Front Matter

Front Matter

Author(s):
Michael Bell, Kalpana Kochhar, and Hoe Khor
Published Date:
June 1993
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    © 1993 International Monetary Fund

    Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data

    Bell, Michael W.

    China at the threshold of a market economy / Michael W. Bell, Hoe Ee Khor, and Kalpana Kochhar with Jun Ma, Simon N’guiamba, and Rajiv Lall.

    p. cm. — (Occasional paper, ISSN 0251-6365 ; 107)

    “September 1993.”

    Includes bibliographical references.

    ISBN 9781557753496

    1. China—Economic policy—1976– 2. China—Economic conditions—1976– I. Khor, Hoe Ee. II. Kochhar, Kalpana. III. Title. IV. Series: Occasional paper (International Monetary Fund) ; no. 107.

    HC427.92.B44 1993

    338.951—dc20 93-34529

    CIP

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    Contents

    The following symbols have been used throughout this paper:

    … to indicate that data are not available;

    — to indicate that the figure is zero or less than half the final digit shown, or that the item does not exist;

    – between years or months (e.g., 1991–92 or January–June) to indicate the years or months covered, including the beginning and ending years or months;

    / between years (e.g., 1991/92) to indicate a crop or fiscal (financial) year.

    “Billion” means a thousand million.

    Minor discrepancies between constituent figures and totals are due to rounding.

    The term “country,” as used in this paper, does not in all cases refer to a territorial entity that is a state as understood by international law and practice; the term also covers some territorial entities that are not states, but for which statistical data are maintained and provided internationally on a separate and independent basis.

    Preface

    This Occasional Paper undertakes a comprehensive review of China’s reform experience since 1978. It identifies special conditions that may have affected China’s capacity to implement reforms and draws implications for the direction of China’s future reform strategy.

    It is based on research papers prepared by the authors during 1992–93. Michael Bell, Hoe Ee Khor, Kalpana Kochhar, and Simon N’guiamba are all staff members of the IMF’s Central Asia Department; Rajiv Lall is a staff member of the World Bank; and Jun Ma was a summer intern in 1992. Ms. Kochhar and Messrs. Bell and Khor integrated the material. A major part of the work on regional policies, including the statistical analyses, was carried out by Mr. Ma, while Mr. Lall and Mr. N’guiamba contributed material on the nonstate sector and China’s integration into the global economy, respectively. The authors would like to thank Yusuke Horiguchi, Ichiro Otani, and Douglas Scott for valuable comments and support, and Viola Chou for research assistance. Esha Ray and Elin Knotter of the External Relations Department edited the manuscript and coordinated production of the publication.

    The opinions expressed in the paper are those of the authors and should not be construed as representing the views of the IMF, its Executive Directors, or the Chinese authorities.

    List of Abbreviations for China’s Provinces, Municipalities, and Autonomous Regions

    AH

    Anhui1

    BJ

    Beijing1

    FJ

    Fujian2

    GD

    Guangdong2

    GS

    Gansu1

    GX

    Guangxi2

    GZ

    Guizhou1

    HA

    Hainan2

    HB

    Hubei1

    HE

    Henan1

    HI

    Hebei2

    HL

    Heilongjiang3

    HN

    Hunan1

    JL

    Jilin3

    JS

    Jiangsu2

    JX

    Jiangxi1

    LN

    Liaoning2

    NM

    Inner Mongolia3

    NX

    Ningxia1

    QH

    Qinghai1

    SA

    Shaanxi1

    SC

    Sichuan1

    SD

    Shandong2

    SH

    Shanghai2

    SX

    Shanxi1

    TJ

    Tianjin2

    XJ

    Xinjiang3

    XZ

    Tibet3

    YN

    Yunnan3

    ZJ

    Zhejiang2

    Notes

    Inland.

    Coastal.

    Border.

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