- Desmond Lachman, Ramana Ramaswamy, J. Green, Robert Hagemann, and Adam Bennett
- Published Date:
- October 1995
© 1995 International Monetary Fund
Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data
Challenges to the Swedish welfare state / Desmond Lachman . . . [et al.].
p. cm. —(Occasional Paper, ISSN 0251-6365 ; no. 130)
Includes bibliographical references.
1. Public welfare—Sweden. 2. Sweden—Economic conditions. 3. Sweden—Social policy. I. Lachman, Desmond. II. Series: Occasional paper (International Monetary Fund) ; no. 130.
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John H. Green
The following symbols have been used throughout this paper:
… to indicate that data are not available;
—to indicate that the figure is zero or less than half the final digit shown, or that the item does not exist;
–between years or months (e.g., 1991-92 or January-June) to indicate the years or months covered, including the beginning and ending years or months;
/ between years (e.g., 1991/92) to indicate a crop or fiscal (financial) year.
“Billion” means a thousand million.
Minor discrepancies between constituent figures and totals are due to rounding.
The term “country,” as used in this paper, does not in all cases refer to a territorial entity that is a state as understood by international law and practice; the term also covers some territorial entities that are not states, but for which statistical data are maintained and provided internationally on a separate and independent basis.
This Occasional Paper is based on background papers prepared by the Fund staff for the 1994 Article IV consultation with Sweden. While the papers focus mainly on developments in recent years, these developments are reviewed in a longer-term perspective, and provide an overview of the main challenges confronting the welfare state in Sweden. The papers in this volume have benefited substantially from extensive discussions held with Swedish officials of both the central bank and the Ministry of Finance. Their assistance in providing data and background material were crucial inputs for the papers.
A number of individuals assisted in the production of this Occasional Paper. The authors would particularly like to single out Fritz Pierre-Louis, whose excellent research assistance proved invaluable in producing this document. The authors would also like to thank Carole Dunne and Jean Curtis for secretarial assistance in preparing the manuscript for publication. Esha Ray of the External Relations Department edited the paper for publication and coordinated its production.
The views expressed here, as well as any errors, are the sole responsibility of the authors, and do not reflect the opinions of the Swedish Government, the Executive Directors of the IMF, or other members of the IMF staff.
The papers mainly reflect information available through December 1994. However, in light of recent fiscal policy developments, the section on public finances has been updated to reflect the April 1995 Supplementary Budget and the convergence plan presented to the European Union in June 1995.