- International Monetary Fund
- Published Date:
- January 1998
© 1997 International Monetary Fund
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The following symbols have been used throughout this volume:
… to indicate that data are not available:
— to indicate that the figure is zero or less than half the final digit shown, or that the item does not exist:
– between years or months (for example, 1995–96 or January–June) to indicate the years or months covered, including the beginning and ending years or months:
/ between years (for example, 1995/96) to indicate a fiscal or financial year.
“Billion” means a thousand million: “trillion” means a thousand billion.
“Basis points” refer to hundredths of 1 percentage point (for example, 25 basis points are equivalent to ¼ of 1 percentage point).
“n.a.” means not applicable.
Minor discrepancies between constituent figures and totals are due to rounding.
As used in this volume the term “country” does not in all cases refer to a territorial entity that is a state as understood by international law and practice. As used here, the term also covers some territorial entities that are not states but for which statistical data are maintained on a separate and independent basis.
Staff Studies for the World Economic Outlook contains background analyses for the World Economic Outlook exercise carried out by staff in the Internationa! Monetary Fund’s Research Department and by visiting scholars. The World Economic Outlook project is directed by Hemming Larsen, Deputy Director of the Research Department, together with Graham Hacche, Chief of the World Economic Studies Division.
The papers have benefited from comments by colleagues throughout the IMF and, in some cases, by the IMF’s Executive Directors. However, the views presented in the papers are those of the authors and should not be interpreted as representing the views of the International Monetary Fund. The authors would like to thank Gretchen Gallik, Mandy Hemmati, Toh Kuan, and Michelle Marquardt for research assistance and Susan Duff, Caroline Bagworth, and Margaret Dapaah for word processing. Esha Ray of the External Relations Department edited the manuscripts and coordinated production of the publication.