Chapter

Statistical Appendix

Author(s):
International Monetary Fund. Research Dept.
Published Date:
April 2017
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The Statistical Appendix presents historical data as well as projections. It comprises seven sections: Assumptions, What’s New, Data and Conventions, Country Notes, Classification of Countries, Key Data Documentation, and Statistical Tables.

The assumptions underlying the estimates and projections for 2017–18 and the medium-term scenario for 2019–22 are summarized in the first section. The second section presents a brief description of the changes to the database and statistical tables since the October 2016 World Economic Outlook (WEO). The third section provides a general description of the data and the conventions used for calculating country group composites. The fourth section summarizes selected key information for each country. The classification of countries in the various groups presented in the WEO is summarized in the fifth section. The sixth section provides information on methods and reporting standards for the member countries’ national account and government finance indicators included in the report.

The last, and main, section comprises the statistical tables. (Statistical Appendix A is included here; Statistical Appendix B is available online.) Data in these tables have been compiled on the basis of information available through April 3, 2017. The figures for 2017 and beyond are shown with the same degree of precision as the historical figures solely for convenience; because they are projections, the same degree of accuracy is not to be inferred.

Assumptions

Real effective exchange rates for the advanced economies are assumed to remain constant at their average levels measured during the period February 1 to March 1, 2017. For 2017 and 2018, these assumptions imply average U.S. dollar–special drawing right (SDR) conversion rates of 1.353 and 1.351, U.S. dollar–euro conversion rates of 1.062 and 1.059, and yen–U.S. dollar conversion rates of 112.8 and 111.7, respectively.

It is assumed that the price of oil will average $55.23 a barrel in 2017 and $55.06 a barrel in 2018.

Established policies of national authorities are assumed to be maintained. The more specific policy assumptions underlying the projections for selected economies are described in Box A1.

With regard to interest rates, it is assumed that the London interbank offered rate (LIBOR) on six-month U.S. dollar deposits will average 1.7 percent in 2017 and 2.8 percent in 2018, that three-month euro deposits will average −0.3 percent in 2017 and −0.2 percent in 2018, and that six-month yen deposits will average 0.0 percent in 2017 and 2018, respectively.

As a reminder, with respect to introduction of the euro, on December 31, 1998, the Council of the European Union decided that, effective January 1, 1999, the irrevocably fixed conversion rates between the euro and currencies of the member countries adopting the euro are as follows:

1 euro= 13.7603Austrian schillings
= 40.3399Belgian francs
= 0.585274Cyprus pound1
= 1.95583Deutsche marks
= 15.6466Estonian krooni2
= 5.94573Finnish markkaa
= 6.55957French francs
= 340.750Greek drachmas3
= 0.787564Irish pound
= 1,936.27Italian lire
= 0.702804Latvian lat4
= 3.45280Lithuanian litas5
= 40.3399Luxembourg francs
= 0.42930Maltese lira1
= 2.20371Netherlands guilders
= 200.482Portuguese escudos
= 30.1260Slovak koruna6
= 239.640Slovenian tolars7
= 166.386Spanish pesetas

Established on January 1, 2008.

Established on January 1, 2011.

Established on January 1, 2001.

Established on January 1, 2014.

Established on January 1, 2015.

Established on January 1, 2009.

Established on January 1, 2007.

See Box 5.4 of the October 1998 WEO for details on how the conversion rates were established.

What’s New

  • On October 1, 2016, the Chinese renminbi joined the U.S. dollar, euro, yen, and British pound in the IMF’s SDR basket.

  • Nauru is the latest country added to the WEO database, expanding it to a total of 192 countries.

  • Belarus redenominated its currency by replacing 10,000 old Belarusian rubles with 1 new Belarusian ruble. Local currency data for Belarus are expressed in the new currency starting with the April 2017 WEO database.

Data and Conventions

Data and projections for 192 economies form the statistical basis of the WEO database. The data are maintained jointly by the IMF’s Research Department and regional departments, with the latter regularly updating country projections based on consistent global assumptions.

Although national statistical agencies are the ultimate providers of historical data and definitions, international organizations are also involved in statistical issues, with the objective of harmonizing methodologies for the compilation of national statistics, including analytical frameworks, concepts, definitions, classifications, and valuation procedures used in the production of economic statistics. The WEO database reflects information from both national source agencies and international organizations.

Most countries’ macroeconomic data presented in the WEO conform broadly to the 1993 version of the System of National Accounts (SNA). The IMF’s sector statistical standards—the sixth edition of the Balance of Payments and International Investment Position Manual (BPM6), the Monetary and Financial Statistics Manual (MFSM 2000), and the Government Finance Statistics Manual 2014 (GFSM 2014)—have been or are being aligned with the SNA 2008. These standards reflect the IMF’s special interest in countries’ external positions, financial sector stability, and public sector fiscal positions. The process of adapting country data to the new standards begins in earnest when the manuals are released. However, full concordance with the manuals is ultimately dependent on the provision by national statistical compilers of revised country data; hence, the WEO estimates are only partially adapted to these manuals. Nonetheless, for many countries the impact, on major balances and aggregates, of conversion to the updated standards will be small. Many other countries have partially adopted the latest standards and will continue implementation over a period of years.1

Composite data for country groups in the WEO are either sums or weighted averages of data for individual countries. Unless noted otherwise, multiyear averages of growth rates are expressed as compound annual rates of change.2 Arithmetically weighted averages are used for all data for the emerging market and developing economies group except data on inflation and money growth, for which geometric averages are used. The following conventions apply:

  • Country group composites for exchange rates, interest rates, and growth rates of monetary aggregates are weighted by GDP converted to U.S. dollars at market exchange rates (averaged over the preceding three years) as a share of group GDP.

  • Composites for other data relating to the domestic economy, whether growth rates or ratios, are weighted by GDP valued at purchasing power parity as a share of total world or group GDP.3

  • Unless noted otherwise, composites for all sectors for the euro area are corrected for reporting discrepancies in intra-area transactions. Annual data are not adjusted for calendar-day effects. For data prior to 1999, data aggregations apply 1995 European currency unit exchange rates.

  • Composites for fiscal data are sums of individual country data after conversion to U.S. dollars at the average market exchange rates in the years indicated.

  • Composite unemployment rates and employment growth are weighted by labor force as a share of group labor force.

  • Composites relating to external sector statistics are sums of individual country data after conversion to U.S. dollars at the average market exchange rates in the years indicated for balance of payments data and at end-of-year market exchange rates for debt denominated in currencies other than U.S. dollars.

  • Composites of changes in foreign trade volumes and prices, however, are arithmetic averages of percent changes for individual countries weighted by the U.S. dollar value of exports or imports as a share of total world or group exports or imports (in the preceding year).

  • Unless noted otherwise, group composites are computed if 90 percent or more of the share of group weights is represented.

  • Data refer to calendar years, except in the case of a few countries that use fiscal years. Please refer to Table F, which lists the economies with exceptional reporting periods for national accounts and government finance data for each country.

For some countries, the figures for 2016 and earlier are based on estimates rather than actual outturns. Please refer to Table G, which lists the latest actual outturns for the indicators in the national accounts, prices, government finance, and balance of payments indicators for each country.

Country Notes

  • The consumer price data for Argentina before December 2013 reflect the consumer price index (CPI) for the Greater Buenos Aires Area (CPI-GBA), while from December 2013 to October 2015 the data reflect the national CPI (IPCNu). The new government that took office in December 2015 discontinued the IPCNu, stating that it was flawed, and released a new CPI for the Greater Buenos Aires Area on June 15, 2016. At its November 9, 2016, meeting, the IMF Executive Board considered the new CPI series to be in line with international standards and lifted the declaration of censure issued in 2013. Given the differences in geographical coverage, weights, sampling, and methodology of these series, the average CPI inflation for 2014, 2015, and 2016 and end-of-period inflation for 2015 and 2016 are not reported in the April 2017 World Economic Outlook.

  • Argentina’s authorities discontinued the publication of labor market data in December 2015 and released new series starting in the second quarter of 2016.

  • Argentina’s and Venezuela’s consumer prices are excluded from all WEO group aggregates.

  • Greece’s primary balance estimates for 2016 are based on preliminary data provided by the Ministry of Finance as of February 15 and are subject to change once data on an accrual basis (ESA 2010) become available on April 21. Medium-term fiscal projections reflect the IMF staff’s assessment based on currently legislated fiscal policies.

  • India’s growth rates of real GDP calculated from 1998 to 2011 are as per national accounts with base year 2004/05, and thereafter are as per national accounts with base year 2011/12.

  • Against the background of a civil war and weak capacities, the reliability of Libya’s data, especially medium-term projections, is low.

  • Data for Syria are excluded from 2011 onward because of the uncertain political situation.

  • Projecting the economic outlook in Venezuela, including assessing past and current economic developments as the basis for the projections, is complicated by the lack of discussions with the authorities (the last Article IV consultation took place in 2004), long intervals in receiving data with information gaps, incomplete provision of information, and difficulties in interpreting certain reported economic indicators in line with economic developments. The fiscal accounts include the budgetary central government and Petróleos de Venezuela, S.A. (PDVSA), and the fiscal accounts data for 2016–22 are IMF staff estimates. Revenue includes the IMF staff’s estimated foreign exchange profits transferred from the central bank to the government (buying U.S. dollars at the most appreciated rate and selling at more depreciated rates in a multitier exchange rate system) and excludes the staff’s estimated revenue from PDVSA’s sale of PetroCaribe assets to the central bank. Fiscal accounts for 2010–22 correspond to the budgetary central government and PDVSA. Fiscal accounts before 2010 correspond to the budgetary central government, public enterprises (including PDVSA), Instituto Venezolano de los Seguros Sociales (IVSS—social security), and Fondo de Garantía de Depósitos y Protección Bancaria (FOGADE—deposit insurance).

Classification of Countries

Summary of the Country Classification

The country classification in the WEO divides the world into two major groups: advanced economies and emerging market and developing economies.4 This classification is not based on strict criteria, economic or otherwise, and it has evolved over time. The objective is to facilitate analysis by providing a reasonably meaningful method of organizing data. Table A provides an overview of the country classification, showing the number of countries in each group by region and summarizing some key indicators of their relative size (GDP valued at purchasing power parity, total exports of goods and services, and population).

Table A.Classification by World Economic Outlook Groups and Their Shares in Aggregate GDP, Exports of Goods and Services, and Population, 20161(Percent of total for group or world)
GDPExports of Goods and ServicesPopulation
Number of EconomiesAdvanced EconomiesWorldAdvanced EconomiesWorldAdvanced EconomiesWorld
Advanced Economies39100.041.9100.064.4100.014.5
United States37.015.516.810.830.54.4
Euro Area1928.111.840.926.331.94.6
Germany7.93.312.17.87.81.1
France5.42.35.53.56.10.9
Italy4.41.94.22.75.70.8
Spain3.41.43.12.04.40.6
Japan10.44.46.13.912.01.7
United Kingdom5.52.35.63.66.20.9
Canada3.41.43.62.33.40.5
Other Advanced Economies1615.66.527.017.416.02.3
Memorandum
Major Advanced Economies774.131.053.934.771.710.4
Emerging Market and Developing EconomiesWorldEmerging Market and Developing EconomiesWorldEmerging Market and Developing EconomiesWorld
Emerging Market and Developing Economies153100.058.1100.035.6100.085.5
Regional Groups
Commonwealth of Independent States2127.74.56.92.44.63.9
Russia5.53.24.51.62.32.0
Emerging and Developing Asia3054.431.650.217.957.048.7
China30.617.830.110.722.219.0
India12.47.26.02.121.017.9
Excluding China and India2811.46.614.15.013.811.8
Emerging and Developing Europe126.13.59.93.52.82.4
Latin America and the Caribbean3213.57.914.25.09.88.4
Brazil4.52.63.01.13.32.8
Mexico3.31.95.51.92.01.7
Middle East, North Africa, Afghanistan, and
Pakistan2213.17.614.55.210.79.1
Middle East and North Africa2011.66.714.25.07.06.0
Sub-Saharan Africa455.23.04.31.515.213.0
Excluding Nigeria and South Africa432.61.52.60.911.39.7
Analytical Groups3
By Source of Export Earnings
Fuel2919.411.320.67.312.410.6
Nonfuel12380.646.879.428.387.674.8
Of Which, Primary Products304.52.64.71.77.76.6
By External Financing Source
Net Debtor Economies12049.929.046.516.667.357.5
Net Debtor Economies by Debt-Servicing Experience
Economies with Arrears and/or Rescheduling
during 2011–15243.21.82.00.75.34.6
Other Groups
Heavily Indebted Poor Countries382.41.41.90.711.49.7
Low-Income Developing Countries597.34.26.72.422.719.4

The GDP shares are based on the purchasing-power-parity valuation of economies’ GDP. The number of economies comprising each group reflects those for which data are included in the group aggregates.

Georgia, Turkmenistan, and Ukraine, which are not members of the Commonwealth of Independent States, are included in this group for reasons of geography and similarity in economic structure.

Syria is omitted from the source of export earnings and South Sudan and Syria are omitted from the net external position group composites because of insufficient data.

Some countries remain outside the country classification and therefore are not included in the analysis. Anguilla, Cuba, the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea, and Montserrat are examples of countries that are not IMF members, and their economies therefore are not monitored by the IMF. Somalia is omitted from the emerging market and developing economies group composites because of data limitations.

General Features and Composition of Groups in the World Economic Outlook Classification

Advanced Economies

The 39 advanced economies are listed in Table B. The seven largest in terms of GDP based on market exchange rates—the United States, Japan, Germany, France, Italy, the United Kingdom, and Canada—constitute the subgroup of major advanced economies often referred to as the Group of Seven (G7). The members of the euro area are also distinguished as a subgroup. Composite data shown in the tables for the euro area cover the current members for all years, even though the membership has increased over time.

Table B.Advanced Economies by Subgroup
Major Currency Areas
United States
Euro Area
Japan
Euro Area
AustriaGreeceNetherlands
BelgiumIrelandPortugal
CyprusItalySlovak Republic
EstoniaLatviaSlovenia
FinlandLithuaniaSpain
FranceLuxembourg
GermanyMalta
Major Advanced Economies
CanadaItalyUnited States
FranceJapan
GermanyUnited Kingdom
Other Advanced Economies
AustraliaKoreaSingapore
Czech RepublicMacao SAR2Sweden
DenmarkNew ZealandSwitzerland
Hong Kong SAR1NorwayTaiwan Province of China
IcelandPuerto Rico
IsraelSan Marino

On July 1, 1997, Hong Kong was returned to the People’s Republic of China and became a Special Administrative Region of China.

On December 20, 1999, Macao was returned to the People’s Republic of China and became a Special Administrative Region of China.

Table C lists the member countries of the European Union, not all of which are classified as advanced economies in the WEO.

Table C.European Union
AustriaGermanyPoland
BelgiumGreecePortugal
BulgariaHungaryRomania
CroatiaIrelandSlovak Republic
CyprusItalySlovenia
Czech RepublicLatviaSpain
DenmarkLithuaniaSweden
EstoniaLuxembourgUnited Kingdom
FinlandMalta
FranceNetherlands

Emerging Market and Developing Economies

The group of emerging market and developing economies (153) includes all those that are not classified as advanced economies.

The regional breakdowns of emerging market and developing economies are Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), emerging and developing Asia, emerging and developing Europe (sometimes also referred to as “central and eastern Europe”), Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC), the Middle East, North Africa, Afghanistan, and Pakistan (MENAP), and sub-Saharan Africa (SSA).

Emerging market and developing economies are also classified according to analytical criteria. The analytical criteria reflect the composition of export earnings and a distinction between net creditor and net debtor economies. The detailed composition of emerging market and developing economies in the regional and analytical groups is shown in Tables D and E.

Table D.Emerging Market and Developing Economies by Region and Main Source of Export Earnings
FuelNonfuel Primary Products
Commonwealth of Independent States
AzerbaijanUzbekistan
Kazakhstan
Russia
Turkmenistan1
Emerging and Developing Asia
Brunei DarussalamMarshall Islands
Timor-LesteMongolia
Papua New Guinea
Solomon Islands
Tuvalu
Latin America and the Caribbean
BoliviaArgentina
ColombiaChile
EcuadorGuyana
Trinidad and TobagoHonduras
VenezuelaParaguay
Suriname
Uruguay
Middle East, North Africa, Afghanistan, and Pakistan
AlgeriaAfghanistan
BahrainMauritania
IranSudan
Iraq
Kuwait
Libya
Oman
Qatar
Saudi Arabia
United Arab Emirates
Yemen
Sub-Saharan Africa
AngolaBurkina Faso
ChadBurundi
Republic of CongoCentral African Republic
Equatorial GuineaDemocratic Republic of the Congo
GabonCôte d’Ivoire
NigeriaEritrea
South SudanGuinea
Guinea-Bissau
Liberia
Malawi
Mali
Sierra Leone
South Africa
Zambia

Turkmenistan, which is not a member of the Commonwealth of Independent States, is included in this group for reasons of geography and similarity in economic structure.

Table E.Emerging Market and Developing Economies by Region, Net External Position, and Status as Heavily Indebted Poor Countries and Low-Income Developing Countries
Net External Position1Heavily Indebted Poor Countries2Low-Income Developing Countries
Commonwealth of Independent States
Armenia*
Azerbaijan
Belarus*
Georgia3*
Kazakhstan*
Kyrgyz Republic**
Moldova**
Russia
Tajikistan**
Turkmenistan3*
Ukraine3*
Uzbekistan*
Emerging and Developing Asia
Bangladesh**
Bhutan**
Brunei Darussalam
Cambodia**
China
Fiji*
India*
Indonesia*
Kiribati*
Lao P.D.R.**
Malaysia
Maldives*
Marshall Islands*
Micronesia
Mongolia**
Myanmar**
Nauru*
Nepal*
Palau
Papua New Guinea**
Philippines*
Samoa*
Solomon Islands**
Sri Lanka*
Thailand*
Timor-Leste
Tonga*
Tuvalu*
Vanuatu*
Vietnam**
Emerging and Developing Europe
Albania*
Bosnia and Herzegovina*
Bulgaria*
Croatia*
Hungary*
Kosovo*
FYR Macedonia*
Montenegro*
Poland*
Romania*
Serbia*
Turkey*
Latin America and the Caribbean
Antigua and Barbuda*
Argentina
The Bahamas*
Barbados*
Belize*
Bolivia*
Brazil*
Chile*
Colombia*
Costa Rica*
Dominica*
Dominican Republic*
Ecuador*
El Salvador*
Grenada*
Guatemala*
Guyana*
Haiti**
Honduras**
Jamaica*
Mexico*
Nicaragua**
Panama*
Paraguay*
Peru*
St. Kitts and Nevis*
St. Lucia*
St. Vincent and the Grenadines*
Suriname*
Trinidad and Tobago
Uruguay*
Venezuela
Middle East, North Africa, Afghanistan, and Pakistan
Afghanistan*
Algeria
Bahrain
Djibouti**
Egypt*
Iran
Iraq
Jordan*
Kuwait
Lebanon*
Libya
Mauritania**
Morocco*
Oman
Pakistan*
Qatar
Saudi Arabia
Sudan***
Syria4. . .
Tunisia*
United Arab Emirates
Yemen**
Sub-Saharan Africa
Angola*
Benin**
Botswana
Burkina Faso**
Burundi**
Cabo Verde*
Cameroon**
Central African Republic**
Chad**
Comoros**
Democratic Republic of the Congo**
Republic of Congo**
Côte d’Ivoire**
Equatorial Guinea
Eritrea***
Ethiopia**
Gabon
The Gambia**
Ghana**
Guinea**
Guinea-Bissau**
Kenya**
Lesotho**
Liberia**
Madagascar**
Malawi**
Mali**
Mauritius
Mozambique**
Namibia*
Niger**
Nigeria**
Rwanda**
São Tomé and Príncipe**
Senegal**
Seychelles*
Sierra Leone**
South Africa
South Sudan4. . .*
Swaziland*
Tanzania**
Togo**
Uganda**
Zambia**
Zimbabwe**

Dot (star) indicates that the country is a net creditor (net debtor).

Dot instead of star indicates that the country has reached the completion point, which allows it to receive the full debt relief committed to at the decision point.

Georgia, Turkmenistan, and Ukraine, which are not members of the Commonwealth of Independent States, are included in this group for reasons of geography and similarity in economic structure.

South Sudan and Syria are omitted from the net external position group composite for lack of a fully developed database.

Table F.Economies with Exceptional Reporting Periods1
National AccountsGovernment Finance
The BahamasJul/Jun
BangladeshJul/Jun
BarbadosApr/Mar
BelizeApr/Mar
BhutanJul/JunJul/Jun
BotswanaApr/Mar
DominicaJul/Jun
EgyptJul/JunJul/Jun
EthiopiaJul/JunJul/Jun
HaitiOct/SepOct/Sep
Hong Kong SARApr/Mar
IndiaApr/MarApr/Mar
IranApr/MarApr/Mar
JamaicaApr/Mar
Lao P.D.R.Oct/Sep
LesothoApr/Mar
MalawiJul/Jun
Marshall IslandsOct/SepOct/Sep
MicronesiaOct/SepOct/Sep
MyanmarApr/MarApr/Mar
NamibiaApr/Mar
NauruJul/JunJul/Jun
NepalAug/JulAug/Jul
PakistanJul/JunJul/Jun
PalauOct/SepOct/Sep
Puerto RicoJul/JunJul/Jun
St. LuciaApr/Mar
SamoaJul/JunJul/Jun
SingaporeApr/Mar
SwazilandApr/Mar
ThailandOct/Sep
Trinidad and TobagoOct/Sep

Unless noted otherwise, all data refer to calendar years.

Table G.Key Data Documentation
National AccountsPrices (CPI)
CountryCurrencyHistorical Data Source1Latest Actual Annual DataBase Year2System of National AccountsUse of Chain-Weighted Methodology3Historical Data Source1Latest Actual Annual Data
AfghanistanAfghan afghaniNSO20142002/03SNA 1993NSO2015
AlbaniaAlbanian lekIMF staff20151996SNA 1993From 1996NSO2016
AlgeriaAlgerian dinarNSO20152001SNA 1993From 2005NSO2016
AngolaAngolan kwanzaMEP20152002ESA 1995NSO2015
Antigua and BarbudaEastern Caribbean dollarCB201620066SNA 1993NSO2016
ArgentinaArgentine pesoNSO20162004SNA 2008NSO2016
ArmeniaArmenian dramNSO20152005SNA 2008NSO2015
AustraliaAustralian dollarNSO20162014/15SNA 2008From 1980NSO2016
AustriaEuroNSO20162010ESA 2010From 1995NSO2016
AzerbaijanAzerbaijan manatNSO20162003SNA 1993From 1994NSO2015
The BahamasBahamian dollarNSO20152006SNA 1993NSO2015
BahrainBahrain dinarMoF20152010SNA 2008NSO2015
BangladeshBangladesh takaNSO20152005SNA 1993NSO2015
BarbadosBarbados dollarNSO and CB201419746SNA 1993NSO2015
BelarusBelarusian rubleNSO20152014SNA 2008From 2005NSO2015
BelgiumEuroCB20152014ESA 2010From 1995CB2015
BelizeBelize dollarNSO20152000SNA 1993NSO2015
BeninCFA francNSO20152007SNA 1993NSO2016
BhutanBhutanese ngultrumNSO2015/1620006SNA 1993CB2015/16
BoliviaBolivian bolivianoNSO20151990OtherNSO2016
Bosnia and HerzegovinaBosnia convertible markaNSO20152010ESA 2010From 2000NSO2015
BotswanaBotswana pulaNSO20152006SNA 1993NSO2016
BrazilBrazilian realNSO20161995SNA 2008NSO2016
Brunei DarussalamBrunei dollarNSO and GAD20152010SNA 1993NSO and GAD2016
BulgariaBulgarian levNSO20162010ESA 2010From 1996NSO2016
Burkina FasoCFA francNSO and MEP20141999SNA 1993NSO2015
BurundiBurundi francNSO20152005SNA 1993NSO2015
Cabo VerdeCabo Verdean escudoNSO20152007SNA 2008From 2011NSO2015
CambodiaCambodian rielNSO20132000SNA 1993NSO2014
CameroonCFA francNSO20142000SNA 1993NSO2014
CanadaCanadian dollarNSO20162007SNA 2008From 1980NSO2016
Central African RepublicCFA francNSO20122005SNA 1993NSO2015
ChadCFA francCB20152005OtherNSO2015
ChileChilean pesoCB201620136SNA 2008From 2003NSO2016
ChinaChinese yuanNSO20162015SNA 2008NSO2016
ColombiaColombian pesoNSO20162005OtherFrom 2000NSO2016
ComorosComorian francMEP20152000OtherNSO2015
Democratic Republic of the CongoCongolese francNSO20152005SNA 1993CB2015
Republic of CongoCFA francNSO20141990SNA 1993NSO2014
Costa RicaCosta Rican colónCB20152012SNA 2008CB2016
Note: BPM = Balance of Payments Manual; CPI = consumer price index; ESA = European System of National Accounts; SNA = System of National Accounts.

CB = Central Bank; Customs = Customs Authority; GAD = General Administration Department; IEO = International Economic Organization; MEP = Ministry of Economy, Planning, Commerce, and/or Development; MoF = Ministry of Finance and/or Treasury; NSO = National Statistics Office; PFTAC = Pacific Financial Technical Assistance Centre.

National accounts base year is the period with which other periods are compared and the period for which prices appear in the denominators of the price relationships used to calculate the index.

Use of chain-weighted methodology allows countries to measure GDP growth more accurately by reducing or eliminating the downward biases in volume series built on index numbers that average volume components using weights from a year in the moderately distant past.

For some countries, the structures of government consist of a broader coverage than specified for the general government. Coverage: BCG = Budgetary Central Government; CG = Central Government; EUA = Extrabudgetary Units/Accounts; LG = Local Government; MPC = Monetary Public Corporation, including Central Bank; NFPC = Nonfinancial Public Corporations; NMPC = Nonmonetary Financial Public Corporations; SG = State Government; SS = Social Security Funds; TG = Territorial Governments.

Accounting Standard: A = Accrual accounting; C = Cash accounting; CB = Commitments basis accounting; Mixed = Combination of accrual and cash accounting.

Base year is not equal to 100 because the nominal GDP is not measured in the same way as real GDP or the data are seasonally adjusted.

Government FinanceBalance of Payments
CountryHistorical Data Source1Latest Actual Annual DataStatistics Manual in Use at SourceSubsectors Coverage4Accounting Practice5Historical Data Source1Latest Actual Annual DataStatistics Manual in Use at Source
AfghanistanMoF20142001CGCNSO, MoF, and CB2014BPM 5
AlbaniaIMF staff20151986CG,LG,SS,MPC, NFPCOtherCB2015BPM 6
AlgeriaMoF20161986CGCCB2016BPM 5
AngolaMoF20152001CG,LGOtherCB2015BPM 5
Antigua and BarbudaMoF20162001CGCCB2016BPM 5
ArgentinaMEP20161986CG,SG,LG,SSCNSO2016BPM 5
ArmeniaMoF20152001CGCCB2015BPM 6
AustraliaMoF2015/162001CG,SG,LG,TGANSO2016BPM 6
AustriaNSO20162001CG,SG,LG,SSACB2016BPM 6
AzerbaijanMoF2015OtherCGCCB2015BPM 5
The BahamasMoF2015/162001CGCCB2015BPM 5
BahrainMoF20152001CGCCB2015BPM 6
BangladeshMoF2014/15OtherCGCCB2015BPM 6
BarbadosMoF2015/161986CG,SS,NFPCCCB2015BPM 5
BelarusMoF20152001CG,LG,SSCCB2015BPM 6
BelgiumCB2015ESA 2010CG,SG,LG,SSACB2015BPM 6
BelizeMoF2015/161986CG,MPCMixedCB2015BPM 5
BeninMoF20161986CGCCB2015BPM 5
BhutanMoF2015/161986CGCCB2014/15BPM 6
BoliviaMoF20162001CG,LG,SS,NMPC, NFPCCCB2016BPM 5
Bosnia and HerzegovinaMoF20152001CG,SG,LG,SSMixedCB2015BPM 6
BotswanaMoF2015/161986CGCCB2015BPM 5
BrazilMoF20162001CG,SG,LG,SS, MPC,NFPCCCB2016BPM 6
Brunei DarussalamMoF2016OtherCG, BCGCNSO, MEP, and GAD2015BPM 6
BulgariaMoF20162001CG,LG,SSCCB2016BPM 6
Burkina FasoMoF20142001CGCBCB2014BPM 5
BurundiMoF20152001CGACB2015BPM 6
Cabo VerdeMoF20152001CG,SSANSO2015BPM 5
CambodiaMoF20141986CG,LGACB2014BPM 5
CameroonMoF20142001CG,NFPCCMoF2013BPM 5
CanadaMoF20162001CG,SG,LG,SSANSO2016BPM 6
Central African RepublicMoF20162001CGCCB2015BPM 5
ChadMoF20151986CG,NFPCCCB2015BPM 5
ChileMoF20152001CG,LGACB2015BPM 6
ChinaMoF20152001CG,LGCGAD2016BPM 6
ColombiaMoF20152001CG,SG,LG,SSOtherCB and NSO2015BPM 5
ComorosMoF20161986CGMixedCB and IMF staff2015BPM 5
Democratic Republic of the CongoMoF20152001CG,LGACB2015BPM 5
Republic of CongoMoF20142001CGACB2012BPM 5
Costa RicaMoF and CB20151986CGCCB2015BPM 6
Note: BPM = Balance of Payments Manual; CPI = consumer price index; ESA = European System of National Accounts; SNA = System of National Accounts.

CB = Central Bank; Customs = Customs Authority; GAD = General Administration Department; IEO = International Economic Organization; MEP = Ministry of Economy, Planning, Commerce, and/or Development; MoF = Ministry of Finance and/or Treasury; NSO = National Statistics Office; PFTAC = Pacific Financial Technical Assistance Centre.

National accounts base year is the period with which other periods are compared and the period for which prices appear in the denominators of the price relationships used to calculate the index.

Use of chain-weighted methodology allows countries to measure GDP growth more accurately by reducing or eliminating the downward biases in volume series built on index numbers that average volume components using weights from a year in the moderately distant past.

For some countries, the structures of government consist of a broader coverage than specified for the general government. Coverage: BCG = Budgetary Central Government; CG = Central Government; EUA = Extrabudgetary Units/Accounts; LG = Local Government; MPC = Monetary Public Corporation, including Central Bank; NFPC = Nonfinancial Public Corporations; NMPC = Nonmonetary Financial Public Corporations; SG = State Government; SS = Social Security Funds; TG = Territorial Governments.

Accounting Standard: A = Accrual accounting; C = Cash accounting; CB = Commitments basis accounting; Mixed = Combination of accrual and cash accounting.

Base year is not equal to 100 because the nominal GDP is not measured in the same way as real GDP or the data are seasonally adjusted.

National AccountsPrices (CPI)
CountryCurrencyHistorical Data Source1Latest Actual Annual DataBase Year2System of National AccountsUse of Chain-Weighted Methodology3Historical Data Source1Latest Actual Annual Data
Côte d’IvoireCFA francNSO20142009SNA 1993NSO2015
CroatiaCroatian kunaNSO20152010ESA 2010NSO2015
CyprusEuroNSO20162005ESA 2010From 1995NSO2016
Czech RepublicCzech korunaNSO20152010ESA 2010From 1995NSO2016
DenmarkDanish kroneNSO20152010ESA 2010From 1980NSO2016
DjiboutiDjibouti francNSO20141990OtherNSO2015
DominicaEastern Caribbean dollarNSO20152006SNA 1993NSO2015
Dominican RepublicDominican pesoCB20162007SNA 2008From 2007CB2016
EcuadorU.S. dollarCB20152007SNA 1993NSO and CB2016
EgyptEgyptian poundMEP2015/162011/12SNA 1993NSO2015/16
El SalvadorU.S. dollarCB20161990OtherNSO2016
Equatorial GuineaCFA francMEP and CB20142006SNA 1993MEP2016
EritreaEritrean nakfaIMF staff20062005SNA 1993NSO2009
EstoniaEuroNSO20162010ESA 2010From 2010NSO2016
EthiopiaEthiopian birrNSO2015/162010/11SNA 1993NSO2016
FijiFijian dollarNSO201520116SNA 1993/ 2008NSO2015
FinlandEuroNSO20162010ESA 2010From 1980NSO2016
FranceEuroNSO20162010ESA 2010From 1980NSO2016
GabonCFA francMoF20152001SNA 1993MoF2016
The GambiaGambian dalasiNSO20132004SNA 1993NSO2016
GeorgiaGeorgian lariNSO20162000SNA 1993From 1996NSO2016
GermanyEuroNSO20152010ESA 2010From 1991NSO2016
GhanaGhanaian cediNSO20152006SNA 1993NSO2015
GreeceEuroNSO20162010ESA 2010From 1995NSO2016
GrenadaEastern Caribbean dollarNSO20152006SNA 1993NSO2016
GuatemalaGuatemalan quetzalCB20152001SNA 1993From 2001NSO2015
GuineaGuinean francNSO20112003SNA 1993NSO2015
Guinea-BissauCFA francNSO20152005SNA 1993NSO2016
GuyanaGuyanese dollarNSO201620066SNA 1993NSO2016
HaitiHaitian gourdeNSO2015/161986/87SNA 2008NSO2015/16
HondurasHonduran lempiraCB20152000SNA 1993CB2015
Hong Kong SARHong Kong dollarNSO20152014SNA 2008From 1980NSO2016
HungaryHungarian forintNSO20162005ESA 2010From 2005IEO2016
IcelandIcelandic krónaNSO20162005ESA 2010From 1990NSO2016
IndiaIndian rupeeNSO2016/172011/12SNA 2008NSO2016/17
IndonesiaIndonesian rupiahNSO20162010SNA 2008NSO2016
IranIranian rialCB2014/152004/05SNA 1993CB2015/16
IraqIraqi dinarNSO20142007SNA 1968NSO2014
IrelandEuroNSO20162014ESA 2010From 1995NSO2016
IsraelNew Israeli shekelNSO20162010SNA 2008From 1995NSO2016
ItalyEuroNSO20162010ESA 2010From 1980NSO2016
JamaicaJamaican dollarNSO20152007SNA 1993NSO2015
Note: BPM = Balance of Payments Manual; CPI = consumer price index; ESA = European System of National Accounts; SNA = System of National Accounts.

CB = Central Bank; Customs = Customs Authority; GAD = General Administration Department; IEO = International Economic Organization; MEP = Ministry of Economy, Planning, Commerce, and/or Development; MoF = Ministry of Finance and/or Treasury; NSO = National Statistics Office; PFTAC = Pacific Financial Technical Assistance Centre.

National accounts base year is the period with which other periods are compared and the period for which prices appear in the denominators of the price relationships used to calculate the index.

Use of chain-weighted methodology allows countries to measure GDP growth more accurately by reducing or eliminating the downward biases in volume series built on index numbers that average volume components using weights from a year in the moderately distant past.

For some countries, the structures of government consist of a broader coverage than specified for the general government. Coverage: BCG = Budgetary Central Government; CG = Central Government; EUA = Extrabudgetary Units/Accounts; LG = Local Government; MPC = Monetary Public Corporation, including Central Bank; NFPC = Nonfinancial Public Corporations; NMPC = Nonmonetary Financial Public Corporations; SG = State Government; SS = Social Security Funds; TG = Territorial Governments.

Accounting Standard: A = Accrual accounting; C = Cash accounting; CB = Commitments basis accounting; Mixed = Combination of accrual and cash accounting.

Base year is not equal to 100 because the nominal GDP is not measured in the same way as real GDP or the data are seasonally adjusted.

Government FinanceBalance of Payments
CountryHistorical Data Source1Latest Actual Annual DataStatistics Manual in Use at SourceSubsectors Coverage4Accounting Practice5Historical Data Source1Latest Actual Annual DataStatistics Manual in Use at Source
Côte d’IvoireMoF20151986CGACB2014BPM 6
CroatiaMoF20152001CG,LGACB2015BPM 6
CyprusNSO2015ESA 2010CG,LG,SSOtherNSO2015BPM 6
Czech RepublicMoF20152001CG,LG,SSANSO2015BPM 6
DenmarkNSO20162001CG,LG,SSANSO2015BPM 6
DjiboutiMoF20152001CGACB2015BPM 5
DominicaMoF2015/161986CGCCB2016BPM 5
Dominican RepublicMoF20162001CG,SG,LG,SS,NMPCMixedCB2016BPM 6
EcuadorCB and MoF20151986CG,SG,LG,SS,NFPCCCB2015BPM 6
EgyptMoF2014/152001CG,LG,SS,MPCCCB2015/16BPM 5
El SalvadorMoF20161986CG,LG,SSCCB2016BPM 6
Equatorial GuineaMoF20161986CGCCB2015BPM 5
EritreaMoF20082001CGCCB2008BPM 5
EstoniaMoF20161986/2001CG,LG,SSCCB2016BPM 6
EthiopiaMoF2015/161986CG,SG,LG,NFPCCCB2015/16BPM 5
FijiMoF20151986CGCCB2015BPM 6
FinlandMoF20162001CG,LG,SSANSO2016BPM 6
FranceNSO20152001CG,LG,SSACB2016BPM 6
GabonIMF staff20162001CGACB2015BPM 5
The GambiaMoF20162001CGCCB and IMF staff2014BPM 4
GeorgiaMoF20162001CG,LGCNSO and CB2015BPM 5
GermanyNSO20162001CG,SG,LG,SSACB2015BPM 6
GhanaMoF20152001CGCCB2015BPM 5
GreeceMoF20162014CG,LG,SSACB2016BPM 6
GrenadaMoF20152001CGCBCB2015BPM 5
GuatemalaMoF20162001CGCCB2015BPM 5
GuineaMoF20152001CGOtherCB and MEP2015BPM 6
Guinea-BissauMoF20142001CGACB2015BPM 6
GuyanaMoF20161986CG,SS,NFPCCCB2016BPM 5
HaitiMoF2015/162001CGCCB2015/16BPM 5
HondurasMoF20151986CG,LG,SS,NFPCACB2015BPM 5
Hong Kong SARNSO2015/162001CGCNSO2015BPM 6
HungaryMEP and NSO2015ESA 2010CG,LG,SS,NMPCACB2015BPM 6
IcelandNSO20152001CG,LG,SSACB2016BPM 6
IndiaMoF and IMF staff2015/161986CG,SGCCB2016/17BPM 6
IndonesiaMoF20162001CG,LGCCB2016BPM 6
IranMoF2015/162001CGCCB2015/16BPM 5
IraqMoF20142001CGCCB2014BPM 5
IrelandMoF20152001CG,LG,SSANSO2016BPM 6
IsraelMoF and NSO20152001CG,LG,SSOtherNSO2015BPM 6
ItalyNSO20162001CG,LG,SSANSO2015BPM 6
JamaicaMoF2015/161986CGCCB2015BPM 5
Note: BPM = Balance of Payments Manual; CPI = consumer price index; ESA = European System of National Accounts; SNA = System of National Accounts.

CB = Central Bank; Customs = Customs Authority; GAD = General Administration Department; IEO = International Economic Organization; MEP = Ministry of Economy, Planning, Commerce, and/or Development; MoF = Ministry of Finance and/or Treasury; NSO = National Statistics Office; PFTAC = Pacific Financial Technical Assistance Centre.

National accounts base year is the period with which other periods are compared and the period for which prices appear in the denominators of the price relationships used to calculate the index.

Use of chain-weighted methodology allows countries to measure GDP growth more accurately by reducing or eliminating the downward biases in volume series built on index numbers that average volume components using weights from a year in the moderately distant past.

For some countries, the structures of government consist of a broader coverage than specified for the general government. Coverage: BCG = Budgetary Central Government; CG = Central Government; EUA = Extrabudgetary Units/Accounts; LG = Local Government; MPC = Monetary Public Corporation, including Central Bank; NFPC = Nonfinancial Public Corporations; NMPC = Nonmonetary Financial Public Corporations; SG = State Government; SS = Social Security Funds; TG = Territorial Governments.

Accounting Standard: A = Accrual accounting; C = Cash accounting; CB = Commitments basis accounting; Mixed = Combination of accrual and cash accounting.

Base year is not equal to 100 because the nominal GDP is not measured in the same way as real GDP or the data are seasonally adjusted.

National AccountsPrices (CPI)
CountryCurrencyHistorical Data Source1Latest Actual Annual DataBase Year2System of National AccountsUse of Chain-Weighted Methodology3Historical Data Source1Latest Actual Annual Data
JapanJapanese yenGAD20162011SNA 2008From 1980GAD2016
JordanJordanian dinarNSO20151994OtherNSO2016
KazakhstanKazakhstani tengeNSO20152007SNA 1993From 1994CB2016
KenyaKenya shillingNSO20152009SNA 2008NSO2015
KiribatiAustralian dollarNSO20142006SNA 2008NSO2015
KoreaSouth Korean wonCB20162010SNA 2008From 1980MoF2016
KosovoEuroNSO20152015ESA 2010NSO2015
KuwaitKuwaiti dinarMEP and NSO20152010SNA 1993NSO and MEP2015
Kyrgyz RepublicKyrgyz somNSO20152005SNA 1993NSO2016
Lao P.D.R.Lao kipNSO20152002SNA 1993NSO2015
LatviaEuroNSO20162010ESA 2010From 1995NSO2016
LebanonLebanese poundNSO20132010SNA 2008From 2010NSO2016
LesothoLesotho lotiNSO20152012OtherNSO2016
LiberiaU.S. dollarCB20141992SNA 1993CB2016
LibyaLibyan dinarMEP20152003SNA 1993NSO2015
LithuaniaEuroNSO20162010ESA 2010From 2005NSO2016
LuxembourgEuroNSO20152010ESA 2010From 1995NSO2015
Macao SARMacanese patacaNSO20152014SNA 2008From 2001NSO2016
FYR MacedoniaMacedonian denarNSO20162005ESA 2010NSO2016
MadagascarMalagasy ariaryNSO20152000SNA 1968NSO2015
MalawiMalawian kwachaNSO20152010SNA 2008NSO2015
MalaysiaMalaysian ringgitNSO20162010SNA 2008NSO2016
MaldivesMaldivian rufiyaaMoF and NSO201520036SNA 1993CB2015
MaliCFA francMoF20151999SNA 1993MoF2016
MaltaEuroNSO20162010ESA 2010From 2000NSO2016
Marshall IslandsU.S. dollarNSO2014/152003/04OtherNSO2014/15
MauritaniaMauritanian ouguiyaNSO20142004SNA 1993NSO2014
MauritiusMauritian rupeeNSO20162006SNA 1993From 1999NSO2016
MexicoMexican pesoNSO20162008SNA 2008NSO2016
MicronesiaU.S. dollarNSO2014/152004OtherNSO2014/15
MoldovaMoldovan leuNSO20151995SNA 1993NSO2016
MongoliaMongolian tögrögNSO20162010SNA 1993NSO2016
MontenegroEuroNSO20152006ESA 1995NSO2016
MoroccoMoroccan dirhamNSO20152007SNA 1993From 1998NSO2016
MozambiqueMozambican meticalNSO20162009SNA 1993/ 2008NSO2016
MyanmarMyanmar kyatMEP2015/162010/11OtherNSO2015/16
NamibiaNamibia dollarNSO20152000SNA 1993NSO2016
NauruAustralian dollarOther2014/152007SNA 2008NSO2015/16
NepalNepalese rupeeNSO2015/162000/01SNA 1993CB2016/17
NetherlandsEuroNSO20162010ESA 2010From 1980NSO2016
New ZealandNew Zealand dollarNSO20162009/10OtherFrom 1987NSO2016
NicaraguaNicaraguan córdobaCB20152006SNA 1993From 1994CB2016
NigerCFA francNSO20152000SNA 1993NSO2016
NigeriaNigerian nairaNSO20162010SNA 2008NSO2016/17
NorwayNorwegian kroneNSO20162014ESA 2010From 1980NSO2016
Note: BPM = Balance of Payments Manual; CPI = consumer price index; ESA = European System of National Accounts; SNA = System of National Accounts.

CB = Central Bank; Customs = Customs Authority; GAD = General Administration Department; IEO = International Economic Organization; MEP = Ministry of Economy, Planning, Commerce, and/or Development; MoF = Ministry of Finance and/or Treasury; NSO = National Statistics Office; PFTAC = Pacific Financial Technical Assistance Centre.

National accounts base year is the period with which other periods are compared and the period for which prices appear in the denominators of the price relationships used to calculate the index.

Use of chain-weighted methodology allows countries to measure GDP growth more accurately by reducing or eliminating the downward biases in volume series built on index numbers that average volume components using weights from a year in the moderately distant past.

For some countries, the structures of government consist of a broader coverage than specified for the general government. Coverage: BCG = Budgetary Central Government; CG = Central Government; EUA = Extrabudgetary Units/Accounts; LG = Local Government; MPC = Monetary Public Corporation, including Central Bank; NFPC = Nonfinancial Public Corporations; NMPC = Nonmonetary Financial Public Corporations; SG = State Government; SS = Social Security Funds; TG = Territorial Governments.

Accounting Standard: A = Accrual accounting; C = Cash accounting; CB = Commitments basis accounting; Mixed = Combination of accrual and cash accounting.

Base year is not equal to 100 because the nominal GDP is not measured in the same way as real GDP or the data are seasonally adjusted.

Government FinanceBalance of Payments
CountryHistorical Data Source1Latest Actual Annual DataStatistics Manual in Use at SourceSubsectors Coverage4Accounting Practice5Historical Data Source1Latest Actual Annual DataStatistics Manual in Use at Source
JapanGAD20152001CG,LG,SSAMoF2016BPM 6
JordanMoF20152001CG,NFPCCCB2015BPM 5
KazakhstanIMF staff20162001CG,LGACB2015BPM 6
KenyaMoF20152001CGACB2015BPM 6
KiribatiMoF20131986CG,LGCNSO2014BPM 6
KoreaMoF20152001CGCCB2016BPM 6
KosovoMoF2015OtherCG,LGCCB2015BPM 5
KuwaitMoF20151986CGMixedCB2015BPM 5
Kyrgyz RepublicMoF2016OtherCG,LG,SSCCB2016BPM 5
Lao P.D.R.MoF2015/162001CGCCB2013BPM 5
LatviaMoF20151986CG,LG,SS,NFPCCCB2016BPM 6
LebanonMoF20152001CGMixedCB and IMF staff2015BPM 5
LesothoMoF2015/162001CG,LGCCB2015BPM 5
LiberiaMoF20162001CGACB2014BPM 5
LibyaMoF20151986CG,SG,LGCCB2015BPM 5
LithuaniaMoF20152014CG,LG,SSACB2016BPM 6
LuxembourgMoF20152001CG,LG,SSANSO2015BPM 6
Macao SARMoF20152001CG,SS,MPC,NFPCCNSO2015BPM 6
FYR MacedoniaMoF20151986CG,SG,SSCCB2016BPM 6
MadagascarMoF20151986CG,LGCCB2015BPM 5
MalawiMoF2015/161986CGCNSO and GAD2015BPM 5
MalaysiaMoF20151986CG,SG,LGCNSO2016BPM 6
MaldivesMoF20151986CGCCB2015BPM 5
MaliMoF20152001CGMixedCB2015BPM 5
MaltaNSO20152001CG,SSANSO2015BPM 6
Marshall IslandsMoF2014/152001CG,LG,SSANSO2014/15BPM 6
MauritaniaMoF20141986CGCCB2013BPM 5
MauritiusMoF20152001CG,LG,NFPCCCB2016BPM 5
MexicoMoF20162001CG,SS,NMPC,NFPCCCB2016BPM 5
MicronesiaMoF2014/152001CG,SG,LG,SSOtherNSO2014/15Other
MoldovaMoF20161986CG,LG,SSCCB2015BPM 5
MongoliaMoF20162001CG,SG,LG,SSCCB2016BPM 5
MontenegroMoF20151986CG,LG,SSCCB2015BPM 6
MoroccoMEP20162001CGAGAD2016BPM 5
MozambiqueMoF20162001CG,SGMixedCB2015BPM 6
MyanmarMoF2015/16OtherCG,NFPCMixedIMF staff2015/16BPM 5
NamibiaMoF2015/162001CGCCB2015BPM 5
NauruMoF2015/162001CGMixedIMF staff2013/14BPM 6
NepalMoF2015/162001CGCCB2015/16BPM 5
NetherlandsMoF20152001CG,LG,SSACB2015BPM 6
New ZealandMoF2015/162001CGANSO2016BPM 6
NicaraguaMoF20151986CG,LG,SSCIMF staff2015BPM 6
NigerMoF20151986CGACB2015BPM 6
NigeriaMoF20162001CG,SG,LG,NFPCCCB2016BPM 5
NorwayNSO and MoF20152014CG,LG,SSANSO2015BPM 6
Note: BPM = Balance of Payments Manual; CPI = consumer price index; ESA = European System of National Accounts; SNA = System of National Accounts.

CB = Central Bank; Customs = Customs Authority; GAD = General Administration Department; IEO = International Economic Organization; MEP = Ministry of Economy, Planning, Commerce, and/or Development; MoF = Ministry of Finance and/or Treasury; NSO = National Statistics Office; PFTAC = Pacific Financial Technical Assistance Centre.

National accounts base year is the period with which other periods are compared and the period for which prices appear in the denominators of the price relationships used to calculate the index.

Use of chain-weighted methodology allows countries to measure GDP growth more accurately by reducing or eliminating the downward biases in volume series built on index numbers that average volume components using weights from a year in the moderately distant past.

For some countries, the structures of government consist of a broader coverage than specified for the general government. Coverage: BCG = Budgetary Central Government; CG = Central Government; EUA = Extrabudgetary Units/Accounts; LG = Local Government; MPC = Monetary Public Corporation, including Central Bank; NFPC = Nonfinancial Public Corporations; NMPC = Nonmonetary Financial Public Corporations; SG = State Government; SS = Social Security Funds; TG = Territorial Governments.

Accounting Standard: A = Accrual accounting; C = Cash accounting; CB = Commitments basis accounting; Mixed = Combination of accrual and cash accounting.

Base year is not equal to 100 because the nominal GDP is not measured in the same way as real GDP or the data are seasonally adjusted.

National AccountsPrices (CPI)
CountryCurrencyHistorical Data Source1Latest Actual Annual DataBase Year2System of National AccountsUse of Chain-Weighted Methodology3Historical Data Source1Latest Actual Annual Data
OmanOmani rialNSO20152010SNA 1993NSO2016
PakistanPakistan rupeeNSO2015/162005/066SNA 1968/ 1993NSO2015/16
PalauU.S. dollarMoF2014/152005OtherMoF2014/15
PanamaU.S. dollarNSO20152007SNA 1993From 2007NSO2015
Papua New GuineaPapua New Guinea kinaNSO and MoF20131998SNA 1993NSO2013
ParaguayParaguayan guaraníCB20151994SNA 1993CB2016
PeruPeruvian nuevo solCB20152007SNA 1993CB2015
PhilippinesPhilippine pesoNSO20162000SNA 2008NSO2016
PolandPolish zlotyNSO20162010ESA 2010From 1995NSO2016
PortugalEuroNSO20162011ESA 2010From 1980NSO2016
Puerto RicoU.S. dollarMEP2014/151954SNA 1968MEP2015/16
QatarQatari riyalNSO and MEP20142013SNA 1993NSO and MEP2015
RomaniaRomanian leuNSO20162010ESA 2010From 2000NSO2016
RussiaRussian rubleNSO20162011SNA 2008From 1995NSO2016
RwandaRwanda francMoF20162014SNA 1993NSO2016
SamoaSamoa talaNSO2015/162009/10SNA 1993NSO2015/16
San MarinoEuroNSO20152007OtherNSO2015
São Tomé and PríncipeSão Tomé and Príncipe dobraNSO20132000SNA 1993NSO2016
Saudi ArabiaSaudi riyalNSO and MEP20162010SNA 1993NSO and MEP2016
SenegalCFA francNSO20162000SNA 1993NSO2016
SerbiaSerbian dinarNSO20152010ESA 2010From 2010NSO2015
SeychellesSeychellois rupeeNSO20142006SNA 1993NSO2016
Sierra LeoneSierra Leonean leoneNSO20152006SNA 1993From 2010NSO2016
SingaporeSingapore dollarNSO20162010SNA 1993From 2010NSO2016
Slovak RepublicEuroNSO20152010ESA 2010From 1997NSO2015
SloveniaEuroNSO20152010ESA 2010From 2000NSO2015
Solomon IslandsSolomon Islands dollarCB20142004SNA 1993NSO2015
South AfricaSouth African randCB20162010SNA 1993NSO2016/17
South SudanSouth Sudanese poundNSO20142010SNA 1993NSO2014
SpainEuroNSO20162010ESA 2010From 1995NSO2016
Sri LankaSri Lankan rupeeNSO20152010SNA 1993NSO2016
St. Kitts and NevisEastern Caribbean dollarNSO201420066SNA 1993NSO2014
St. LuciaEastern Caribbean dollarNSO20162006SNA 1993NSO2016
St. Vincent and the GrenadinesEastern Caribbean dollarNSO201620066SNA 1993NSO2016
SudanSudanese poundNSO20102007OtherNSO2015
SurinameSurinamese dollarNSO20152007SNA 1993NSO2016
Note: BPM = Balance of Payments Manual; CPI = consumer price index; ESA = European System of National Accounts; SNA = System of National Accounts.

CB = Central Bank; Customs = Customs Authority; GAD = General Administration Department; IEO = International Economic Organization; MEP = Ministry of Economy, Planning, Commerce, and/or Development; MoF = Ministry of Finance and/or Treasury; NSO = National Statistics Office; PFTAC = Pacific Financial Technical Assistance Centre.

National accounts base year is the period with which other periods are compared and the period for which prices appear in the denominators of the price relationships used to calculate the index.

Use of chain-weighted methodology allows countries to measure GDP growth more accurately by reducing or eliminating the downward biases in volume series built on index numbers that average volume components using weights from a year in the moderately distant past.

For some countries, the structures of government consist of a broader coverage than specified for the general government. Coverage: BCG = Budgetary Central Government; CG = Central Government; EUA = Extrabudgetary Units/Accounts; LG = Local Government; MPC = Monetary Public Corporation, including Central Bank; NFPC = Nonfinancial Public Corporations; NMPC = Nonmonetary Financial Public Corporations; SG = State Government; SS = Social Security Funds; TG = Territorial Governments.

Accounting Standard: A = Accrual accounting; C = Cash accounting; CB = Commitments basis accounting; Mixed = Combination of accrual and cash accounting.

Base year is not equal to 100 because the nominal GDP is not measured in the same way as real GDP or the data are seasonally adjusted.

Government FinanceBalance of Payments
CountryHistorical Data Source1Latest Actual Annual DataStatistics Manual in Use at SourceSubsectors Coverage4Accounting Practice5Historical Data Source1Latest Actual Annual DataStatistics Manual in Use at Source
OmanMoF20152001CGCCB2015BPM 5
PakistanMoF2015/161986CG,SG,LGCCB2015/16BPM 5
PalauMoF2014/152001CGOtherMoF2014/15BPM 6
PanamaMoF20151986CG,SG,LG,SS,NFPCCNSO2015BPM 5
Papua New GuineaMoF20131986CGCCB2013BPM 5
ParaguayMoF20152001CG,SG,LG,SS,MPC, NFPCCCB2015BPM 5
PeruMoF20151986CG,SG,LG,SSCCB2015BPM 5
PhilippinesMoF20162001CG,LG,SSCCB2016BPM 6
PolandMoF and NSO2016ESA 2010CG,LG,SSACB2016BPM 6
PortugalNSO20152001CG,LG,SSACB2016BPM 6
Puerto RicoMEP2014/152001OtherA
QatarMoF20151986CGCCB and IMF staff2014BPM 5
RomaniaMoF20162001CG,LG,SSCCB2016BPM 6
RussiaMoF20152001CG,SG,SSMixedCB2016BPM 6
RwandaMoF20152001CG,LGMixedCB2015BPM 6
SamoaMoF2015/162001CGACB2015/16BPM 6
San MarinoMoF2015OtherCGOther
São Tomé and PríncipeMoF and Customs20162001CGCCB2016BPM 6
Saudi ArabiaMoF20161986CGCCB2016BPM 5
SenegalMoF20152001CGCCB and IMF staff2016BPM 6
SerbiaMoF20151986/2001CG,SG,LG,SSCCB2015BPM 6
SeychellesMoF20151986CG,SSCCB2015BPM 6
Sierra LeoneMoF20161986CGCCB2015BPM 5
SingaporeMoF2015/162001CGCNSO2016BPM 6
Slovak RepublicNSO20152001CG,LG,SSACB2015BPM 6
SloveniaMoF20151986CG,SG,LG,SSCNSO2015BPM 6
Solomon IslandsMoF20141986CGCCB2014BPM 6
South AfricaMoF2015/162001CG,SG,SSCCB2016BPM 6
South SudanMoF and MEP2015OtherCGCMoF, NSO, and MEP2015BPM 5
SpainMoF and NSO2015ESA 2010CG,SG,LG,SSACB2015BPM 6
Sri LankaMoF20152001CGCCB2015BPM 5
St. Kitts and NevisMoF20141986CGCCB2014BPM 5
St. LuciaMoF2015/161986CGCCB2016BPM 5
St. Vincent and the GrenadinesMoF20161986CGCCB2016BPM 5
SudanMoF20152001CGMixedCB2015BPM 5
SurinameMoF20151986CGCBCB2016BPM 5
Note: BPM = Balance of Payments Manual; CPI = consumer price index; ESA = European System of National Accounts; SNA = System of National Accounts.

CB = Central Bank; Customs = Customs Authority; GAD = General Administration Department; IEO = International Economic Organization; MEP = Ministry of Economy, Planning, Commerce, and/or Development; MoF = Ministry of Finance and/or Treasury; NSO = National Statistics Office; PFTAC = Pacific Financial Technical Assistance Centre.

National accounts base year is the period with which other periods are compared and the period for which prices appear in the denominators of the price relationships used to calculate the index.

Use of chain-weighted methodology allows countries to measure GDP growth more accurately by reducing or eliminating the downward biases in volume series built on index numbers that average volume components using weights from a year in the moderately distant past.

For some countries, the structures of government consist of a broader coverage than specified for the general government. Coverage: BCG = Budgetary Central Government; CG = Central Government; EUA = Extrabudgetary Units/Accounts; LG = Local Government; MPC = Monetary Public Corporation, including Central Bank; NFPC = Nonfinancial Public Corporations; NMPC = Nonmonetary Financial Public Corporations; SG = State Government; SS = Social Security Funds; TG = Territorial Governments.

Accounting Standard: A = Accrual accounting; C = Cash accounting; CB = Commitments basis accounting; Mixed = Combination of accrual and cash accounting.

Base year is not equal to 100 because the nominal GDP is not measured in the same way as real GDP or the data are seasonally adjusted.

National AccountsPrices (CPI)
CountryCurrencyHistorical Data Source1Latest Actual Annual DataBase Year2System of National AccountsUse of Chain-Weighted Methodology3Historical Data Source1Latest Actual Annual Data
SwazilandSwazi lilangeniNSO20152011SNA 1993NSO2015
SwedenSwedish kronaNSO20152015ESA 2010From 1993NSO2016
SwitzerlandSwiss francNSO20162010ESA 2010From 1980NSO2016
SyriaSyrian poundNSO20102000SNA 1993NSO2011
Taiwan Province of ChinaNew Taiwan dollarNSO20152011SNA 2008NSO2016
TajikistanTajik somoniNSO20141995SNA 1993NSO2014
TanzaniaTanzania shillingNSO20152007SNA 1993NSO2016
ThailandThai bahtMEP20162002SNA 1993From 1993MEP2016
Timor-LesteU.S. dollarMoF201420106OtherNSO2015
TogoCFA francMOF and NSO20142000SNA 1993NSO2015
TongaTongan pa’angaCB20142010SNA 1993CB2015
Trinidad and TobagoTrinidad and Tobago dollarNSO20162000SNA 1993NSO2015
TunisiaTunisian dinarNSO20142004SNA 1993From 2009NSO2016
TurkeyTurkish liraNSO20162009ESA 2010From 2009NSO2016
TurkmenistanNew Turkmen manatNSO20152008SNA 1993From 2000NSO2015
TuvaluAustralian dollarPFTAC advisors20122005SNA 1993NSO2013
UgandaUgandan shillingNSO20142010SNA 1993CB2015/16
UkraineUkrainian hryvniaNSO20162010SNA 2008From 2005NSO2016
United Arab EmiratesU.A.E. dirhamNSO20152007SNA 1993NSO2015
United KingdomPound sterlingNSO20162013ESA 2010From 1980NSO2016
United StatesU.S. dollarNSO20162009OtherFrom 1980NSO2016
UruguayUruguayan pesoCB20162005SNA 1993NSO2016
UzbekistanUzbek sumNSO20141995SNA 1993NSO2014
VanuatuVanuatu vatuNSO20142006SNA 1993NSO2015
VenezuelaVenezuelan bolívar fuerteCB20151997SNA 2008CB2016
VietnamVietnamese dongNSO20162010SNA 1993NSO2016
YemenYemeni rialIMF staff20081990SNA 1993NSO, CB, and IMF staff2009
ZambiaZambian kwachaNSO20152010SNA 1993NSO2016
ZimbabweU.S. dollarNSO20132009OtherNSO2016
Note: BPM = Balance of Payments Manual; CPI = consumer price index; ESA = European System of National Accounts; SNA = System of National Accounts.

CB = Central Bank; Customs = Customs Authority; GAD = General Administration Department; IEO = International Economic Organization; MEP = Ministry of Economy, Planning, Commerce, and/or Development; MoF = Ministry of Finance and/or Treasury; NSO = National Statistics Office; PFTAC = Pacific Financial Technical Assistance Centre.

National accounts base year is the period with which other periods are compared and the period for which prices appear in the denominators of the price relationships used to calculate the index.

Use of chain-weighted methodology allows countries to measure GDP growth more accurately by reducing or eliminating the downward biases in volume series built on index numbers that average volume components using weights from a year in the moderately distant past.

For some countries, the structures of government consist of a broader coverage than specified for the general government. Coverage: BCG = Budgetary Central Government; CG = Central Government; EUA = Extrabudgetary Units/Accounts; LG = Local Government; MPC = Monetary Public Corporation, including Central Bank; NFPC = Nonfinancial Public Corporations; NMPC = Nonmonetary Financial Public Corporations; SG = State Government; SS = Social Security Funds; TG = Territorial Governments.

Accounting Standard: A = Accrual accounting; C = Cash accounting; CB = Commitments basis accounting; Mixed = Combination of accrual and cash accounting.

Base year is not equal to 100 because the nominal GDP is not measured in the same way as real GDP or the data are seasonally adjusted.

Government FinanceBalance of Payments
CountryHistorical Data Source1Latest Actual Annual DataStatistics Manual in Use at SourceSubsectors Coverage4Accounting Practice5Historical Data Source1Latest Actual Annual DataStatistics Manual in Use at Source
SwazilandMoF2015/162001CGACB2015BPM 5
SwedenMoF20152001CG,LG,SSANSO2015BPM 6
SwitzerlandMoF20142001CG,SG,LG,SSACB2016BPM 6
SyriaMoF20091986CGCCB2009BPM 5
Taiwan Province of ChinaMoF20151986CG,LG,SSCCB2015BPM 6
TajikistanMoF20151986CG,LG,SSCCB2014BPM 5
TanzaniaMoF20151986CG,LGCCB2015BPM 5
ThailandMoF2014/152001CG,BCG,LG,SSACB2016BPM 6
Timor-LesteMoF20152001CGCCB2015BPM 6
TogoMoF20142001CGCCB2015BPM 5
TongaCB and MoF20142001CGCCB and NSO2015BPM 6
Trinidad and TobagoMoF2014/151986CG,NFPCCCB and NSO2015BPM 5
TunisiaMoF20151986CGCCB2015BPM 5
TurkeyMoF20152001CG,LG,SSACB2016BPM 6
TurkmenistanMoF20151986CG,LGCNSO and IMF staff2013BPM 5
TuvaluIMF staff2013OtherCGMixedIMF staff2013BPM 6
UgandaMoF20152001CGCCB2015BPM 6
UkraineMoF20152001CG,SG,LG,SSCCB2015BPM 6
United Arab EmiratesMoF20152001CG,BCG,SG,SSCCB2015BPM 5
United KingdomNSO20162001CG,LGANSO2016BPM 6
United StatesMEP20152001CG,SG,LGANSO2016BPM 6
UruguayMoF20161986CG,LG,SS,MPC, NFPCACB2016BPM 6
UzbekistanMoF2014OtherCG,SG,LG,SSCMEP2014BPM 5
VanuatuMoF20152001CGCCB2014BPM 5
VenezuelaMoF20102001BCG,NFPCCCB2015BPM 5
VietnamMoF20142001CG,SG,LGCCB2015BPM 5
YemenMoF20132001CG,LGCIMF staff2009BPM 5
ZambiaMoF20151986CGCCB2015BPM 6
ZimbabweMoF20141986CGCCB and MoF2013BPM 4
Note: BPM = Balance of Payments Manual; CPI = consumer price index; ESA = European System of National Accounts; SNA = System of National Accounts.

CB = Central Bank; Customs = Customs Authority; GAD = General Administration Department; IEO = International Economic Organization; MEP = Ministry of Economy, Planning, Commerce, and/or Development; MoF = Ministry of Finance and/or Treasury; NSO = National Statistics Office; PFTAC = Pacific Financial Technical Assistance Centre.

National accounts base year is the period with which other periods are compared and the period for which prices appear in the denominators of the price relationships used to calculate the index.

Use of chain-weighted methodology allows countries to measure GDP growth more accurately by reducing or eliminating the downward biases in volume series built on index numbers that average volume components using weights from a year in the moderately distant past.

For some countries, the structures of government consist of a broader coverage than specified for the general government. Coverage: BCG = Budgetary Central Government; CG = Central Government; EUA = Extrabudgetary Units/Accounts; LG = Local Government; MPC = Monetary Public Corporation, including Central Bank; NFPC = Nonfinancial Public Corporations; NMPC = Nonmonetary Financial Public Corporations; SG = State Government; SS = Social Security Funds; TG = Territorial Governments.

Accounting Standard: A = Accrual accounting; C = Cash accounting; CB = Commitments basis accounting; Mixed = Combination of accrual and cash accounting.

Base year is not equal to 100 because the nominal GDP is not measured in the same way as real GDP or the data are seasonally adjusted.

The analytical criterion source of export earnings distinguishes between the categories fuel (Standard International Trade Classification [SITC] 3) and nonfuel and then focuses on nonfuel primary products (SITCs 0, 1, 2, 4, and 68). Economies are categorized into one of these groups when their main source of export earnings exceeded 50 percent of total exports on average between 2011 and 2015.

The financial criteria focus on net creditor economies, net debtor economies, heavily indebted poor countries (HIPCs), and low-income developing countries (LIDCs). Economies are categorized as net debtors when their latest net international investment position, where available, was less than zero or their current account balance accumulations from 1972 (or earliest available data) to 2015 were negative. Net debtor economies are further differentiated on the basis of experience with debt servicing.5

The HIPC group comprises the countries that are or have been considered by the IMF and the World Bank for participation in their debt initiative known as the HIPC Initiative, which aims to reduce the external debt burdens of all the eligible HIPCs to a “sustainable” level in a reasonably short period of time.6 Many of these countries have already benefited from debt relief and have graduated from the initiative.

The LIDCs are countries that were designated as eligible to use the IMF’s concessional financing resources under the Poverty Reduction and Growth Trust (PRGT) in the 2013 PRGT eligibility review and as of 2011, had a level of per capita gross national income less than the PRGT income graduation threshold for non–small states (that is, twice the World Bank International Development Association operational threshold, or US$2,390 in 2011 as measured by the World Bank’s Atlas method) and Zimbabwe.

Box A1.Economic Policy Assumptions Underlying the Projections for Selected Economies

Fiscal Policy Assumptions

The short-term fiscal policy assumptions used in the World Economic Outlook (WEO) are normally based on officially announced budgets, adjusted for differences between the national authorities and the IMF staff regarding macroeconomic assumptions and projected fiscal outturns. When no official budget has been announced, projections incorporate policy measures that are judged likely to be implemented. The medium-term fiscal projections are similarly based on a judgment about the most likely path of policies. For cases in which the IMF staff has insufficient information to assess the authorities’ budget intentions and prospects for policy implementation, an unchanged structural primary balance is assumed unless indicated otherwise. Specific assumptions used in regard to some of the advanced economies follow. (See also Tables B5 to B9 in the online section of the Statistical Appendix for data on fiscal net lending/borrowing and structural balances.)1

Argentina: Fiscal projections are based on the available information regarding budget outturn and budget plans for the federal government and provincial governments, fiscal measures announced by the authorities, and IMF staff macroeconomic projections.

Australia: Fiscal projections are based on Australian Bureau of Statistics data, the fiscal year 2016/17 budget, the 2016–17 Mid-year Economic and Fiscal Outlook, and IMF staff estimates.

Austria: Fiscal projections are based on data from Statistics Austria, the authorities’ projections, and IMF staff estimates and projections.

Belgium: Projections reflect the IMF staff’s assessment of policies and measures laid out in the 2017 budget and the 2016–19 Stability Programme, incorporated into the IMF staff’s macroeconomic framework.

Brazil: Fiscal projections for the end of 2017 take into account budget performance through December 31, 2016, and the deficit target approved in the budget law.

Canada: Projections use the baseline forecasts in the 2017 federal budget and 2017 provincial budget updates as available. The IMF staff makes adjustments to these forecasts, including for differences in macroeconomic projections. The IMF staff forecast also incorporates the most recent data releases from Statistics Canada’s Canadian System of National Economic Accounts, including federal, provincial, and territorial budgetary outturns through the end of 2016.

Chile: Projections are based on the authorities’ budget projections, adjusted to reflect the IMF staff’s projections for GDP and copper prices.

China: The pace of fiscal consolidation is likely to be more gradual, reflecting reforms to strengthen social safety nets and the social security system announced as part of the Third Plenum reform agenda.

Denmark: Estimates for 2016 are aligned with the latest official budget estimates and the underlying economic projections, adjusted where appropriate for the IMF staff’s macroeconomic assumptions. For 2017–18, the projections incorporate key features of the medium-term fiscal plan as embodied in the authorities’ Convergence Programme 2016 submitted to the European Union (EU).

France: Projections for 2017 reflect the budget law. For 2018–19, they are based on the multiyear budget and the April 2016 Stability Programme, adjusted for differences in assumptions on macro and financial variables, and revenue projections. Historical fiscal data reflect the statistical institute’s September 2016 and February 2017 revisions and update of the fiscal accounts, debt data, and national accounts.

Germany: The IMF staff’s projections for 2017 and beyond are based on the authorities’ 2017–20 financial plan, adjusted for the differences in the IMF staff’s macroeconomic framework. The estimate of gross debt includes portfolios of impaired assets and noncore business transferred to institutions that are winding up, as well as other financial sector and EU support operations.

Greece: The fiscal projections reflect the IMF staff’s assessment, assuming full implementation of the authorities’ fiscal policy package under the European Stability Mechanism–supported program. Primary balance estimates for 2016 are based on preliminary data provided by the Ministry of Finance as of February 15 and are subject to change once data on an accrual basis (ESA 2010) become available on April 21. Medium-term fiscal projections reflect the IMF staff’s assessment based on currently legislated fiscal policies.

Hong Kong SAR: Projections are based on the authorities’ medium-term fiscal projections on expenditures.

Hungary: Fiscal projections include IMF staff projections of the macroeconomic framework and of the impact of recent legislative measures, as well as fiscal policy plans announced in the 2017 budget.

India: Historical data are based on budgetary execution data. Projections are based on available information on the authorities’ fiscal plans, with adjustments for IMF staff assumptions. Subnational data are incorporated with a lag of up to two years; general government data are thus finalized well after central government data. IMF and Indian presentations differ, particularly regarding divestment and license auction proceeds, net versus gross recording of revenues in certain minor categories, and some public sector lending.

Indonesia: IMF projections are based on moderate tax policy and administration reforms, fuel subsidy pricing reforms introduced in January 2015, and a gradual increase in social and capital spending over the medium term in line with fiscal space.

Ireland: Fiscal projections are based on the IMF staff’s assessment of the policies presented in the 2017 Budget and September 2016 Economic and Financial Document.

Italy: IMF staff estimates and projections are based on the fiscal plans included in the government’s 2017 budget and September 2016 Economic and Financial Document.

Japan: The projections include fiscal measures already announced by the government, including the fiscal stimulus package for 2017 and the consumption tax hike in October 2019.

Korea: The medium-term forecast incorporates the government’s announced medium-term consolidation path.

Mexico: Fiscal projections for 2017 are broadly in line with the approved budget; projections for 2018 onward assume compliance with rules established in the Fiscal Responsibility Law.

Netherlands: Fiscal projections for the period 2016–22 are based on the authorities’ Bureau for Economic Policy Analysis budget projections, after differences in macroeconomic assumptions are adjusted for. Historical data were revised following the June 2014 Central Bureau of Statistics release of revised macro data because of the adoption of the European System of National and Regional Accounts (ESA 2010) and the revisions of data sources.

New Zealand: Fiscal projections are based on the authorities’ fiscal year 2016/17 budget, the 2016 Half Year Economic and Fiscal Update, and IMF staff estimates.

Portugal: The estimate for 2016 reflects the cash outturn and January through September execution data on a national accounts basis; the projections for 2017 are based on the authorities’ approved budget, adjusted to reflect the IMF staff’s macroeconomic forecast. Projections thereafter are based on the assumption of unchanged policies.

Puerto Rico: Fiscal projections are based on the Puerto Rico Fiscal and Economic Growth Plan (FEGP), which was prepared in 2015 pursuant to Governor Alejandro García Padilla’s executive order, with subsequent further updates on debt data in 2016. In line with assumptions of this plan, IMF projections assume that Puerto Rico will lose federal funding for the Affordable Care Act (ACA) starting in 2018. Likewise, projections assume federal tax incentives, which were neutralizing the effects of Puerto Rico’s Act 154 on foreign companies, will no longer be available, starting in 2018, leading to additional revenue losses. In terms of policy assumptions, FEGP presents a scenario without measures and an alternative scenario with various revenue and expenditure measures; IMF projections assume full implementation of the FEGP measures. On the revenue side, the main measures are (1) an increase in the corporate tax base and (2) improvement in tax administration and enforcement. These are in addition to full transition to a value-added tax, which is an ongoing measure and is expected to be completed by the end of 2016. On the expenditure side, measures include extension of Act 66, which freezes much government spending, through 2021; reduction of operating costs; decreases in government subsidies; and spending cuts in education and health care. Although IMF policy assumptions are exactly as in the FEGP scenario with full measures, the IMF’s projections of fiscal revenues, expenditures, and balance are different from FEGP’s. This stems from two main differences in methodologies: first and foremost, while IMF projections are on an accrual basis, FEGP’s are on a cash basis. Second, the IMF and FEGP make very different macroeconomic assumptions.

Russia: Projections for 2016–19 are IMF staff estimates, based on the authorities’ budget. Projections for 2020–22 are based on the proposed oil price rule assumed to be introduced in December 2017, with adjustments by the IMF staff.

Saudi Arabia: IMF staff projections of oil revenues are based on WEO baseline oil prices. On the expenditure side, starting in 2017, following recent reforms, the wage bill estimates no longer include the 13th-month pay that used to be awarded every three years in accordance with the lunar calendar. Expenditure projections take the 2017 budget as a starting point and adjust for the budget surplus fund payment and the IMF staff’s estimates of arrears payments.

Singapore: For fiscal years 2016/17 and 2017/18, projections are based on budget numbers. For the remainder of the projection period, the IMF staff assumes unchanged policies.

South Africa: Fiscal projections are based on the authorities’ 2017 Budget Review.

Spain: For 2016, fiscal data are IMF staff projections, reflecting the cash outturn through November. For 2017 and beyond, fiscal projections are based on the measures specified in the Stability Programme Update 2016–19 and the IMF staff’s macroeconomic projections.

Sweden: Fiscal projections take into account the authorities’ projections based on the 2017 Spring Budget. The impact of cyclical developments on the fiscal accounts is calculated using the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development’s 2005 elasticity to take into account output and employment gaps.

Switzerland: The projections assume that fiscal policy is adjusted as necessary to keep fiscal balances in line with the requirements of Switzerland’s fiscal rules.

Turkey: Fiscal projections assume that both current and capital spending will be in line with the authorities’ 2017–19 Medium Term Programme based on current trends and policies.

United Kingdom: Fiscal projections are based on the country’s Budget 2017, published in March 2017, with expenditure projections based on the budgeted nominal values and with revenue projections adjusted for differences between IMF staff forecasts of macroeconomic variables (such as GDP growth and inflation) and the forecasts of these variables assumed in the authorities’ fiscal projections. IMF staff data exclude public sector banks and the effect of transferring assets from the Royal Mail Pension Plan to the public sector in April 2012. Real government consumption and investment are part of the real GDP path, which, according to the IMF staff, may or may not be the same as projected by the U.K. Office for Budget Responsibility.

United States: Fiscal projections are based on the January 2017 Congressional Budget Office baseline adjusted for the IMF staff’s policy and macroeconomic assumptions. The baseline incorporates the key provisions of the Bipartisan Budget Act of 2015, including a partial rollback of the sequester spending cuts in fiscal year 2016. In fiscal years 2017 through 2022, the IMF staff assumes that the sequester cuts will continue to be partially replaced, in proportions similar to those already implemented in fiscal years 2014 and 2015, with back-loaded measures generating savings in mandatory programs and additional revenues. Projections also incorporate the Protecting Americans from Tax Hikes Act of 2015, which extended some existing tax cuts for the short term and some permanently. Also, projections assume there will be corporate and personal income tax cuts during 2017–19, cumulatively worth of about 1.8 percent of 2017’s GDP. Finally, fiscal projections are adjusted to reflect the IMF staff’s forecasts for key macroeconomic and financial variables and different accounting treatment of financial sector support and of defined-benefit pension plans and are converted to a general government basis. Historical data start at 2001 for most series because data compiled according to the 2001 Government Finance Statistics Manual (GFSM 2001) may not be available for earlier years.

Monetary Policy Assumptions

Monetary policy assumptions are based on the established policy framework in each country. In most cases, this implies a nonaccommodative stance over the business cycle: official interest rates will increase when economic indicators suggest that inflation will rise above its acceptable rate or range; they will decrease when indicators suggest that inflation will not exceed the acceptable rate or range, that output growth is below its potential rate, and that the margin of slack in the economy is significant. On this basis, the London interbank offered rate (LIBOR) on six-month U.S. dollar deposits is assumed to average 1.7 percent in 2017 and 2.8 percent in 2018 (see Table 1.1). The rate on three-month euro deposits is assumed to average −0.3 percent in 2017 and −0.2 percent in 2018. The interest rate on six-month Japanese yen deposits is assumed to average 0.0 percent in 2017 and 2018.

Australia: Monetary policy assumptions are in line with market expectations.

Brazil: Monetary policy assumptions are consistent with gradual convergence of inflation toward the middle of the target range over the relevant horizon.

Canada: Monetary policy assumptions are in line with market expectations.

China: Monetary policy is expected to tighten with a gradual rise in the interest rate.

Denmark: The monetary policy is to maintain the peg to the euro.

Euro area: Monetary policy assumptions for euro area member countries are in line with market expectations.

Hong Kong SAR: The IMF staff assumes that the currency board system remains intact.

India: The policy (interest) rate assumption is consistent with an inflation rate within the Reserve Bank of India’s targeted band.

Indonesia: Monetary policy assumptions are in line with the maintenance of inflation within the central bank’s targeted band.

Japan: Monetary policy assumptions are in line with market expectations.

Korea: Monetary policy assumptions are in line with market expectations.

Mexico: Monetary assumptions are consistent with attaining the inflation target.

Russia: Monetary projections assume increasing exchange rate flexibility as part of the new inflation-targeting regime, with policy rates falling over the next year as inflation continues to decline and second-round effects are subdued.

Saudi Arabia: Monetary policy projections are based on the continuation of the exchange rate peg to the U.S. dollar.

Singapore: Broad money is projected to grow in line with the projected growth in nominal GDP.

Sweden: Monetary projections are in line with Riksbank projections.

Switzerland: The projections assume no change in the policy rate in 2016–17.

Turkey: Broad money, the long-term bond yield, and the short-term deposit rate are based on IMF staff projections.

United Kingdom: Projections assume no change in the Bank Rate in the next two years, consistent with market expectations.

United States: Following the Federal Reserve’s 25 basis point rate hike in mid-March, the IMF staff expects the federal funds target rate to increase by 50 more basis points in 2017 and rise gradually thereafter.

1 The output gap is actual minus potential output, as a percentage of potential output. Structural balances are expressed as a percentage of potential output. The structural balance is the actual net lending/borrowing minus the effects of cyclical output from potential output, corrected for one-time and other factors, such as asset and commodity prices and output composition effects. Changes in the structural balance consequently include effects of temporary fiscal measures, the impact of fluctuations in interest rates and debt-service costs, and other noncyclical fluctuations in net lending/borrowing. The computations of structural balances are based on IMF staff estimates of potential GDP and revenue and expenditure elasticities. (See Annex I of the October 1993 WEO.) Net debt is calculated as gross debt minus financial assets corresponding to debt instruments. Estimates of the output gap and of the structural balance are subject to significant margins of uncertainty.

List of Tables

Balance of Payments and External Financing

Medium-Term Baseline Scenario

Table A1.Summary of World Output1(Annual percent change)
AverageProjections
1999–200820092010201120122013201420152016201720182022
World4.2−0.15.44.23.53.43.53.43.13.53.63.8
Advanced Economies2.5−3.43.11.71.21.32.02.11.72.02.01.7
United States2.6−2.82.51.62.21.72.42.61.62.32.51.7
Euro Area2.1−4.52.11.5−0.9−0.31.22.01.71.71.61.5
Japan1.0−5.44.2−0.11.52.00.31.21.01.20.60.6
Other Advanced Economies23.5−2.04.62.91.92.32.91.92.02.22.12.3
Emerging Market and Developing Economies6.22.97.46.35.45.14.74.24.14.54.85.0
Regional Groups
Commonwealth of Independent States37.2−6.44.74.63.52.11.1−2.20.31.72.12.4
Emerging and Developing Asia8.07.59.67.97.06.96.86.76.46.46.46.3
Emerging and Developing Europe4.3−3.04.66.52.44.93.94.73.03.03.33.1
Latin America and the Caribbean3.3−1.86.14.73.02.91.20.1−1.01.12.02.6
Middle East, North Africa, Afghanistan, and
Pakistan5.31.44.84.35.42.32.82.73.92.63.43.8
Middle East and North Africa5.31.45.04.45.52.12.72.63.82.33.23.5
Sub-Saharan Africa5.63.97.05.04.35.35.13.41.42.63.53.9
Memorandum
European Union2.5−4.32.11.7−0.40.31.72.42.02.01.81.7
Low-Income Developing Countries6.05.77.45.35.26.26.04.63.64.75.35.4
Analytical Groups
By Source of Export Earnings
Fuel6.1−1.55.14.95.12.42.30.41.11.32.22.4
Nonfuel6.24.28.16.75.55.85.35.24.95.25.45.5
Of Which, Primary Products3.7−0.96.74.82.54.01.72.91.12.52.93.6
By External Financing Source
Net Debtor Economies5.02.36.95.34.44.84.34.13.64.34.85.4
Net Debtor Economies by
Debt-Servicing Experience
Economies with Arrears and/or
Rescheduling during 2011–155.10.03.92.62.23.21.30.42.83.04.15.2
Memorandum
Median Growth Rate
Advanced Economies3.1−3.82.32.01.11.42.11.81.82.32.11.9
Emerging Market and Developing Economies4.71.84.54.64.14.24.03.12.93.33.53.9
Low-Income Developing Countries4.93.86.25.65.25.45.24.04.04.55.05.4
Output per Capita
Advanced Economies1.8−4.02.51.10.60.81.31.61.11.51.51.2
Emerging Market and Developing Economies4.81.76.35.24.13.93.53.23.03.43.74.0
Low-Income Developing Countries3.83.65.24.12.84.03.92.61.62.63.33.5
World Growth Rate Based on Market Exchange Rates3.1−2.14.13.02.52.62.72.72.42.93.03.0
Value of World Output (billions of U.S. dollars)
At Market Exchange Rates43,83760,27965,90073,08474,43876,45878,52074,19775,27877,98881,96299,956
At Purchasing Power Parities62,78483,77089,26994,78999,616104,597110,086114,870119,884126,688134,184168,202

Real GDP.

Excludes the United States, euro area countries, and Japan.

Georgia, Turkmenistan, and Ukraine, which are not members of the Commonwealth of Independent States, are included in this group for reasons of geography and similarity in economic structure.

Table A2.Advanced Economies: Real GDP and Total Domestic Demand1(Annual percent change)
Fourth Quarter2
AverageProjectionsProjections
1999–2008200920102011201220132014201520162017201820222016:Q42017:Q42018:Q4
Real GDP
Advanced Economies2.5−3.43.11.71.21.32.02.11.72.02.01.72.02.02.0
United States2.6−2.82.51.62.21.72.42.61.62.32.51.72.02.32.5
Euro Area2.1−4.52.11.5−0.9−0.31.22.01.71.71.61.51.71.71.5
Germany1.6−5.64.03.70.70.61.61.51.81.61.51.21.81.71.5
France2.0−2.92.02.10.20.60.61.31.21.41.61.91.21.91.4
Italy1.2−5.51.70.6−2.8−1.70.10.80.90.80.80.81.00.80.8
Spain3.6−3.60.0−1.0−2.9−1.71.43.23.22.62.11.63.02.32.1
Netherlands2.5−3.81.41.7−1.1−0.21.42.02.12.11.81.62.72.01.7
Belgium2.3−2.32.71.80.1−0.11.71.51.21.61.51.51.21.71.4
Austria2.4−3.81.92.80.70.10.61.01.51.41.31.11.81.11.4
Greece3.5−4.3−5.5−9.1−7.3−3.20.4−0.20.02.22.71.0−0.84.22.0
Portugal1.6−3.01.9−1.8−4.0−1.10.91.61.41.71.51.02.01.11.7
Ireland5.3−4.62.0−0.1−1.11.18.426.35.23.53.22.86.65.23.2
Finland3.3−8.33.02.6−1.4−0.8−0.60.31.41.31.41.51.21.51.6
Slovak Republic5.1−5.45.02.81.71.52.63.83.33.33.73.42.93.33.7
Lithuania6.1−14.81.66.03.83.53.51.82.32.83.13.03.41.83.7
Slovenia4.3−7.81.20.6−2.7−1.13.12.32.52.52.01.83.61.42.3
Luxembourg4.4−5.45.82.00.04.24.73.54.03.73.53.02.92.94.3
Latvia6.6−14.3−3.86.44.02.62.12.72.03.03.34.02.22.93.2
Estonia5.6−14.72.57.64.31.42.81.41.62.52.83.02.82.43.0
Cyprus4.1−1.81.30.3−3.2−6.0−1.51.72.82.52.32.12.92.22.3
Malta2.2−2.43.51.42.84.38.37.45.04.13.53.05.14.03.5
Japan1.0−5.44.2−0.11.52.00.31.21.01.20.60.61.61.00.6
United Kingdom2.5−4.31.91.51.31.93.12.21.82.01.51.91.91.71.5
Korea5.70.76.53.72.32.93.32.82.82.72.83.12.43.62.3
Canada2.9−2.93.13.11.72.52.60.91.41.92.01.81.91.72.0
Australia3.41.72.32.73.62.12.82.42.53.13.02.72.43.43.0
Taiwan Province of China4.6−1.610.63.82.12.24.00.71.41.71.92.52.40.83.2
Switzerland2.3−2.12.81.91.11.82.00.81.31.41.61.71.01.91.4
Sweden3.0−5.26.02.7−0.31.22.64.13.32.72.41.72.32.72.0
Singapore5.9−0.615.26.23.95.03.61.92.02.22.62.62.90.53.2
Hong Kong SAR4.7−2.56.84.81.73.12.82.41.92.42.53.23.11.03.6
Norway2.2−1.60.61.02.71.01.91.61.01.21.92.21.91.12.4
Czech Republic4.0−4.82.32.0−0.8−0.52.74.52.42.82.22.31.93.31.7
Israel3.71.45.75.12.44.43.22.54.02.93.03.04.81.63.7
Denmark1.8−4.91.91.30.20.91.71.61.11.51.71.81.91.91.5
New Zealand3.40.42.01.92.52.12.83.14.03.12.92.53.53.62.2
Puerto Rico1.7−2.0−0.4−0.40.0−0.3−1.40.0−1.8−3.0−2.5−0.6. . .. . .. . .
Macao SAR. . .1.325.321.79.211.2−1.2−21.5−4.02.81.73.8. . .. . .. . .
Iceland4.6−6.9−3.62.01.24.41.94.17.25.73.62.610.56.42.5
San Marino. . .−12.8−4.6−9.5−7.5−3.0−0.90.51.01.21.31.3. . .. . .. . .
Memorandum
Major Advanced Economies2.1−3.82.81.61.41.41.82.01.51.91.91.51.81.91.8
Real Total Domestic Demand
Advanced Economies2.4−3.73.01.40.81.01.92.31.72.22.21.72.12.12.1
United States2.7−3.82.91.62.11.32.43.21.72.83.01.72.12.73.0
Euro Area2.0−4.01.50.7−2.4−0.61.21.92.01.71.61.51.61.71.5
Germany0.9−3.22.93.0−0.81.01.51.52.21.51.61.52.01.21.6
France2.4−2.52.12.0−0.30.71.11.52.01.71.61.81.51.91.5
Italy1.4−4.12.0−0.6−5.6−2.60.21.31.01.00.80.71.60.80.7
Spain4.2−6.0−0.5−3.1−5.1−3.21.93.42.92.32.01.52.32.31.9
Japan0.6−4.02.40.72.32.40.40.70.50.90.70.60.71.10.7
United Kingdom2.8−4.92.5−0.62.22.13.41.91.51.51.11.91.61.91.1
Canada3.5−3.05.13.42.02.11.50.00.71.91.71.71.42.41.4
Other Advanced Economies33.7−2.66.13.12.01.52.52.51.82.62.72.82.02.72.8
Memorandum
Major Advanced Economies2.1−3.72.81.41.11.31.82.21.52.12.11.51.82.12.1

In this and other tables, when countries are not listed alphabetically, they are ordered on the basis of economic size.

From the fourth quarter of the preceding year.

Excludes the G7 (Canada, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, United Kingdom, United States) and euro area countries.

Table A3.Advanced Economies: Components of Real GDP(Annual percent change)
AveragesProjections
1999–20082009–182009201020112012201320142015201620172018
Private Consumer Expenditure
Advanced Economies2.61.4−1.21.91.30.91.21.82.32.22.12.0
United States3.11.9−1.61.92.31.51.52.93.22.72.72.5
Euro Area1.80.5−1.10.80.0−1.1−0.60.81.82.01.51.5
Germany0.91.10.30.31.31.30.91.01.91.81.31.4
France2.31.00.21.80.5−0.20.50.71.51.81.51.7
Italy1.0−0.2−1.51.20.0−4.0−2.40.21.61.30.80.7
Spain3.40.0−3.60.3−2.4−3.5−3.11.62.93.22.62.1
Japan1.00.6−0.72.4−0.42.02.4−0.9−0.40.40.70.7
United Kingdom3.01.0−3.20.6−0.51.71.62.22.42.81.91.2
Canada3.62.10.03.62.31.92.62.71.92.22.21.8
Other Advanced Economies13.72.30.03.73.02.22.32.32.72.22.42.6
Memorandum
Major Advanced Economies2.31.4−1.21.71.31.11.31.82.22.12.01.8
Public Consumption
Advanced Economies2.20.92.91.0−0.50.2−0.30.51.71.61.21.2
United States2.10.23.70.1−2.7−0.9−2.4−0.71.60.80.81.4
Euro Area2.00.92.40.8−0.1−0.30.30.61.31.81.20.9
Germany1.01.93.01.30.91.11.21.22.74.02.11.6
France1.61.42.41.31.01.61.51.21.41.51.40.8
Italy1.4−0.30.40.6−1.8−1.4−0.3−0.7−0.70.60.40.2
Spain5.10.24.11.5−0.3−4.7−2.1−0.32.00.80.70.7
Japan1.81.32.01.91.91.71.50.51.61.50.4−0.4
United Kingdom3.11.01.10.20.21.70.32.31.30.81.00.7
Canada2.61.42.72.31.30.7−0.70.81.52.01.91.4
Other Advanced Economies12.82.53.42.81.62.02.32.42.53.12.32.2
Memorandum
Major Advanced Economies1.90.72.90.7−0.90.1−0.70.11.61.41.01.0
Gross Fixed Capital Formation
Advanced Economies2.31.0−11.01.72.92.31.53.02.61.52.83.5
United States2.31.7−13.11.13.76.33.14.23.70.73.45.3
Euro Area2.7−0.4−11.2−0.31.6−3.5−2.51.53.22.62.72.7
Germany1.01.0−9.95.07.4−0.1−1.13.51.22.11.61.8
France3.40.2−9.12.12.10.2−0.8−0.31.02.72.32.7
Italy2.3−2.2−9.9−0.5−1.9−9.3−6.6−2.31.62.92.82.1
Spain5.3−2.4−16.9−4.9−6.9−8.6−3.43.86.03.13.12.7
Japan−1.00.6−9.7−1.61.73.54.92.90.01.02.41.6
United Kingdom1.80.8−15.25.01.92.33.26.73.40.50.81.3
Canada4.90.4−11.811.44.64.91.30.9−4.6−3.20.62.1
Other Advanced Economies13.72.1−5.15.94.02.92.62.11.71.92.73.0
Memorandum
Major Advanced Economies1.81.0−11.81.83.23.41.93.32.21.02.63.6
Final Domestic Demand
Advanced Economies2.51.3−2.61.71.31.01.01.82.32.02.12.1
United States2.81.6−3.11.51.71.91.22.63.12.12.62.9
Euro Area2.00.4−2.70.50.3−1.5−0.80.92.02.11.71.6
Germany0.91.3−1.41.42.51.00.61.51.92.31.51.5
France2.40.9−1.51.80.90.30.40.61.41.91.61.7
Italy1.3−0.6−2.90.7−0.8−4.5−2.8−0.41.11.51.10.8
Spain4.2−0.6−5.9−0.7−3.0−4.8−3.01.63.32.72.42.0
Japan0.60.8−2.41.40.52.32.80.20.10.81.20.7
United Kingdom2.81.0−4.41.10.01.81.62.92.32.01.51.1
Canada3.71.6−2.25.02.62.41.61.90.30.91.81.8
Other Advanced Economies13.52.3−0.74.32.92.22.32.32.52.32.62.7
Memorandum
Major Advanced Economies2.21.2−2.71.61.31.41.11.82.11.82.02.0
Stock Building2
Advanced Economies0.00.0−1.11.30.1−0.20.00.10.1−0.30.10.0
United States−0.10.1−0.81.5−0.10.10.2−0.10.2−0.40.20.1
Euro Area0.0−0.1−1.30.90.4−0.90.20.3−0.1−0.10.00.0
Germany−0.1−0.2−1.71.40.5−1.60.4−0.1−0.5−0.10.00.0
France0.00.1−1.10.31.1−0.60.20.50.10.00.10.0
Italy0.00.0−1.21.30.2−1.10.20.60.2−0.5−0.10.0
Spain0.00.0−0.20.2−0.1−0.2−0.30.30.10.10.00.0
Japan0.00.0−1.61.00.20.0−0.40.10.6−0.3−0.10.0
United Kingdom−0.10.1−0.51.5−0.60.20.30.7−0.2−0.50.00.0
Canada0.0−0.1−0.70.10.7−0.30.5−0.3−0.3−0.2−0.20.0
Other Advanced Economies10.2−0.1−1.91.90.2−0.3−0.80.20.1−0.40.10.0
Memorandum
Major Advanced Economies0.00.0−1.01.20.1−0.20.20.00.1−0.30.10.1
Foreign Balance2
Advanced Economies0.00.10.40.10.30.40.30.0−0.2−0.1−0.1−0.2
United States−0.2−0.11.2−0.50.00.10.3−0.2−0.7−0.1−0.5−0.6
Euro Area0.10.3−0.60.60.91.40.40.00.2−0.10.10.1
Germany0.70.1−2.61.10.91.4−0.30.30.1−0.30.20.1
France−0.3−0.2−0.4−0.10.00.5−0.1−0.5−0.3−0.9−0.3−0.1
Italy−0.10.2−1.3−0.31.22.80.8−0.1−0.5−0.1−0.10.1
Spain−0.70.92.80.52.12.21.5−0.5−0.10.50.30.1
Japan0.2−0.1−1.21.6−0.9−0.8−0.40.00.50.50.2−0.1
United Kingdom−0.2−0.10.3−0.81.4−0.7−0.8−0.40.0−0.40.30.3
Canada−0.70.10.0−2.1−0.3−0.40.31.11.00.70.30.2
Other Advanced Economies10.40.41.50.10.50.50.90.5−0.40.10.0−0.1
Memorandum
Major Advanced Economies−0.1−0.10.0−0.10.10.20.0−0.1−0.3−0.1−0.2−0.3

Excludes the G7 (Canada, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, United Kingdom, United States) and euro area countries.

Changes expressed as percent of GDP in the preceding period.

Table A4.Emerging Market and Developing Economies: Real GDP(Annual percent change)
AverageProjections
1999–200820092010201120122013201420152016201720182022
Commonwealth of Independent States1,27.2−6.44.74.63.52.11.1−2.20.31.72.12.4
Russia6.9−7.84.54.03.51.30.7−2.8−0.21.41.41.5
Excluding Russia8.0−2.55.06.23.64.22.0−0.51.82.53.54.4
Armenia10.5−14.12.24.77.13.33.63.00.22.92.94.0
Azerbaijan14.69.35.00.12.25.82.81.1−3.8−1.02.03.0
Belarus7.50.27.85.41.71.01.8−3.8−3.0−0.80.62.0
Georgia6.6−3.76.27.26.43.44.62.92.73.54.05.5
Kazakhstan8.71.27.37.55.06.04.31.21.12.53.44.6
Kyrgyz Republic4.72.9−0.56.0−0.110.94.03.53.83.43.85.4
Moldova4.9−6.07.16.8−0.79.44.8−0.44.04.53.73.9
Tajikistan8.13.96.57.47.57.46.76.06.94.55.06.0
Turkmenistan15.26.19.214.711.110.210.36.56.26.56.35.4
Ukraine36.2−15.10.35.50.20.0−6.6−9.82.32.03.24.0
Uzbekistan6.18.18.58.38.28.08.18.07.86.06.06.0
Emerging and Developing Asia8.07.59.67.97.06.96.86.76.46.46.46.3
Bangladesh5.85.36.06.56.36.06.36.86.96.97.07.0
Bhutan8.35.79.39.76.43.64.06.16.25.911.26.3
Brunei Darussalam1.9−1.82.73.70.9−2.1−2.5−0.4−3.2−1.30.75.3
Cambodia9.52.13.97.17.37.47.17.07.06.96.86.3
China10.19.210.69.57.97.87.36.96.76.66.25.7
Fiji1.9−1.43.02.71.44.75.63.62.03.73.73.5
India46.98.510.36.65.56.57.27.96.87.27.78.2
Indonesia4.94.76.46.26.05.65.04.95.05.15.35.5
Kiribati1.00.3−1.60.55.25.82.43.53.22.82.01.7
Lao P.D.R.6.67.58.18.07.98.08.07.56.96.86.76.7
Malaysia5.5−1.57.55.35.54.76.05.04.24.54.74.8
Maldives9.1−5.37.28.72.54.76.02.83.94.14.74.7
Marshall Islands1.96.41.73.72.4−0.90.61.41.81.81.61.2
Micronesia0.51.23.31.0−1.7−3.0−2.43.72.02.01.50.6
Mongolia6.2−2.17.317.312.311.67.92.41.0−0.21.88.5
Myanmar11.75.15.35.67.38.48.07.36.37.57.67.5
Nauru. . .8.713.611.710.134.236.52.810.44.0−4.02.0
Nepal4.14.54.83.44.84.16.02.70.65.54.53.8
Palau. . .−9.33.25.43.5−2.54.49.30.15.05.02.0
Papua New Guinea2.42.911.63.76.14.77.46.62.53.03.23.4
Philippines4.61.17.63.76.77.16.25.96.86.86.97.0
Samoa3.8−6.1−2.05.60.4−1.91.21.66.62.10.92.1
Solomon Islands1.6−4.76.912.94.63.02.01.83.23.03.03.2
Sri Lanka5.13.58.08.49.13.44.94.84.34.54.85.3
Thailand4.8−0.77.50.87.22.70.92.93.23.03.33.0
Timor-Leste5. . .13.010.28.35.82.95.94.35.04.06.05.2
Tonga1.13.03.21.8−1.1−0.62.93.63.53.93.61.8
Tuvalu. . .−4.4−2.78.50.21.32.22.64.02.32.31.9
Vanuatu3.03.31.61.21.82.02.3−0.84.04.54.03.0
Vietnam6.85.46.46.25.25.46.06.76.26.56.36.2
Emerging and Developing Europe4.3−3.04.66.52.44.93.94.73.03.03.33.1
Albania6.83.43.72.51.41.01.82.63.43.74.14.1
Bosnia and Herzegovina5.4−0.80.80.9−1.12.41.13.12.53.03.54.0
Bulgaria5.3−3.61.31.90.00.91.33.63.42.92.72.5
Croatia3.7−7.4−1.7−0.3−2.2−1.1−0.51.62.92.92.62.1
Hungary3.4−6.60.71.7−1.62.14.03.12.02.93.02.2
Kosovo. . .3.63.34.42.83.41.24.13.63.53.64.0
FYR Macedonia3.6−0.43.42.3−0.52.93.63.82.43.23.43.8
Montenegro. . .−5.72.53.2−2.73.51.83.42.43.33.43.1
Poland4.12.63.75.01.61.43.33.92.83.43.22.7
Romania5.4−7.1−0.81.10.63.53.13.94.84.23.43.3
Serbia4.1−3.10.61.4−1.02.6−1.80.82.83.03.54.0
Turkey4.0−4.78.511.14.88.55.26.12.92.53.33.4
Latin America and the Caribbean3.3−1.86.14.73.02.91.20.1−1.01.12.02.6
Antigua and Barbuda4.4−10.7−8.4−1.83.51.44.83.83.72.21.71.7
Argentina2.6−5.910.16.0−1.02.4−2.52.6−2.32.22.33.1
The Bahamas2.1−4.21.50.63.10.0−0.5−1.70.01.42.21.3
Barbados1.8−4.00.30.80.3−0.10.10.91.61.71.81.2
Belize5.70.83.32.13.70.74.12.9−1.03.02.32.0
Bolivia3.43.44.15.25.16.85.54.84.14.03.73.5
Brazil3.4−0.17.54.01.93.00.5−3.8−3.60.21.72.0
Chile4.3−1.65.86.15.34.02.02.31.61.72.33.3
Colombia3.41.74.06.64.04.94.43.12.02.33.03.6
Costa Rica4.7−1.05.04.34.82.33.74.74.34.04.03.8
Dominica2.8−1.20.7−0.2−1.10.84.2−1.80.63.02.11.5
Dominican Republic5.20.98.33.12.84.77.67.06.65.35.05.0
Ecuador3.30.63.57.95.64.94.00.2−2.2−1.6−0.31.6
El Salvador2.6−3.11.42.21.91.81.42.52.42.32.32.0
Grenada3.7−6.6−0.50.8−1.22.47.36.23.12.72.72.7
Guatemala3.60.52.94.23.03.74.24.13.03.33.54.0
Guyana1.83.34.45.44.85.23.83.13.33.53.62.8
Haiti0.73.1−5.55.52.94.22.81.21.41.03.03.0
Honduras4.5−2.43.73.84.12.83.13.63.63.43.63.8
Jamaica1.3−3.4−1.51.4−0.50.20.51.01.52.02.42.8
Mexico2.6−4.75.14.04.01.42.32.62.31.72.02.7
Nicaragua3.9−2.83.26.25.64.54.64.94.74.54.34.5
Panama5.71.65.811.89.26.66.15.85.05.86.16.0
Paraguay2.2−4.013.14.3−1.214.04.73.04.13.33.73.8
Peru5.11.08.56.56.05.82.43.33.93.53.73.5
St. Kitts and Nevis3.7−1.0−2.9−0.8−0.86.65.14.92.93.53.42.7
St. Lucia2.2−0.4−1.70.2−1.40.10.41.80.80.51.51.5
St. Vincent and the Grenadines3.5−2.0−2.30.21.32.50.20.61.82.52.82.8
Suriname4.13.05.25.82.72.90.4−2.7−10.5−1.20.83.0
Trinidad and Tobago7.6−4.43.3−0.31.32.7−0.6−0.6−5.10.33.41.4
Uruguay1.54.27.85.23.54.63.21.01.41.62.63.0
Venezuela3.4−3.2−1.54.25.61.3−3.9−6.2−18.0−7.4−4.1−1.3
Middle East, North Africa, Afghanistan, and Pakistan5.31.44.84.35.42.32.82.73.92.63.43.8
Afghanistan. . .20.68.46.514.03.91.30.82.03.03.55.5
Algeria4.01.63.62.83.32.83.83.84.21.40.62.3
Bahrain6.02.54.32.03.75.44.42.92.92.31.62.2
Djibouti3.31.64.17.34.85.06.06.56.57.07.06.0
Egypt5.14.75.11.82.23.32.94.44.33.54.56.0
Iran5.12.36.63.7−6.6−1.94.0−1.66.53.34.34.4
Iraq13.03.46.47.513.97.60.74.810.1−3.12.61.6
Jordan6.35.52.32.62.72.83.12.42.12.32.53.0
Kuwait5.9−7.1−2.410.97.90.40.62.12.5−0.23.52.9
Lebanon3.710.38.00.92.82.52.01.01.02.02.53.0
Libya44.5−3.12.5−64.2106.5−30.8−47.7−7.3−4.453.73.03.1
Mauritania5.2−1.04.84.75.86.15.60.91.53.82.74.0
Morocco4.44.23.85.23.04.52.64.51.54.43.94.7
Oman2.96.14.8−1.19.34.42.54.23.10.43.82.2
Pakistan5.10.42.63.63.83.74.14.04.75.05.25.9
Qatar11.312.018.113.44.74.44.03.62.73.42.81.6
Saudi Arabia3.2−2.14.810.35.42.73.74.11.40.41.32.1
Sudan66.24.72.5−1.2−3.05.21.64.93.03.73.63.5
Syria73.45.93.4. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .
Tunisia4.93.12.6−1.93.92.42.31.11.02.53.14.5
United Arab Emirates5.9−5.21.64.97.14.73.13.82.71.54.43.2
Yemen4.13.97.7−12.72.44.8−0.2−28.1−9.85.013.75.7
Sub-Saharan Africa5.63.97.05.04.35.35.13.41.42.63.53.9
Angola11.22.43.43.95.26.84.83.00.01.31.51.4
Benin4.52.32.13.04.87.26.42.14.05.46.06.2
Botswana5.2−7.78.66.04.511.34.1−1.72.94.14.24.1
Burkina Faso5.73.08.46.66.55.74.24.05.46.16.36.2
Burundi3.13.85.14.04.45.94.5−4.0−1.00.00.10.5
Cabo Verde7.4−1.31.54.01.10.80.61.14.04.04.14.2
Cameroon3.61.93.34.14.65.65.95.84.43.74.35.3
Central African Republic1.21.73.03.34.1−36.71.04.84.54.75.05.6
Chad7.84.113.60.18.85.86.91.8−6.40.32.44.2
Comoros2.01.82.12.23.03.52.01.02.23.34.04.0
Democratic Republic of the Congo2.42.97.16.97.18.59.56.92.42.83.54.9
Republic of Congo3.57.88.73.43.83.36.82.6−2.70.68.82.2
Côte d’Ivoire0.53.32.0−4.210.19.38.88.97.56.97.26.6
Equatorial Guinea27.01.3−8.96.58.3−4.1−0.5−7.4−10.0−5.0−5.1−1.7
Eritrea−1.13.92.28.77.03.15.04.83.73.33.64.0
Ethiopia8.110.010.611.48.79.910.310.48.07.57.57.3
Gabon−0.1−2.36.37.15.35.54.43.92.31.02.74.9
The Gambia3.76.46.5−4.35.64.80.94.32.53.03.54.0
Ghana5.34.87.914.09.37.34.03.94.05.89.25.3
Guinea3.1−0.31.93.33.21.51.10.15.24.34.94.1
Guinea-Bissau2.93.44.68.1−1.73.31.05.15.25.05.05.0
Kenya3.33.38.46.14.65.75.35.66.05.35.86.5
Lesotho3.54.56.94.55.33.63.42.52.92.22.44.1
Liberia. . .5.16.17.48.28.70.70.0−1.23.05.36.9
Madagascar4.0−4.70.31.53.02.33.33.14.14.54.85.0
Malawi3.88.36.94.91.95.25.72.92.34.55.05.5
Mali5.44.75.43.2−0.82.37.06.05.45.24.74.7
Mauritius4.33.04.13.93.23.23.63.53.63.94.04.1
Mozambique7.86.46.77.17.27.17.46.63.44.55.514.9
Namibia4.10.36.05.15.15.76.55.30.13.54.83.7
Niger4.4−0.78.42.211.85.37.03.54.65.25.56.7
Nigeria7.58.411.34.94.35.46.32.7−1.50.81.91.8
Rwanda8.06.37.37.88.84.77.68.95.96.16.87.5
São Tomé and Príncipe4.34.04.54.84.54.34.14.04.05.05.55.5
Senegal4.42.44.31.94.53.64.36.56.66.87.06.4
Seychelles2.2−1.15.95.43.75.06.25.74.44.13.43.3
Sierra Leone7.53.25.36.315.220.74.6−20.64.95.06.67.3
South Africa4.0−1.53.03.32.22.51.71.30.30.81.62.2
South Sudan. . .. . .. . .. . .−52.429.32.9−0.2−13.8−3.5−1.13.9
Swaziland3.64.53.52.03.54.83.61.1−0.40.30.30.7
Tanzania6.15.46.47.95.17.37.07.06.66.86.96.5
Togo1.63.54.14.85.96.15.45.35.05.05.35.6
Uganda7.58.17.76.82.64.05.25.04.75.05.88.1
Zambia6.49.210.35.67.65.14.72.93.03.54.04.5
Zimbabwe8−6.97.511.411.910.64.53.81.10.52.0−1.50.9

Data for some countries refer to real net material product (NMP) or are estimates based on NMP. The figures should be interpreted only as indicative of broad orders of magnitude because reliable, comparable data are not generally available. In particular, the growth of output of new private enterprises of the informal economy is not fully reflected in the recent figures.

Georgia, Turkmenistan, and Ukraine, which are not members of the Commonwealth of Independent States, are included in this group for reasons of geography and similarity in economic structure.

Data are based on the 2008 System of National Accounts. The revised national accounts data are available beginning in 2000 and exclude Crimea and Sevastopol from 2010 onward.

See country-specific notes for India and Libya in the “Country Notes” section of the Statistical Appendix.

In this table only, the data for Timor-Leste are based on non-oil GDP.

Data for 2011 exclude South Sudan after July 9. Data for 2012 and onward pertain to the current Sudan.

Data for Syria are excluded for 2011 onward owing to the uncertain political situation.

The Zimbabwe dollar ceased circulating in early 2009. Data are based on IMF staff estimates of price and exchange rate developments in U.S. dollars. IMF staff estimates of U.S. dollar values may differ from authorities’ estimates. Real GDP is in constant 2009 prices.

Table A5.Summary of Inflation(Percent)
AverageProjections
1999–200820092010201120122013201420152016201720182022
GDP Deflators
Advanced Economies1.80.70.91.41.21.21.41.21.01.61.71.9
United States2.30.81.22.11.81.61.81.11.32.22.22.1
Euro Area2.01.00.71.11.31.20.91.10.91.21.41.7
Japan−1.2−0.6−1.9−1.7−0.8−0.31.72.00.30.40.71.1
Other Advanced Economies12.10.92.02.01.21.41.31.01.01.81.82.1
Consumer Prices
Advanced Economies2.20.21.52.72.01.41.40.30.82.01.92.1
United States2.8−0.31.63.12.11.51.60.11.32.72.42.3
Euro Area22.20.31.62.72.51.30.40.00.21.71.51.9
Japan−0.2−1.3−0.7−0.3−0.10.32.80.8−0.11.00.61.6
Other Advanced Economies12.11.42.43.32.11.71.50.51.01.92.02.0
Emerging Market and Developing Economies37.55.05.67.15.85.54.74.74.44.74.44.1
Regional Groups
Commonwealth of Independent States418.811.17.29.86.26.58.115.58.35.75.34.5
Emerging and Developing Asia3.92.85.16.54.64.63.52.72.93.33.33.7
Emerging and Developing Europe15.44.85.75.56.14.54.13.23.25.75.54.6
Latin America and the Caribbean6.74.64.25.24.64.64.95.55.64.23.73.6
Middle East, North Africa, Afghanistan, and
Pakistan6.37.36.69.29.89.16.85.75.17.67.44.9
Middle East and North Africa6.36.16.28.79.79.36.65.95.48.17.74.9
Sub-Saharan Africa10.59.88.19.49.36.66.37.011.410.79.57.6
Memorandum
European Union2.71.02.03.12.61.50.50.00.21.81.72.0
Low-Income Developing Countries9.88.29.111.79.98.07.27.29.09.48.67.2
Analytical Groups
By Source of Export Earnings
Fuel12.07.56.48.37.87.76.38.67.36.66.55.0
Nonfuel6.24.35.46.85.34.94.33.83.74.24.03.9
Of Which, Primary Products5. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .
By External Financing Source
Net Debtor Economies8.37.26.87.77.06.35.75.65.45.95.54.8
Net Debtor Economies by
Debt-Servicing Experience
Economies with Arrears and/or
Rescheduling during 2011–159.012.710.110.47.96.910.716.010.016.512.86.5
Memorandum
Median Inflation Rate
Advanced Economies2.30.81.93.22.61.30.70.10.61.51.62.0
Emerging Market and Developing Economies35.43.74.15.44.53.93.22.72.83.63.53.1

Excludes the United States, euro area countries, and Japan.

Based on Eurostat’s harmonized index of consumer prices.

Excludes Argentina and Venezuela. See country-specific notes for Argentina and Venezuela in the “Country Notes” section of the Statistical Appendix.

Georgia, Turkmenistan, and Ukraine, which are not members of the Commonwealth of Independent States, are included in this group for reasons of geography and similarity in economic structure.

Data are missing because of Argentina, which accounts for more than 30 percent of the weights of the group. See country-specific notes for Argentina in the “Country Notes” section of the Statistical Appendix.

Table A6.Advanced Economies: Consumer Prices1(Annual percent change)
End of Period2
AverageProjectionsProjections
1999–200820092010201120122013201420152016201720182022201620172018
Advanced Economies2.20.21.52.72.01.41.40.30.82.01.92.11.51.92.0
United States2.8−0.31.63.12.11.51.60.11.32.72.42.32.22.32.7
Euro Area32.20.31.62.72.51.30.40.00.21.71.51.91.11.51.5
Germany1.70.21.12.52.11.60.80.10.42.01.72.41.71.61.8
France1.90.11.72.32.21.00.60.10.31.41.21.80.71.41.3
Italy2.40.81.62.93.31.20.20.1−0.11.31.31.40.51.41.3
Spain3.3−0.31.83.22.41.4−0.1−0.5−0.22.41.41.91.61.31.4
Netherlands2.41.00.92.52.82.60.30.20.10.91.41.60.51.21.5
Belgium2.20.02.33.42.61.20.50.61.82.01.72.02.21.41.9
Austria1.90.41.73.52.62.11.50.81.02.11.82.21.51.71.9
Greece3.31.34.73.11.0−0.9−1.4−1.10.01.31.41.70.31.31.2
Portugal2.9−0.91.43.62.80.4−0.20.50.61.21.41.80.92.61.9
Ireland3.4−1.7−1.61.21.90.50.30.0−0.20.91.51.9−0.21.41.6
Finland1.81.61.73.33.22.21.2−0.20.41.41.62.01.11.51.7
Slovak Republic6.20.90.74.13.71.5−0.1−0.3−0.51.21.52.00.21.41.6
Lithuania2.74.21.24.13.21.20.2−0.70.72.82.02.52.02.42.0
Slovenia5.40.81.81.82.61.80.2−0.5−0.11.52.02.00.51.42.0
Luxembourg2.80.02.83.72.91.70.70.10.11.41.32.02.3−1.22.7
Latvia5.63.3−1.24.22.30.00.70.20.12.82.52.32.11.51.7
Estonia4.70.22.75.14.23.20.50.10.83.22.52.52.43.42.3
Cyprus2.70.22.63.53.10.4−0.3−1.5−1.21.51.42.00.01.51.4
Malta2.61.82.02.53.21.00.81.20.91.51.61.81.01.51.7
Japan−0.2−1.3−0.7−0.3−0.10.32.80.8−0.11.00.61.60.30.80.6
United Kingdom31.82.23.34.52.82.61.50.10.62.52.62.01.22.82.5
Korea2.92.82.94.02.21.31.30.71.01.81.92.01.32.21.9
Canada2.30.31.82.91.50.91.91.11.42.02.12.01.42.12.2
Australia3.11.82.93.31.72.52.51.51.32.02.42.51.52.02.6
Taiwan Province of China1.1−0.91.01.41.90.81.2−0.31.41.41.32.01.71.41.3
Switzerland1.1−0.50.70.2−0.7−0.20.0−1.1−0.40.40.71.00.00.70.8
Sweden1.71.91.91.40.90.40.20.71.11.41.62.01.71.51.7
Singapore1.40.62.85.24.62.41.0−0.5−0.51.11.81.90.01.41.9
Hong Kong SAR−0.60.62.35.34.14.34.43.02.62.62.73.02.62.62.7
Norway2.12.22.41.30.72.12.02.23.62.62.52.53.52.62.5
Czech Republic2.91.01.51.93.31.40.30.30.72.31.82.02.02.31.8
Israel2.23.32.73.51.71.50.5−0.6−0.50.71.42.0−0.21.11.8
Denmark2.21.32.32.82.40.80.60.50.30.61.12.00.50.71.4
New Zealand2.52.12.34.01.11.11.20.30.61.52.02.01.31.72.0
Puerto Rico2.80.32.52.91.31.10.6−0.80.21.50.5−0.4−0.21.50.5
Macao SAR. . .1.22.85.86.15.56.04.62.42.02.23.01.42.02.2
Iceland5.312.05.44.05.23.92.01.61.72.22.62.51.92.42.7
San Marino. . .2.42.62.02.81.31.10.10.60.70.81.20.60.70.8
Memorandum
Major Advanced Economies2.0−0.11.42.61.91.31.50.30.82.11.92.11.61.92.1

Movements in consumer prices are shown as annual averages.

Monthly year-over-year changes and, for several countries, on a quarterly basis.

Based on Eurostat’s harmonized index of consumer prices.

Table A7.Emerging Market and Developing Economies: Consumer Prices1(Annual percent change)
End of Period2
AverageProjectionsProjections
1999–200820092010201120122013201420152016201720182022201620172018
Commonwealth of Independent States3,418.811.17.29.86.26.58.115.58.35.75.34.56.55.44.9
Russia19.811.76.98.45.16.87.815.57.04.54.24.05.44.44.0
Excluding Russia15.79.68.113.39.25.78.815.611.38.87.95.69.37.86.9
Armenia3.33.57.37.72.55.83.03.7−1.42.03.54.0−1.13.44.0
Azerbaijan5.91.65.77.91.02.41.44.012.410.08.06.013.34.24.1
Belarus49.113.07.753.259.218.318.113.511.89.38.76.010.610.09.1
Georgia8.01.77.18.5−0.9−0.53.14.02.15.72.43.01.85.43.0
Kazakhstan9.37.37.18.35.15.86.76.714.68.07.24.48.57.76.8
Kyrgyz Republic11.26.88.016.62.86.67.56.50.43.65.25.0−0.54.75.5
Moldova15.50.07.47.64.64.65.19.66.45.55.95.02.46.55.5
Tajikistan18.16.46.512.45.85.06.15.85.95.86.06.06.16.36.0
Turkmenistan10.2−2.74.45.35.36.86.07.43.56.06.26.26.26.16.2
Ukraine513.515.99.48.00.6−0.312.148.713.911.59.55.012.410.07.0
Uzbekistan17.412.312.312.411.911.79.18.58.08.68.89.07.98.29.0
Emerging and Developing Asia3.92.85.16.54.64.63.52.72.93.33.33.73.03.43.3
Bangladesh5.74.99.411.56.27.57.06.26.46.45.85.66.26.45.8
Bhutan5.06.35.77.39.311.39.96.34.24.14.64.73.74.24.6
Brunei Darussalam0.51.00.20.10.10.4−0.2−0.4−0.7−0.10.00.2−1.60.10.3
Cambodia4.9−0.74.05.52.93.03.91.23.03.23.13.03.53.13.0
China1.8−0.73.35.42.62.62.01.42.02.42.33.02.12.52.3
Fiji3.23.73.77.33.42.90.51.43.94.03.53.03.94.03.5
India4.810.69.59.59.99.45.94.94.94.85.15.04.94.95.1
Indonesia10.05.05.15.34.06.46.46.43.54.54.54.03.04.54.4
Kiribati2.79.8−3.91.5−3.0−1.52.10.61.92.22.52.51.92.22.5
Lao P.D.R.17.10.06.07.64.36.44.11.32.02.32.73.13.22.32.6
Malaysia2.40.61.73.21.72.13.12.12.12.72.93.01.82.72.9
Maldives3.14.56.211.310.94.02.51.40.92.51.92.52.21.62.2
Marshall Islands. . .0.51.85.44.31.91.1−2.20.91.11.82.10.91.11.8
Micronesia2.57.73.74.16.32.20.7−0.21.32.62.42.01.32.62.4
Mongolia8.96.310.27.715.08.612.95.90.54.05.16.50.56.16.1
Myanmar19.92.28.22.82.85.75.110.07.06.96.75.78.37.16.5
Nauru. . .22.4−2.0−3.40.3−1.10.39.88.26.02.02.08.25.02.0
Nepal5.412.69.69.68.39.99.07.29.96.77.66.510.46.57.5
Palau. . .1.41.44.73.63.44.10.9−1.02.02.02.00.42.02.0
Papua New Guinea8.36.95.14.44.55.05.26.06.97.56.56.07.07.56.0
Philippines5.14.23.84.73.22.94.21.41.83.63.33.02.63.73.0
Samoa4.314.6−0.22.96.2−0.2−1.21.90.11.81.93.02.31.42.4
Solomon Islands9.27.11.07.45.95.45.2−0.60.42.52.63.1−3.05.43.3
Sri Lanka11.13.56.26.77.56.93.30.93.75.85.05.04.55.15.0
Thailand1.9−0.83.33.83.02.21.9−0.90.21.41.52.51.11.61.2
Timor-Leste. . .−0.25.213.210.99.50.70.6−1.31.02.74.00.02.03.5
Tonga8.03.53.94.62.01.51.2−0.31.43.73.42.62.53.93.0
Tuvalu. . .−0.3−1.90.51.42.01.13.23.52.92.82.53.52.92.8
Vanuatu2.84.32.80.91.31.50.82.52.22.62.83.02.52.72.9
Vietnam6.36.79.218.79.16.64.10.62.74.95.05.04.75.05.0
Emerging and Developing Europe15.44.85.75.56.14.54.13.23.25.75.54.64.25.85.4
Albania2.52.33.63.42.01.91.61.91.32.32.93.02.22.63.0
Bosnia and Herzegovina3.2−0.42.13.72.0−0.1−0.9−1.0−1.11.41.72.0−0.31.92.1
Bulgaria66.72.53.03.42.40.4−1.6−1.1−1.31.01.82.1−0.51.71.8
Croatia3.32.41.02.33.42.2−0.2−0.5−1.11.11.12.00.20.81.2
Hungary6.74.24.93.95.71.7−0.2−0.10.42.53.33.01.82.83.0
Kosovo. . .−2.43.57.32.51.80.4−0.50.30.91.82.01.31.01.8
FYR Macedonia2.6−0.71.53.93.32.8−0.3−0.3−0.20.61.72.0−0.21.51.9
Montenegro. . .3.60.63.54.02.1−0.81.2−0.42.11.51.90.81.51.4
Poland3.93.42.64.33.70.90.0−0.9−0.62.32.32.50.82.32.4
Romania19.45.66.15.83.34.01.1−0.6−1.61.33.12.5−0.52.23.1
Serbia23.58.16.111.17.37.72.11.41.12.63.03.01.52.63.0
Turkey27.26.38.66.58.97.58.97.77.810.19.17.08.510.08.8
Latin America and the Caribbean76.74.64.25.24.64.64.95.55.64.23.73.64.64.23.7
Antigua and Barbuda2.0−0.63.43.53.41.11.11.0−0.41.72.42.5−0.62.32.4
Argentina87.66.310.59.810.010.6. . .. . .. . .25.618.79.1. . .21.617.2
The Bahamas2.21.71.63.11.90.41.21.90.41.51.51.50.41.51.5
Barbados3.53.65.89.44.51.81.9−1.10.32.02.52.50.82.42.5
Belize2.5−1.10.91.71.20.51.2−0.91.22.42.32.02.32.42.3
Bolivia4.73.32.59.94.55.75.84.13.64.05.05.04.04.75.0
Brazil6.84.95.06.65.46.26.39.08.74.44.34.56.34.44.5
Chile3.71.51.43.33.01.94.44.33.82.83.03.02.83.13.0
Colombia6.94.22.33.43.22.02.95.07.54.53.23.05.74.13.0
Costa Rica11.17.85.74.94.55.24.50.80.01.93.03.00.83.03.0
Dominica2.10.02.81.11.40.00.8−0.80.00.61.42.0−0.21.41.4
Dominican Republic12.81.46.38.53.74.83.00.81.63.94.24.01.74.34.0
Ecuador19.65.23.64.55.12.73.64.01.70.30.61.41.10.30.7
El Salvador3.50.51.25.11.70.81.1−0.70.60.92.32.0−0.92.72.0
Grenada2.9−0.33.43.02.40.0−0.8−0.61.82.92.11.91.43.21.8
Guatemala7.31.93.96.23.84.33.42.44.53.64.04.04.24.04.0
Guyana6.63.04.34.42.41.90.7−0.90.82.32.73.11.52.62.7
Haiti15.33.44.17.46.86.83.97.513.413.16.45.012.511.05.0
Honduras8.85.54.76.85.25.26.13.22.73.84.54.53.34.74.5
Jamaica10.69.612.67.56.99.48.33.73.84.55.35.44.05.05.5
Mexico6.35.34.23.44.13.84.02.72.84.83.23.03.44.63.1
Nicaragua9.73.75.58.17.27.16.04.03.15.97.47.23.15.97.4
Panama2.32.43.55.95.74.02.60.10.72.02.32.31.52.52.3
Paraguay8.62.64.78.33.72.75.03.14.14.04.04.03.94.14.0
Peru2.62.91.53.43.72.83.23.53.63.12.62.53.22.92.5
St. Kitts and Nevis3.62.10.95.80.81.10.2−2.3−0.41.21.61.90.91.51.6
St. Lucia3.0−0.23.32.84.21.53.5−1.0−1.71.90.71.50.60.71.1
St. Vincent and the Grenadines2.90.40.83.22.60.80.2−1.7−0.11.31.31.41.31.31.3
Suriname21.0−0.36.917.75.01.93.46.955.532.127.33.452.429.918.9
Trinidad and Tobago5.97.010.55.19.35.25.74.73.43.74.74.83.43.74.7
Uruguay8.37.16.78.18.18.68.98.79.67.77.56.18.18.47.1
Venezuela820.527.128.226.121.140.662.2121.7254.9720.5 2,068.5 4,684.8274.41,133.8 2,529.6
Middle East, North Africa, Afghanistan, and Pakistan6.37.36.69.29.89.16.85.75.17.67.44.95.98.46.6
Afghanistan. . .−6.82.211.86.47.44.7−1.54.46.06.06.04.67.26.0
Algeria2.95.73.94.58.93.32.94.86.44.84.34.05.94.84.3
Bahrain1.22.82.0−0.42.83.32.71.82.81.33.41.72.31.53.1
Djibouti3.21.74.05.13.72.42.92.13.03.03.03.03.03.03.0
Egypt5.816.211.711.18.66.910.111.010.222.016.97.014.026.111.4
Iran15.610.712.421.230.834.715.611.98.911.211.08.710.511.910.7
Iraq. . .−2.22.45.66.11.92.21.40.42.02.02.0−1.02.02.0
Jordan3.8−0.74.84.24.54.82.9−0.9−0.82.32.52.50.82.52.5