- International Monetary Fund
- Published Date:
- January 1992
© 1992 International Monetary Fund
Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data
Issues and developments in international trade policy / by a staff team led by Margaret Kelly and Anne Kenny McGuirk: Peter Winglee … [et al.].
p. cm. — (World economic and financial surveys)
Includes bibliographical references.
1. Commercial policy.2. International trade. I. Kelly. Margaret. II. McGuirk. Anne Kenney. III. Winglee, Peter IV. Series
HF1411.184 1992 92-28466
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The following symbols have been used throughout this paper:
… to indicate that data are not available:
— to indicate that the figure is zero or less than half the final digit shown, or that the item does not exist;
– between years or months (e.g., 1990–91 or January–June) to indicate the years or months covered, including the beginning and ending years or months;
/ between years (e.g., 1990/91) to indicate a crop or fiscal (financial) year.
“Billion” means a thousand million.
Minor discrepancies between constituent figures and totals are due to rounding.
The term “country” used in this study does not in all cases refer to a territorial entity that is a state as understood by international law and practice. The term also covers some territorial entities that are not states, but for which statistical data are maintained and provided internationally on a separate and independent basis.
This study was prepared in the Trade and Payments Division of the Exchange and Trade Relations Department of the International Monetary Fund. Its authors are Margaret Kelly, Division Chief; Anne McGuirk, Deputy Division Chief; Peter Winglee, Senior Economist; Clemens Boonekamp, Senior Economist (Geneva Office); Yoon Je Cho and Bernhard Fritz-Krockow, Economists; and Peter Uimonen, Research Assistant.
To obtain information and collect views for this paper, staff teams held discussions with trade and economics officials in Bonn, Brussels (the Commission of the European Communities), Canberra, London, Ottawa, Paris, Seoul, Tokyo, Washington, and Wellington. In addition, a staff team visited Geneva and Paris for discussions with GATT and OECD officials. Staff members of the Western Hemisphere Department participated in the discussions held in Ottawa and Washington. Staff members of the European Department participated in the discussions in Brussels, Canberra, Paris, and Wellington, and staff members of the Asian Department participated in the discussions in Seoul and Tokyo. While in Europe, the staff team was assisted by the Fund Office in Europe and the Fund Office in Geneva.
The study reviews major issues and developments in the trade area and outlines the challenges governments face as they seek to liberalize trade in the Uruguay Round of trade negotiations and address “new” trade issues. The coverage of the study is through October 1991 and, as a result, does not reflect subsequent developments, most notably in Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union. It follows the pattern of the Fund staff surveys prepared in 1978, 1981, 1982, 1985, and 1988.1
The authors are indebted to a number of colleagues, both in the Fund and in other national and international agencies, for their willingness to exchange views and provide information. The authors are grateful to Joslin Landell-Mills for her assistance in preparing the study from a longer manuscript; to the editor Juanita Roushdy of the External Relations Department; to Christine Hörbinger for research assistance, and to Marcela Toso and Elizabeth Mack for keyboarding. The authors alone are responsible for the study; any opinions expressed are theirs and do not necessarily reflect the views of the Fund.