    Tanzania197825.28
    Togo19803.7341.549.4513.936.227.21
    Uganda198213.2719.249.5512.3912.241.09
    Zambia19808.1322.0311.6113.9012.582.71
    Zimbabwe197914.3811.929.4622.8916.180.66
    India19776.0634.768.6613.667.42
    Korea19815.5422.620.5254.6812.760.18
    Philippines197934.69
    Singapore19811.8614.8311.9647.909.7885.75
    Sri Lanka19808.1934.1213.935.075.372.32
    Cyprus19805.4226.1110.3485.2218.235.42
    Bahrain198028.0020.898.891.78
    Oman198036.6024.4811.8648.971.03
    Argentina19812.4047.809.3211.2518.741.75
    Bahamas197810.7136.6122.320.8912.503.57
    Belize19819.0912.1218.1815.156.06
    Ecuador19803.1837.669.7422.310.293.00
    El Salvador19824.7527.4414.809.873.144.04
    Guatemala19815.7137.5211.8113.3310.574.86
    Jamaica198011.5532.4417.883.3211.711.11
    Panama19797.6940.6614.7617.744.24
    St. Lucia19818.7039.1313.048.706.52
    CountryYearAgricultureMining, Manufacturing, and ConstructionUtilitiesTransport and CommunicationPostsLabor and Social SecurityOther
    Belgium19800.461.750.390.390.09
    Canada19811.920.201.232.766.902.125.87
    Denmark19810.039.14
    Germany, Fed. Rep. of19800.200.240.750.100.15
    Iceland19803.231.612.420.810.81
    Ireland19787.353.480.9319.812.71
    Japan19802.920.881.4911.090.901.40
    Netherlands19801.973.314.104.753.36
    Sweden19790.951.111.132.190.86
    United States19810.890.140.064.813.753.27
    Cameroon19815.171.434.280.363.92
    Congo19786.861.580.531.3234.30
    Kenya19807.632.031.130.99
    Liberia19822.448.541.020.412.03
    Mauritius198016.0913.653.461.021.830.41
    Senegal19768.935.881.093.49
    South Africa198210.260.649.232.102.000.68
    Swaziland19827.071.093.801.63
    Togo19807.711.990.250.253.730.755.22
    Uganda198214.658.243.060.510.665.10
    Zambia198010.8412.863.340.970.35
    Zimbabwe19792.184.823.3111.831.320.95
    India19770.095.070.0924.128.371.72
    Korea19810.890.310.030.110.190.40
    Singapore19811.092.171.161.241.011.79
    Sri Lanka19804.422.571.157.597.491.126.64
    Cyprus19803.451.481.480.991.481.9712.32
    Bahrain19801.785.3310.673.560.891.7816.00
    Oman19804.901.554.646.441.032.325.15
    Argentina19810.801.720.381.751.312.80
    Bahamas19781.794.462.681.790.893.57
    Belize198121.216.063.033.031.216.06
    Ecuador19805.270.610.735.881.35
    El Salvador19824.841.4321.616.820.36
    Guatemala19813.625.626.100.67
    Jamaica19807.126.330.160.475.221.421.11
    Panama19795.189.112.352.352.042.51
    St. Lucia19818.702.176.526.522.17

    Both the total number of central government employees and the number of employees in the police, health, and education sectors have been augmented by the number of employees in these three sectors at the state and local government levels.

    Table 32.Index of Average Salary per Employee in Different Functional Sectors Relative to Average Central Government Wage(Average central government wage = 100)
    CountryYearCountry Standard DeviationAdministrationEducationHealthDefensePoliceFinance and Planning
    Canada19818.3101.0107.9100.199.1108.6
    Iceland198047.2126.897.780.7155.0206.2
    Japan198020.8126.4112.0105.180.580.598.7
    New Zealand198115.589.7100.9103.5116.1116.089.9
    Sweden1979392.3
    United States198118.8141.1137.0132.889.7120.9
    Kenya198025.8126.297.1135.2130.4102.7
    Liberia198233.066.1113.3111.296.378.8117.2
    Mauritius1980105.5100.1112.2116.3143.7158.8
    South Africa198221.575.354.040.560.368.1
    Swaziland198240.9162.4119.4114.342.899.1141.5
    Togo198049.5234.778.3110.39.181.4122.6
    Uganda198267.0123.9146.453.1152.684.8248.8
    Zambia198038.5129.9145.9102.0134.060.279.3
    Zimbabwe197953.6105.0147.578.494.699.7136.9
    India1977113.7
    Korea198142.2162.7222.1170.952.2169.7136.8
    Singapore198148.2186.6148.6102.1101.6123.1
    Sri Lanka198040.1141.0148.3111.0114.0107.9116.9
    Cyprus198042.5162.7119.224.097.5122.0
    Bahrain1980109.381.378.1394.0
    Oman198022.069.964.159.667.1132.8
    Argentina198185.1141.160.781.4139.8106.2128.5
    Bahamas197820.5135.996.585.1118.192.067.9
    Belize198118.9104.5112.084.680.6126.9
    Ecuador198022.4131.4114.986.2104.650.792.6
    El Salvador198224.4139.3124.1100.2104.293.0121.3
    Jamaica198061.275.697.072.2109.391.4250.6
    Panama197958.6144.093.697.170.6102.5
    St. Lucia198126.4117.6103.8108.998.0117.6
    AgricultureMining, Manufacturing, and ConstructionUtilitiesTransport and CommunicationPostsLabor and Social SecurityOther
    Canada1981105.7104.9120.3106.386.2108.3
    Iceland1980120.8125.297.938.1
    Japan1980131.2107.458.295.4117.0108.2
    New Zealand198183.195.375.5105.674.7119.7
    United States1981119.9126.7134.8168.0123.6124.8
    Kenya1980100.7146.5175.3146.6
    Liberia1982177.6111.287.7141.0153.6
    Mauritius198043.865.028.8377.2131.2296.9
    South Africa198244.6103.531.559.065.492.0
    Swaziland1982152.4123.8192.1153.3
    Togo1980105.8116.098.869.995.1101.0123.0
    Uganda198261.758.51.1153.852.564.5
    Zambia198068.359.225.8122.469.5
    Zimbabwe1979188.570.346.428.3208.4112.5
    Korea1981131.4147.3153.4150.5109.0
    Singapore198184.4245.2124.882.9113.6117.3
    Sri Lanka1980101.5116.5242.9114.4101.5103.477.5
    Cyprus198095.9130.593.2125.883.997.981.6
    Bahrain198098.541.5121.093.367.431.7
    Oman198064.797.869.960.469.962.151.7
    Argentina1981184.396.6389.5110.7133.8100.4
    Bahamas197894.5108.7110.394.570.9124.1
    Belize198183.289.6104.559.774.797.1
    Ecuador198094.6115.6113.277.882.2
    El Salvador1982101.372.460.490.8132.5
    Jamaica198045.718.4184.186.649.975.865.0
    Panama197980.575.550.858.182.1261.4
    St. Lucia198175.1143.882.8156.8
    Table 33.IGEM Indices and Predicted Level of Employment by Key Functional Sector(Predicted employment per hundred inhabitants)
    AdministrationEducationHealth
    CountryYearIGEM IndexPredicted employmentIGEM IndexPredicted employmentIGEM IndexPredicted employment
    Australia19800.261.770.96
    Austria19790.301.761.00
    Belgium1980820.291751.81311.03
    Canada19811150.23981.84240.99
    Denmark1981750.341441.913611.48
    Finland19790.341.911.49
    France19800.181.830.93
    Germany, Fed. Rep. of1980160.17711.87620.95
    Iceland1980670.53971.732021.20
    Ireland19781030.33991.3810.74
    Italy19800.161.590.73
    Japan1980970.12631.78230.84
    Luxembourg19790.501.831.25
    Netherlands1980530.28901.9921.48
    New Zealand19811330.351.650.96
    Norway19790.362.011.58
    Spain19790.181.520.70
    Sweden19791530.321412.062691.58
    Switzerland19790.321.951.17
    United Kingdom19800.181.941.36
    United States1981830.081271.84800.84
    Benin19790.280.570.58
    Botswana19790.390.720.29
    Burundi19780.230.01
    Cameroon1981310.23220.67650.10
    Central African Rep.19790.300.33
    Congo19781070.35970.82590.67
    Ethiopia19770.120.200.14
    Ghana19790.220.840.39
    Kenya19803510.171640.46400
    Liberia19.22530.32830.582060.12
    Madagascar19800.220.490.29
    Malawi19790.220.20
    Mauritius19801560.381510.802420.35
    Morocco19790.180.760.12
    Senegal1976130.26410.57270.39
    Sierra Leone19790.270.30
    South Africa1982720.19121.3490.73
    Sudan19780.180.640.37
    Swaziland1982750.41900.81610.39
    Tanzania19780.170.530.45
    Togo1980190.301110.57330.43
    Tunisia19780.271.000.73
    Uganda1982920.154004O0
    Zaire19780.130.25
    Zambia1980760.26670.81490.58
    Zimbabwe1979920.24280.64550.26
    Bangladesh19790.04
    India19774002080.22400
    Korea19811360.131160.60400
    Malaysia19800.220.990.34
    Pakistan19790.060.34
    Philippines19790.12930.64
    Singapore1981270.37501.61581.12
    Sri Lanka19801330.173710.25400
    Thailand19790.110.61
    Cyprus1980400.44661.29430.78
    Greece19780.261.330.63
    Portugal19770.251.190.86
    Turkey19790.141.050.47
    Bahrain19800.51951.84911.43
    Egypt19790.130.660.33
    Israel19790.331.491.16
    Jordan19790.300.710.20
    Oman19803630.44621.72361.44
    Argentina1981480.191371.34480.74
    Bahamas19781050.511311.391200.93
    Barbados19810.501.320.86
    Belize1981360.49300.79780.45
    Brazil19790.08951.010.38
    Chile19790.241.060.40
    Colombia19800.160.870.19
    Costa Rica19780.341.020.47
    Ecuador1980250.25780.94580.33
    El Salvador1982420.27950.672510.14
    Guatemala1981330.25640.85660.26
    Guyana19790.380.770.67
    Honduras19810.290.830.62
    Jamaica1980980.34881.07610.85
    Mexico19790.121.190.56
    Nicaragua19760.320.730.23
    Panama1979740.351291.07720.69
    St. Lucia1981620.541271.19341.47
    Trinidad and Tobago19800.411.550.95
    Uruguay19790.341.331.04
    DefensePoliceFinance and Planning
    IGEM indexPredicted employmentIGEM indexPredicted employmentIGEM indexPredicted employment
    Australia19800.750.400.12
    Austria1979210.750.420.13
    Belgium1980980.75790.423000.13
    Canada1981610.751110.400.11
    Denmark1981780.81950.390.15
    Finland1979850.810.390.15
    France1980750.750.380.09
    Germany, Fed. Rep. of1980960.751260.38790.09
    Iceland19800.75530.501230.22
    Ireland1978570.73720.39120.13
    Italy19801260.740.350.08
    Japan1980340.75780.36330.07
    Luxembourg19790.750.500.21
    Netherlands19801410.82460.382100.13
    New Zealand1981700.740.42110.15
    Norway19790.820.410.16
    Spain1979380.740.350.08
    Sweden1979660.82910.40600.15
    Switzerland19790.750.450.15
    United Kingdom19800.820.34O.09
    United States19811820.761040.35980.06
    Benin1979260.460.190.07
    Botswana19790.640.330.12
    Burundi197811.040.200.04
    Cameroon1981310.550.27390.06
    Central African Rep.19790.380.260.07
    Congo19780.610.27990.11
    Ethiopia19770.09
    Ghana19790.570.260.07
    Kenya1980170.461110.230.03
    Liberia1982660.52590.291230.09
    Madagascar19800.440.190.05
    Malawi19790.270.210.04
    Mauritius19800.661620.341850.12
    Morocco19790.650.260.05
    Senegal1976280.53600.211130.07
    Sierra Leone19790.360.240.06
    South Africa19820.76450.30400.07
    Sudan19780.530.190.04
    Swaziland19821340.52770.35800.14
    Tanzania1978850.430.150.03
    Togo1980430.50420.231360.08
    Tunisia197811.660.260.09
    Uganda1982400870.14400
    Zaire19780.260.160.01
    Zambia1980570.611300.24860.08
    Zimbabwe1979570.621030.24160.06
    Bangladesh19790.09
    India1977590.301260.08
    Korea19813010.561760.22240.02
    Malaysia19800.660.300.07
    PakistanL9790.300.14
    Philippines19790.540.220.02
    Singapore19813340.771330.402060.15
    Sri Lanka1980350.39730.202670.02
    Thailand19790.490.220.02
    Cyprus19803800.731430.421070.16
    Greece19780.730.360.10
    Portugal19771180.770.280.09
    Turkey19790.730.250.05
    Bahrain1980880.630.47530.21
    Egypt19790.580.170.02
    Israel19790.800.340.13
    Jordan19790.490.300.09
    Oman19802770.770.41250.18
    Argentina1981670.652380.30880.08
    Bahamas197860.731370.45910.20
    Barbados19810.730.440.19
    Belize19810.68780.38720.16
    Brazil19790.720.220.02
    Chile197911.590.320.08
    Colombia19800.670.270.05
    Costa Rica19780.700.350.12
    Ecuador1980750.58660.31730.08
    El Salvador1982390.59260.281220.08
    Guatemala1981290.67520.30900.08
    Guyana19790.670.280.12
    Honduras19810.570.250.09
    Jamaica1980130.751140.30270.12
    Mexico19790.710.260.04
    Nicaragua19760.610.310.10
    Panama19790.621820.331170.12
    St. Lucia19810.841030.321320.19
    Trinidad and Tobago19800.740.440.17
    Uruguay19791540.670.330.13
    AgricultureMining, Manufacturing, and ConstructionUtilitiesLabor and Social Security
    IGEM indexPredicted employmentIGEM indexPredicted employmentIGEM indexPredicted employmentIGEM indexPredicted employment
    Australia19800.100.110.130.09
    Austria19790.120.130.150.09
    Belgium1980230.110.120.15220.10
    Canada1981970.0780.10420.11840.10
    Denmark19810.120.1130.134000.10
    Finland19790.120.110.130.10
    France19800.050.070.080.09
    Germany, Fed. Rep. of1980190.04130.070.0840.10
    Iceland1980700.25370.240.29470.09
    Ireland19781790.16890.150.161420.07
    Japan19804000.02470.050.05240.09
    Luxembourg19790.230.230.270.10
    Netherlands19801080.081860.080.102030.10
    New Zealand19812940.163240.161450.182430.09
    Norway19790.120.120.150.10
    Spain19790.070.080.070.08
    Sweden1979900.101070.090.121910.10
    Switzerland19790.120.140.170.10
    United Kingdom19800.030.030.040.10
    United States1981400310.03130.032230.09
    Benin19790.160.090.020.03
    Botswana19790.230.190.160.04
    Burundi19780.180.130.050.01
    Cameroon1981240.1480.120.0760.04
    Central African Rep.19790.200.160.100.02
    Congo1978930.19300.140.10770.04
    Ethiopia19770.090.020.01
    Ghana19790.120.090.050.05
    Kenya19801310.12460.09850.030.03
    Liberia1982300.201290.160.12280.04
    Madagascar19800.130.080.010.03
    Malawi19790.170.120.050.02
    Mauritius19803900.223920.190.162120.05
    Morocco19790.110.090.040.04
    Senegal1976530.15570.090.030.03
    Sierra Leone19790.190.140.080.02
    South Africa1982980.0770.071450.04200.07
    Sudan19780.100.060.03
    Swaziland1982980.24180.20690.180.05
    Tanzania19780.100.040.03
    Togo1980670.18270.1160.06360.03
    Tunisia19780.130.090.060.05
    Uganda19821020.14910.09400400
    Zaire19780.100.060.02
    Zambia19801910.143460.090.05550.04
    Zimbabwe1979230.14720.101010.05560.04
    Bangladesh19790.060.02
    India19774004004000.01
    Korea1981320.09140.07200.01170.03
    Malaysia19800.120.110.070.05
    Pakistan19790.060.020.02
    Philippines19790.080.060.04
    Singapore1981360.160.15730.16640.08
    Sri Lanka1980920.13740.091850.021730.02
    Thailand19790.080.060.03
    Cyprus1980500.23230.21220.21900.07
    Greece19780.120.120.110.07
    Portugal19770.110.080.050.06
    Turkey19790.060.050.010.05
    Bahrain1980490.231590.212660.251140.10
    Egypt19790.070.030.03
    Israel19790.140.110.110.08
    Jordan19790.180.150.110.04
    Oman19801130.19420.161100.181130.09
    Argentina1981400.08470.07300.05720.07
    Bahamas1978340.26930.240.26580.08
    Barbados19810.260.230.250.07
    Belize19811440.29490.240.23490.05
    Brazil19790.030.020.05
    Chile19790.120.110.090.06
    Colombia19800.090.080.040.05
    Costa Rica19780.190.160.150.06
    Ecuador1980760.14100.12160.09500.05
    El Salvador1982690.16250.130.094000.04
    Guatemala1981360.14660.120.091850.05
    Guyana19790.210.150.120.04
    Honduras19810.160.110.060.04
    Jamaica19801200.171460.1350.10730.06
    Mexico19790.040.040.06
    Nicaragua19760.190.160.120.04
    Panama1979960.182070.150.131190.06
    St. Lucia19811270.26460.180.170.06
    Trinidad and Tobago19800.200.190.210.08
    Uruguay19790.150.120.110.07

    Chart 2.New Zealand, Belgium, the Netherlands, Sweden, and the United Kingdom: Lorenz Curve of Government Salary Structure

    Chart 3.Kenya, Senegal, and Swaziland: Lorenz Curve of Government Salary Structure

    Chart 4.Korea and Sri Lanka: Lorenz Curve of Government Salary Structure

    Chart 5.Guatemala, Panama, and El Salvador: Lorenz Curve of Government Salary Structure

    Appendix II Sources of Data

    Argentina

    Data provided by the national authorities.

    Australia

    Bureau of Statistics, Yearbook Australia (1981).

    Department of the Treasury, Estimates of Receipts and Summary of Estimated Expenditure, For the Year Ending 30 June 1981.

    Public Service Board, Annual Report, 1980-81.

    Austria

    Herausgegeben vom Österreichischen Statistisches Zentralamt, Statistisches Handbuch für die Republik Österreich; XXXI, Jahrgang, Neue Folge 1980.

    Bahamas

    Approved Estimates of Revenue and Expenditure, Recurrent and Capital, 1978.

    Department of Statistics, Statistical Abstract 1978.

    Bahrain

    Data provided by the national authorities.

    Belgium

    Data provided by the national authorities.

    Gestion Publique, Aperçu des Effectifs du Secteur Public (various years).

    Institut National de Statistique, Ministère des Affaires Economiques, Annuaire Statistique de la Belgique, Tome 100, 1980. Ministère des finances —Situation générale du trésor public au 31. déc. (various years).

    Services d’Administration Général — “Retributions du Personnel des Ministères de Belgique,” 1.11.81.

    Statut Pécuniaire C.D.32. 1.9.79.

    Belize

    Estimates of Revenue and Expenditure for the Year 1981/82.

    Burundi

    Data provided by the International Labor Organization.

    Cameroon

    Data provided by the national authorities.

    Canada

    Data provided by the national authorities.

    Public Accounts of Canada—Expenditure by Standard Object.

    Salary by Occupation—Collective Agreements.

    Statistics Canada, Federal Government Employment. Statistics provided by the national authorities from data compiled by Statistics Canada and the Treasury Board of Canada.

    Cyprus

    Ministry of Finance, Budget for 1981.

    Data provided by the International Labor Organization.

    Denmark

    Finansministeriet 1981, Personalefortegnelse for 1981.

    Finansministeriet, Budgetdepartementet, Budget rede-gørelse 1981.

    Lønnings-og pensionsdepartementet, Finansministeriets lønoversigter, 1. oktober 1981.

    Ecuador

    Data provided by the national authorities.

    Egypt

    Data provided by the national authorities and the International Labor Organization.

    El Salvador

    Data provided by the national authorities.

    Direceión General del Presupuesto, Análysis por Seclores; Apéndice Estadístico, 1981.

    Germany, Federal Republic of

    Budget 1980.

    Bundesministerium der Finanzen, Finanz Bericht, 1983.

    Deutscher Bundestag; 8. Wahlperiode; Drucksache 8/2223; Oktober 19, 1978,

    Statistisches Bundesamt Wiesbaden, Wirtschaft und Statistik, 8/82; 4/82; 11/81; 7/81; Verlag W. Kohlhammer.

    Guatemala1

    Data provided by the national authorities.

    Dirección General de Estadística et al. Primer Censo Nacional de Funcionarios y Empleados Públicos (August 1980).

    Presupuesto Analítico de Sueldos del Personal Permanente al Servicio del Estado, ano 1981.

    Presupuesto de Ingresos y Egresos del Estado, Ejercicio fiscal 1981.

    Oficina Nacional de Servicio Civil, Indice Alfabético de Titulos y Salarios iniciales asignados a puestos de los Servidores por o sin oposición, 1980.

    Manual de Clasificación de Puestos, 5a. Edición, 1980.

    Honduras

    Data provided by the International Labor Organization.

    Iceland

    Data provided by the national authorities.

    India

    Bureau of Public Enterprises, Annual Report, Vol. I, 1979-80.

    ________, Annual Report on the Working of Industrial and Commercial Undertakings of the Central Government.

    Central Statistical Office, Statistical Abstract.

    Commerce Research Bureau, Basic Statistics on the Indian Economy, 1980; Bombay.

    ________, Basic Statistics on State Economies of India, 1980; Bombay.

    ________, Commerce Yearbook of the Public Sector.

    Labour Bureau, Indian Labour Statistics.

    ________, The Indian Labour Yearbook.

    Ministry of Finance, Budget 1978-79.

    ________, An Economic and Functional Classification of the Central Government Budget, 1980-81.

    ________, Report of the Third Central Pay Commission, 1973.

    Ireland

    Central Statistics Office, Statistical Abstract of Ireland, 1978.

    Review Body on Higher Remuneration in the Public Sector, Report No. 20, to Minister for the Public Service on the Levels of Remuneration Appropriate to Higher Posts in the Public Sector. 30 October 1979.

    Jamaica

    Civil Service Establishment Act (1980).

    Circulars provided by the national authorities.

    Estimates of Expenditure 1980-81.

    Department of Statistics, Statistical Yearbook of Jamaica.

    Japan

    Ministry of Finance, Zasei Tokei (fiscal statistics) FY 1980.

    National Personnel Authority, Annual Report Fiscal 1979.

    Statistics Bureau, Prime Minister’s Office. Japan Statistical Yearbook, 1980.

    Junshichiro Yonehara, Local Public Finance in Japan.

    Kenya2

    Data provided by the national authorities.

    Central Bureau of Statistics, Economic Survey (various issues).

    ________, Ministry of Economic Planning and Community Affairs, Employment and Earnings in the Modern Sector.

    ________, Statistical Abstract (various issues).

    Exchequer and Audit Department, Appropriation Accounts, Other Public Accounts and the Accounts of the Funds… and Report thereon by the Controller and Auditor-General.

    Ministry of Finance, Estimates of Recurrent Expenditure.

    Report of the Civil Service Review Committee, 1979-80.

    Korea3

    Data provided by the national authorities.

    Bank of Korea, Economic Statistics Yearbook 1980.

    Bureau of Statistics, Economic Planning Board, Korea Statistical Yearbook 1980.

    Economic Planning Board, Summary of Budget, Fiscal Year 1981 (Annex).

    Liberia

    Data provided by the national authorities.

    Netherlands4

    Data provided by the national authorities.

    Burgerlijk rigkspersoneel per departement, Budget Memorandum 1982, Annex 14.

    Centraal bureau voor de statistiek, National Accounts 1980.

    Government Note to Parliament; Tweede Kamer, zitting 1980-1981, 16 625, nrs. 2-3.

    Statistical Yearbook of the Netherlands, 1981.

    New Zealand

    Data provided by the national authorities.

    Estimates of the Expenditure of the Government of New Zealand, 1980-81. Report of the State Services Commission for the Year Ended 31 March, 1981.

    Supplement to the Public Service Official Calendar of 3 June, 1981—New Wage Scales, 11 June, 1981.

    Norway

    Statistisk Sentralbyrå, Lønnsstatistikk 1980; Norges of-fisielle Statistikk B213.

    ________, Statistisk Årbok, 1981. 1982.

    Statsregnskapet og Trygderegnskapet for budsjett-terminen 1979; St. meld, nr. 3 (1979-1980).

    Oman

    Data provided by the national authorities.

    Directorate General of National Statistics, Statistical Year book, 1980.

    Philippines

    Data provided by the International Labor Organization.

    Senegal

    Ministère du Plan et de la Coopération, Direction de la Planification. L’emploi Dans le Secteur PublicEvolution et Perspectives.

    Singapore

    Budget Establishment—Fiscal Year 1981/82.

    Ministry of Finance, The Budget for the Financial Year 1981/82.

    South Africa

    Estimates of Expenditure, Fiscal Year 1982.

    Sri Lanka

    Central Bank of Ceylon, Economic and Social Statistics of Sri Lanka, December 1980, Vol. III, No. 2.

    Department of Census and Statistics, Ministry of Plan Implementation. Statistical Abstract of the Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka.

    ________, Statistical Pocketbook of the Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka, 1980.

    Estimates of the Revenue and Expenditure of the Government of the Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka for the Financial Year, 1st January, 1982, to 31st December, 1982.

    Swaziland

    Central Statistical Office, Employment and Wages 1978.

    Ministry of Finance, Estimates for the Year from 1st April, 1981 to 31st March, 1982.

    Office of the Prime Minister, Establishment Register; Supporting the Estimates of Public Expenditure for the Financial Year 1981-1982.

    United Nations, Statistical Information Bulletin for Africa, No. 11, August 1977.

    Sweden

    Data provided by the national authorities.

    Sveriges officiella statistik; Statistiska centralbyrån, Statistisk årsbok 1980.

    ________, Statistiska meddelanden; Am 1981: 5; Am 1981: 10; Am 1981: 11; Am 1981: 18; Am 1981:21.

    ________, Statistiska meddelanden; N 1981: 2.5.

    Tanzania

    Data provided by the national authorities.

    Thailand

    Data provided by the national authorities.

    Bureau of the Budget, Thailand’s Budget in Brief, Fiscal Year 1980.

    National Statistical Office, Report of the Labor Force Survey, Whole Kingdom; July-September, 1980.

    ________, Statistical Yearbook, Thailand.

    Togo

    Data provided by the national authorities.

    Budget Général Gestion 1980.

    Uganda

    Data provided by the national authorities.

    Commonwealth Fund for Technical Co-operation, The Rehabilitation of the Economy of Uganda: A Report by a Commonwealth Team of Experts, Vol. 2 (June 1979).

    Draft Estimates of Recurrent Expenditure, 1982-1983.

    Ministry of Public Service and Cabinet Affairs, Revised Salaries and Conditions of Service for the Uganda Public Service, Parastatal Bodies and Government-Controlled Companies, 1976.

    United Kingdom

    Data provided by the national authorities.

    Central Statistical Office, Annual Abstract 1981.

    ________, National Income and Expenditure.

    Civil Service Department, The Civil Service: Introductory Factual Memorandum (April 1980).

    United States

    Data provided by the District of Columbia on salaries of individual jobs.

    Bureau of the Census, Statistical Abstract of the United States, 1981.

    Office of Personnel Management, Federal Civilian Work Force Statistics (3/31/79).

    United States Budget, 1983.

    Zambia

    Data provided by the national authorities.

    Budget 1980, 1981.

    Ministry of Finance, Establishment Register Supporting the Estimate of Expenditure for 1981.

    Zimbabwe

    Estimates of Expenditure, 1978/79.

    Ministry of Finance, Estimates of Expenditure for the Year Ending June 30, 1982.

    Financial Statements, 1981.

    Although the decentralized agencies form an important part of the Guatemalan economy, wage data detailing each of the agencies separately were not available.

    The Teachers’ Service Commission, the principal employing body for teachers, is external to central government, but is included here as part of central government.

    Nonfinancial public enterprises include “enterprise special accounts” of The central government, e.g.. National Railroad. “Wages” include allowances. “Employment” includes “nonregular” employment.

    The Netherlands presented an unusual situation in terms of designation of employees in certain functional categories, notably health, transport, and education Employment statistics place the Government in the so-called quaternary’ sector, along with other functions—health, education, transport, and other services—that are partly or entirely financed by the general government, and whose employment conditions are determined by the Government Based on the nature of the institutions involved, it was decided to include education employees (100 percent financed by the general government) as part of general government, but to exclude those in health and transport (76 percent and 59 percent, respectively, financed by general government), other than those engaged in administration within a ministry.

    See Berg (1969). Rupprecht (1972). Keesing (1975). Gray (1979). Rose (1980), Mieszkowski and Peterson (1981). Haveman (1982). Perhaps the most detailed country study available was recently published in Israel by Zakai (1983).

    “Workers could make real gains at the expense of the excess profits of a group of employers who were in open or tacit combination to hold wages down. This is no longer the typical situation. It is manifestly not so in the case of a nationalized industry or of public employment. If the miners obtain a higher wage, then either the government’s budget revenue suffers through the reduced profits or increased losses of the National Coal Board—in which case it is the general taxpayer or those whose welfare depends upon government expenditures who suffer …” Meade (1982), p. 32.

    “The more a municipality pays its workers relative to other local governments, the greater the chance that city will experience fiscal stress.” Hunter (1982), p. 146.

    The ILO data refer to the number of wage earners and salaried employees in all divisions of economic activity other than agriculture, hunting, forestry, and fishing. In certain cases, the statistics may cover other status groups, such as employers and self-employed workers. However, it should be emphasized that national definitions of employment often differ from the standard international definition. For a discussion and presentation of the data, see ILO (1980).

    in passing, it is perhaps worth noting the absolute numbers employed by the central government in the United Kingdom (2,327,000) compared with those employed by the central government in the United States (4,252,000): on this basis, one central government civil servant in the United Kingdom serves 24 persons but in the United States, 53. This emphasizes the importance of detailed analysis of the specifics of the country situation. The inclusion of the National Health Service in the U.K Central Government accounts for a significant part of the difference.

    For another discussion of these issues, see ICPE (1982).

    Influences in addition to the absolute share of public sector employment may generalize government awards through the economy—viz.. the centralization of wage award determination (the Netherlands) or the automatic indexing of wages (Italy).

    It may not be appreciated that Adolph Wagner himself thought his “law of increasing expansion of public … activities” applied particularly to those countries where “administration is decentralized and local government well organized.” See A, Wagner in Musgrave and Peacock (1958). p. 8.

    The correspondence breaks down for economies in which the wage-earning labor force in a plantation sector in agriculture (which is not considered part of the nonagricultural labor force) is a significant element in the category of “compensation of employees” in national income—Sri Lanka being the most obvious example of such an exception.

    Federation of Malaysia (1976).

    A test was made of the hypothesis that the effect might be different depending on the per capita income level of the country concerned. Multiplicative per capita income dummies associated with a per capita income of more than US$1,000) were tested and found to be of little significance.

    For examples of this literature, see Musgrave (1969). Beck (1979). and Heller (1981).

    Wagner in Musgrave and Peacock (1967), p. 2.

    The economic indices are described in Bilson (1982).

    Each regression was estimated using multiplicative dummies associated with a cutoff per capita income that ranged from US$200 to US$4,000 (e.g., for any given regression y = ax + bxDi + C + e. where Di is 0 if per capita income ≤i and 1 if ≥ i). Simulating across different i, the i is chosen that minimizes the sum of the squared errors. Where the multiplicative dummy has been omitted from the results in Table 7). it means that the multiplicative dummies were insignificant, regardless of the cutoff per capita income level.

    A value of 1 = a capitalist system. 2 = a capitalist-socialist system) 3 = a capitalist-statist system, and 4 = a socialist system. Bilson (1982).

    It is also realized that “tax handles” increase the ability of the state to expand taxes and hence expenditure, so that government employment could be thought to be a function of the taxable capacity. See Musgrave (1969).

    Direct links of this sort exist in Canada. Denmark. France, the Federal Republic of Germany. Italy, and the United States. See discussion in Inquiry into Civil Service Pay (1982).

    Ibid.

    It is recognized that it is not necessarily true that such civil servants are paid so well but that other workers are so poor. This statement is not intended to be facetious. Sociologically, the acceptable pay is influenced by foreign practices and lingering memories of colonial practices. Economically, scarcity value and possible “brain drain” may be significant influences.

    Power and prestige are also important, not to mention other unmeasured fringe benefits.

    This treatment suggests, of course, that there remains some significant downward bias in some of the other functional employment shares, particularly with respect to public administration.

    Argentina, Australia. Brazil, Canada, Denmark, the Federal Republic of Germany, India, Ireland, Japan, Korea, the Netherlands, New Zealand, Sweden, the United Kingdom, and the United States.

    Statistics on the numbers of military personnel are often unavailable from country sources. Reliance was placed on estimates of the United States Arms Control and Disarmament Agency (1982).

    Those few cases where the denominator of the ratio—the predicted level—is very small or negative, the index is assumed to equal 400.

    The central government employment numbers have again been adjusted to take account of the importance of education, health, and police functions in governmental units below the central government level. See Section VII.

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