- G. Johnson, and Richard Abrams
- Published Date:
- March 1983
Reprinted December 1983
International Standard Serial Number: ISSN 0251-6365
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External Relations Department, Attention Publications
International Monetary Fund, Washington, D.C. 20431
The following symbols have been used throughout this paper:
… to indicate that data are not available;
— to indicate that the figure is zero or less than half the final digit shown, or that the item does not exist;
– between years or months (e.g., 1979–81 or January–June) to indicate the years or months covered, including the beginning and ending years or months;
/ between years (e.g., 1980/81) to indicate a crop or fiscal (financial) year.
“Billion” means a thousand million.
Minor discrepancies between constituent figures and totals are due to rounding.
This study was prepared in the Exchange and Trade Relations Department of the International Monetary Fund under the general supervision of Richard C. Williams, Assistant Director in charge of the International Capital Markets Division. Richard K. Abrams played a major role in assembling background material for the paper and was responsible for preparing the two appendices. Can Demir provided research assistance. Helpful comments were received from a number of colleagues in the Fund. The authors also benefited from background discussions with commercial bankers and bank supervisory authorities in a number of countries in the course of their work in the Fund on international capital markets. The views expressed in this paper, however, are solely those of the authors and do not necessarily represent the views of the Fund.