- R. Johnston, Piroska Nagy, Roy Pepper, Mauro Mecagni, Ratna Sahay, Mario Bléjer, and Richard Hides
- Published Date:
- June 1992
© 1992 International Monetary Fund
Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data
Albania, from isolation toward reform / Mario I. Blejer … [et al.].
p. cm.—(Occasional paper / International Monetary Fund,
ISSN 0251-6365; 98)
Includes bibliographical references (p.).
1. Albania—Economic conditions. 2. Albania—Economic policy.
I. Blejer, Mario I. II. Series: Occasional paper (International Monetary Fund); no. 98.
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Output, Income, and Expenditure
The following symbols have been used throughout this paper:
… to indicate that data are not available;
— to indicate that the figure is zero or less than half the final digit shown, or that the item does not exist;
– between years or months (e.g., 1991-92 or January-June) to indicate the years or months covered, including the beginning and ending years or months;
/ between years (e.g., 1991/92) to indicate a crop or fiscal (financial) year.
“Billion” means a thousand million.
Minor discrepancies between constituent figures and totals are due to rounding.
The term “country,” as used in this paper, does not in all cases refer to a territorial entity that is a state as understood by international law and practice; the term also covers some territorial entities that are not states, but for which statistical data are maintained and provided internationally on a separate and independent basis.
This paper is based on a report prepared by Mario Blejer (World Bank), Mauro Mecagni, Ratna Sahay (all Eastern European Division, European I Department), Richard Hides (Statistics Department), Barry Johnston (Policy Development and Review Department), Piroska Nagy (Central Division, European II Department), and Roy Pepper (World Bank) in connection with the application of Albania for membership in the IMF. Any opinions expressed are those of the authors and should not be construed as reflecting the views of the Albanian authorities, Executive Directors of the IMF, or other IMF staff members. The authors bear the sole responsibility for any errors.
The authors gratefully acknowledge the assistance enthusiastically extended by the many Albanian officials with whom they worked during several visits to Tirana. They are grateful to Samir Fawzi, Kenneth Friedman, Joshua Greene, Aarno Liuksila, Orlando Roncesvalles, and Mohammad Shadman-Valavi who, as part of the Albanian team, also contributed to this study. Thanks are also due to Manuel Guitian and Anoop Singh for their comments, to Anne Williams, Divina Tenorio, and Nahid Mejid for secretarial support, and to Barbara Kaminska for research assistance. The paper was edited by Elin Knotter of the External Relations Department.