Chapter

Statistical Appendix

Author(s):
International Monetary Fund. Research Dept.
Published Date:
April 2015
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The Statistical Appendix presents historical data as well as projections. It comprises six sections: Assumptions, What’s New, Data and Conventions, Classification of Countries, Key Data Documentation, and Statistical Tables.

The assumptions underlying the estimates and projections for 2015–16 and the medium-term scenario for 2017–20 are summarized in the first section. The second section presents a brief description of the changes to the database and statistical tables since the October 2014 World Economic Outlook (WEO). The third section provides a general description of the data and the conventions used for calculating country group composites. The classification of countries in the various groups presented in the WEO is summarized in the fourth section. The fifth section provides information on methods and reporting standards for the member countries’ national account and government finance indicators included in the report.

The last, and main, section comprises the statistical tables. (Statistical Appendix A is included here; Statistical Appendix B is available online.) Data in these tables have been compiled on the basis of information available through April 3, 2015. The figures for 2015 and beyond are shown with the same degree of precision as the historical figures solely for convenience; because they are projections, the same degree of accuracy is not to be inferred.

Assumptions

Real effective exchange rates for the advanced economies are assumed to remain constant at their average levels during the period February 6 to March 6, 2015. For 2015 and 2016, these assumptions imply average U.S. dollar/special drawing right (SDR) conversion rates of 1.411 and 1.415, U.S. dollar/euro conversion rates of 1.132 and 1.133, and yen/U.S. dollar conversion rates of 118.9 and 117.1, respectively.

It is assumed that the price of oil will average $58.14 a barrel in 2015 and $65.65 a barrel in 2016.

Established policies of national authorities are assumed to be maintained. The more specific policy assumptions underlying the projections for selected economies are described in Box A1.

With regard to interest rates, it is assumed that the London interbank offered rate (LIBOR) on six-month U.S. dollar deposits will average 0.7 percent in 2015 and 1.9 percent in 2016, that three-month euro deposits will average 0.0 percent in 2015 and 2016, and that six-month yen deposits will average 0.1 percent in 2015 and 0.2 percent in 2016.

With respect to introduction of the euro, on December 31, 1998, the Council of the European Union decided that, effective January 1, 1999, the irrevocably fixed conversion rates between the euro and currencies of the member countries adopting the euro are as follows:

1 euro=13.7603Austrian schillings
=40.3399Belgian francs
=0.585274Cyprus pound1
=1.95583Deutsche marks
=15.6466Estonian krooni2
=5.94573Finnish markkaa
=6.55957French francs
=340.750Greek drachmas3
=0.787564Irish pound
=1,936.27Italian lire
=0.702804Latvian lat4
=3.45280Lithuanian litas5
=40.3399Luxembourg francs
=0.42930Maltese lira1
=2.20371Netherlands guilders
=200.482Portuguese escudos
=30.1260Slovak koruna6
=239.640Slovenian tolars7
=166.386Spanish pesetas

Established on January 1, 2008.

Established on January 1, 2011.

Established on January 1, 2001.

Established on January 1, 2014.

Established on January 1, 2015.

Established on January 1, 2009.

Established on January 1, 2007.

See Box 5.4 in the October 1998 WEO for details on how the conversion rates were established.

What’s New

  • On January 1, 2015, Lithuania became the 19th country to join the euro area. Data for Lithuania are not included in the euro area aggregates because Eurostat has not fully released the consolidated data for the group, but the data are included in the advanced economies and subgroups aggregated by the WEO.

  • As in the October 2014 WEO, data for Syria are excluded from 2011 onward because of the uncertain political situation.

  • As in the October 2014 WEO, the consumer price projections for Argentina are excluded because of a structural break in the data. Please refer to note 6 in Table A7 for further details.

  • Because of the ongoing IMF program with Pakistan, the series from which nominal exchange rate assumptions are calculated are not made public—the nominal exchange rate is a market-sensitive issue in Pakistan.

  • The series from which the nominal exchange rate assumptions are calculated are not made public for Egypt because the nominal exchange rate is a market-sensitive issue in Egypt.

  • Starting with the April 2015 WEO, the classification for official external financing among emerging market and developing economies classified as net debtors has been eliminated because of a lack of available data.

Data and Conventions

Data and projections for 189 economies form the statistical basis of the WEO database. The data are maintained jointly by the IMF’s Research Department and regional departments, with the latter regularly updating country projections based on consistent global assumptions.

Although national statistical agencies are the ultimate providers of historical data and definitions, international organizations are also involved in statistical issues, with the objective of harmonizing methodologies for the compilation of national statistics, including analytical frameworks, concepts, definitions, classifications, and valuation procedures used in the production of economic statistics. The WEO database reflects information from both national source agencies and international organizations.

Most countries’ macroeconomic data presented in the WEO conform broadly to the 1993 version of the System of National Accounts (SNA). The IMF’s sector statistical standards—the Balance of Payments Manual and International Investment Position Manual (BPM6), the Monetary and Financial Statistics Manual (MFSM 2000), and the Government Finance Statistics Manual 2001 (GFSM 2001)—have been or are being aligned with the SNA 2008.1 These standards reflect the IMF’s special interest in countries’ external positions, financial sector stability, and public sector fiscal positions. The process of adapting country data to the new standards begins in earnest when the manuals are released. However, full concordance with the manuals is ultimately dependent on the provision by national statistical compilers of revised country data; hence, the WEO estimates are only partially adapted to these manuals. Nonetheless, for many countries the impact, on major balances and aggregates, of conversion to the updated standards will be small. Many other countries have partially adopted the latest standards and will continue implementation over a period of years.

Composite data for country groups in the WEO are either sums or weighted averages of data for individual countries. Unless noted otherwise, multiyear averages of growth rates are expressed as compound annual rates of change.2 Arithmetically weighted averages are used for all data for the emerging market and developing economies group except data on inflation and money growth, for which geometric averages are used. The following conventions apply:

  • Country group composites for exchange rates, interest rates, and growth rates of monetary aggregates are weighted by GDP converted to U.S. dollars at market exchange rates (averaged over the preceding three years) as a share of group GDP.

  • Composites for other data relating to the domestic economy, whether growth rates or ratios, are weighted by GDP valued at purchasing power parity as a share of total world or group GDP.3

  • Unless noted otherwise, composites for all sectors for the euro area are corrected for reporting discrepancies in intra-area transactions. Annual data are not adjusted for calendar-day effects. For data prior to 1999, data aggregations apply 1995 European currency unit exchange rates.

  • Composites for fiscal data are sums of individual country data after conversion to U.S. dollars at the average market exchange rates in the years indicated.

  • Composite unemployment rates and employment growth are weighted by labor force as a share of group labor force.

  • Composites relating to external sector statistics are sums of individual country data after conversion to U.S. dollars at the average market exchange rates in the years indicated for balance of payments data and at end-of-year market exchange rates for debt denominated in currencies other than U.S. dollars.

  • Composites of changes in foreign trade volumes and prices, however, are arithmetic averages of percent changes for individual countries weighted by the U.S. dollar value of exports or imports as a share of total world or group exports or imports (in the preceding year).

  • Unless noted otherwise, group composites are computed if 90 percent or more of the share of group weights is represented.

Data refer to calendar years, except in the case of a few countries that use fiscal years. Please refer to Table F, which lists the economies with exceptional reporting periods for national accounts and government finance data for each country.

Table A.Classification by World Economic Outlook Groups and Their Shares in Aggregate GDP, Exports of Goods and Services, and Population, 20141(Percent of total for group or world)
GDPExports of Goods

and Services
Population
Number of

Economies
Advanced

Economies
WorldAdvanced

Economies
WorldAdvanced

Economies
World
Advanced Economies37100.043.1100.062.0100.014.7
United States37.416.116.110.030.64.5
Euro Area21828.112.140.825.331.84.7
Germany8.03.412.17.57.81.1
France5.52.45.83.66.10.9
Italy4.62.04.32.75.70.8
Spain3.41.53.11.94.50.7
Japan10.24.45.93.712.21.8
United Kingdom5.52.45.73.66.20.9
Canada3.41.53.92.43.40.5
Other Advanced Economies1515.46.627.617.115.82.3
Memorandum
Major Advanced Economies774.732.253.833.472.010.6

The GDP shares are based on the purchasing-power-parity valuation of economies’ GDP. The number of economies comprising each group reflects those for which data are included in the group aggregates.

Data for Lithuania are not included in the euro area aggregates because Eurostat has not fully released the consolidated data for the group.

Georgia, Turkmenistan, and Ukraine, which are not members of the Commonwealth of Independent States, are included in this group for reasons of geography and similarity in economic structure.

South Sudan is omitted from the net external position groups composite for lack of a fully developed database.

Emerging

Market and

Developing

Economies
WorldEmerging

Market and

Developing

Economies
WorldEmerging

Market and

Developing

Economies
World
Emerging Market and Developing Economies152100.056.9100.038.0100.085.3
Regional Groups
Commonwealth of Independent States3128.24.79.43.64.74.0
Russia5.83.36.32.42.42.0
Emerging and Developing Asia2951.929.545.417.257.248.8
China28.716.327.810.522.619.3
India12.06.85.42.120.817.7
Excluding China and India2711.26.412.24.613.811.8
Emerging and Developing Europe125.83.38.93.42.82.4
Latin America and the Caribbean3215.28.713.75.29.98.5
Brazil5.33.03.01.13.32.9
Mexico3.52.04.71.82.01.7
Middle East, North Africa, Afghanistan, and
Pakistan2213.47.617.46.610.59.0
Middle East and North Africa2011.96.817.16.57.05.9
Sub-Saharan Africa455.43.15.22.014.812.6
Excluding Nigeria and South Africa432.61.52.91.111.09.4
Analytical Groups4
By Source of Export Earnings
Fuel2920.811.827.810.512.410.6
Nonfuel12379.245.172.227.487.674.8
Of Which, Primary Products284.92.84.61.77.66.5
By External Financing Source
Net Debtor Economies12350.928.945.517.365.856.2
Net Debtor Economies by Debt-
Servicing Experience
Economies with Arrears and/or
Rescheduling during 2009-13162.51.41.50.64.94.1
Other Groups
Heavily Indebted Poor Countries382.41.41.90.711.19.5
Low-Income Developing Countries597.44.26.22.422.419.1

The GDP shares are based on the purchasing-power-parity valuation of economies’ GDP. The number of economies comprising each group reflects those for which data are included in the group aggregates.

Data for Lithuania are not included in the euro area aggregates because Eurostat has not fully released the consolidated data for the group.

Georgia, Turkmenistan, and Ukraine, which are not members of the Commonwealth of Independent States, are included in this group for reasons of geography and similarity in economic structure.

South Sudan is omitted from the net external position groups composite for lack of a fully developed database.

Table B.Advanced Economies by Subgroup
Major Currency Areas
United States
Euro Area
Japan
Euro Area1
AustriaGermanyMalta
BelgiumGreeceNetherlands
CyprusIrelandPortugal
EstoniaItalySlovak Republic
FinlandLatviaSlovenia
FranceLuxembourgSpain
Major Advanced Economies
CanadaItalyUnited States
FranceJapan
GermanyUnited Kingdom
Other Advanced Economies
AustraliaIsraelSan Marino
Czech RepublicKoreaSingapore
DenmarkLithuaniaSweden
Hong Kong SAR2New ZealandSwitzerland
IcelandNorwayTaiwan Province of China

Data for Lithuania are not included in the euro area aggregates because Eurostat has not fully released the consolidated data for the group.

On July 1, 1997, Hong Kong was returned to the People’s Republic of China and became a Special Administrative Region of China.

Table C.European Union
AustriaGermanyPoland
BelgiumGreecePortugal
BulgariaHungaryRomania
CroatiaIrelandSlovak Republic
CyprusItalySlovenia
Czech RepublicLatviaSpain
DenmarkLithuaniaSweden
EstoniaLuxembourgUnited Kingdom
FinlandMalta
FranceNetherlands
Table D.Emerging Market and Developing Economies by Region and Main Source of Export Earnings
FuelNonfuel Primary Products
Commonwealth of Independent States1
AzerbaijanUzbekistan
Kazakhstan
Russia
Turkmenistan
Emerging and Developing Asia
Brunei DarussalamMongolia
Timor-LestePapua New Guinea
Solomon Islands
Tuvalu
Latin America and the Caribbean
BoliviaArgentina
ColombiaChile
EcuadorGuyana
Trinidad and TobagoParaguay
VenezuelaSuriname Uruguay
Middle East, North Africa, Afghanistan, and Pakistan
AlgeriaAfghanistan
BahrainMauritania
IranSudan
Iraq
Kuwait
Libya
Oman
Qatar
Saudi Arabia
United Arab Emirates
Yemen
Sub-Saharan Africa
AngolaBurkina Faso
ChadBurundi
Republic of CongoCôte d’Ivoire
Equatorial GuineaDemocratic Republic of the Congo
GabonEritrea
NigeriaGuinea
South SudanGuinea-Bissau
Liberia
Malawi
Mali
Niger
Sierra Leone
South Africa
Zambia

Turkmenistan, which is not a member of the Commonwealth of Independent States, is included in this group for reasons of geography and similarity in economic structure.

Table E.Emerging Market and Developing Economies by Region, Net External Position, and Status as Heavily Indebted Poor Countries and Low-Income Developing Countries
Net External Position1Heavily Indebted Poor Countries2Low-Income Developing Countries
Commonwealth of Independent States3
Armenia
Azerbaijan
Belarus
Georgia
Kazakhstan
Kyrgyz Republic
Moldova
Russia
Tajikistan
Turkmenistan
Ukraine
Uzbekistan
Emerging and Developing Asia
Bangladesh
Bhutan
Brunei Darussalam
Cambodia
China
Fiji
India
Indonesia
Kiribati
Lao P.D.R.
Malaysia
Maldives
Marshall Islands
Micronesia
Mongolia
Myanmar
Nepal
Palau
Papua New Guinea
Philippines
Samoa
Solomon Islands
Sri Lanka
Thailand
Timor-Leste
Tonga
Tuvalu
Vanuatu
Vietnam
Emerging and Developing Europe
Albania
Bosnia and Herzegovina
Bulgaria
Croatia
Hungary
Kosovo
FYR Macedonia
Montenegro
Poland
Romania
Serbia
Turkey
Latin America and the Caribbean
Antigua and Barbuda
Argentina
The Bahamas
Barbados
Belize
Bolivia
Brazil
Chile
Colombia
Costa Rica
Dominica
Dominican Republic
Ecuador
El Salvador
Grenada
Guatemala
Guyana
Haiti
Honduras
Jamaica
Mexico
Nicaragua
Panama
Paraguay
Peru
St. Kitts and Nevis
St. Lucia
St. Vincent and the Grenadines
Suriname
Trinidad and Tobago
Uruguay
Venezuela
Middle East, North Africa, Afghanistan, and Pakistan
Afghanistan
Algeria
Bahrain
Djibouti
Egypt
Iran
Iraq
Jordan
Kuwait
Lebanon
Libya
Mauritania
Morocco
Oman
Pakistan
Qatar
Saudi Arabia
Sudan
Syria
Tunisia
United Arab Emirates
Yemen
Sub-Saharan Africa
Angola
Benin
Botswana
Burkina Faso
Burundi
Cabo Verde
Cameroon
Central African Republic
Chad
Comoros
Democratic Republic of the Congo
Republic of Congo
Côte d’Ivoire
Equatorial Guinea
Eritrea
Ethiopia
Gabon
The Gambia
Ghana
Guinea
Guinea-Bissau
Kenya
Lesotho
Liberia
Madagascar
Malawi
Mali
Mauritius
Mozambique
Namibia
Niger
Nigeria
Rwanda
São Tomé and Príncipe
Senegal
Seychelles
Sierra Leone
South Africa
South Sudan4
Swaziland
Tanzania
Togo
Uganda
Zambia
Zimbabwe

Dot (star) indicates that the country is a net creditor (net debtor).

Dot instead of star indicates that the country has reached the completion point.

Georgia, Turkmenistan, and Ukraine, which are not members of the Commonwealth of Independent States, are included in this group for reasons of geography and similarity in economic structure.

South Sudan is omitted from the net external position group composite for lack of a fully developed database.

Table F.Economies with Exceptional Reporting Periods1
National AccountsGovernment Finance
The BahamasJul/Jun
BangladeshJul/Jun
BarbadosApr/Mar
BelizeApr/Mar
BhutanJul/JunJul/Jun
BotswanaApr/Mar
DominicaJul/Jun
EgyptJul/JunJul/Jun
EthiopiaJul/JunJul/Jun
HaitiOct/SepOct/Sep
Hong Kong SARApr/Mar
IndiaApr/MarApr/Mar
IranApr/MarApr/Mar
JamaicaApr/Mar
Lao P.D.R.Oct/Sep
LesothoApr/Mar
MalawiJul/Jun
Marshall IslandsOct/SepOct/Sep
MicronesiaOct/SepOct/Sep
MyanmarApr/MarApr/Mar
NamibiaApr/Mar
NepalAug/JulAug/Jul
PakistanJul/JunJul/Jun
PalauOct/SepOct/Sep
QatarApr/Mar
SamoaJul/JunJul/Jun
SingaporeApr/Mar
St. LuciaApr/Mar
SwazilandApr/Mar
ThailandOct/Sep
TongaJul/Jun
Trinidad and TobagoOct/Sep

Unless noted otherwise, all data refer to calendar years.

For some countries, the figures for 2014 and earlier are based on estimates rather than actual outturns. Please refer to Table G, which lists the latest actual outturns for the indicators in the national accounts, prices, government finance, and balance of payments indicators for each country.

Table G.Key Data Documentation
National AccountsPrices (CPI)
CountryCurrencyHistorical Data Source1Latest Actual DataBase Year2System of National AccountsUse of Chain-Weighted Methodology3Historical Data Source1Latest Actual Data
AfghanistanAfghan AfghaniNSO20132002SNA 1993NSO2014
AlbaniaAlbanian lekIMF staff20121996SNA 1993From 1996NSO2013
AlgeriaAlgerian dinarNSO20132001SNA 1993From 2005NSO2014
AngolaAngolan kwanzaNSO20122002ESA 1995CB2014
Antigua and BarbudaEastern Caribbean dollarCB201320066SNA 1993NSO2014
ArgentinaArgentine pesoMEP20132004SNA 2008NSO2013
ArmeniaArmenian dramNSO20132005SNA 1993NSO2014
AustraliaAustralian dollarNSO20142012/13SNA 2008From 1980NSO2013
AustriaEuroNSO20132010ESA 2010From 1995NSO2014
AzerbaijanAzerbaijan manatNSO20132003SNA 1993From 1994NSO2013
The BahamasBahamian dollarNSO20132006SNA 1993NSO2013
BahrainBahrain dinarMoF20142010SNA 2008NSO2014
BangladeshBangladesh takaNSO20132005SNA 1993NSO2014
BarbadosBarbados dollarNSO and CB201319746SNA 1993CB2014
BelarusBelarusian rubelNSO20132009ESA 1995From 2005NSO2014
BelgiumEuroCB20142012ESA 2010From 1995CB2014
BelizeBelize dollarNSO20132000SNA 1993NSO2013
BeninCFA francNSO20122000SNA 1993NSO2013
BhutanBhutanese ngultrumNSO2011/1220006OtherCB2013
BoliviaBolivian bolivianoNSO20131990OtherNSO2014
Bosnia and HerzegovinaConvertible markaNSO20122010ESA 1995From 2000NSO2013
BotswanaBotswana pulaNSO20122006SNA 1993NSO2013
BrazilBrazilian realNSO20141995SNA 2008NSO2014
Brunei DarussalamBrunei dollarNSO and PMO20132000SNA 1993NSO and PMO2013
BulgariaBulgarian levNSO20132010ESA 2010From 2010NSO2014
Burkina FasoCFA francNSO and MEP20121999SNA 1993NSO2014
BurundiBurundi francNSO20112005SNA 1993NSO2012
Cabo VerdeCabo Verde escudoNSO20122007SNA 1993From 2011NSO2014
CambodiaCambodian rielNSO20132000SNA 1993NSO2013
CameroonCFA francNSO20131990SNA 1993NSO2013
CanadaCanadian dollarNSO20142007SNA 2008From 1980NSO2014
Central African RepublicCFA francNSO20122005SNA 1993NSO2014
ChadCFA francCB20132005OtherNSO2013
ChileChilean pesoCB20132008SNA 2008From 2003NSO2014
ChinaChinese yuanNSO201319906SNA 2008NSO2014
ColombiaColombian pesoNSO20132005OtherFrom 2000NSO2014
ComorosComorian francNSO20132000OtherNSO2013
Democratic Republic of the CongoCongo francNSO20062005SNA 1993CB2014
Republic of CongoCFA francNSO20131990SNA 1993NSO2013
Costa RicaCosta Rican colónCB20131991SNA 1993CB2013
Note: BPM = Balance of Payments Manual (number following abbreviation signifies edition); CPI = consumer price index; ESA = European System of National Accounts; SNA = System of National Accounts.

BEA = U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis; CB = Central Bank; FEO = Foreign Exchange Office; IFS = IMF, International Financial Statistics; MEP = Ministry of Economy and/or Planning; MIAC = Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications; MoC = Ministry of Commerce; MoF = Ministry of Finance; NESDB = National Economic and Social Development Board; NSO = National Statistics Office; OECD = Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development; PFTAC = Pacific Financial Technical Assistance Centre; PMO = Prime Minister’s Office; SAFE = State Administration of Foreign Exchange.

National accounts base year is the period with which other periods are compared and the period for which prices appear in the denominators of the price relationships used to calculate the index.

Use of chain-weighted methodology allows countries to measure GDP growth more accurately by reducing or eliminating the downward biases in volume series built on index numbers that average volume components using weights from a year in the moderately distant past.

For some countries, the structures of government consist of a broader coverage than specified for the general government. Coverage: BCG = Budgetary Central Government; CG = Central Government; LG = Local Government; MPC = Monetary Public Corporation, including Central Bank; NFPC = Nonfinancial Public Corporations; NMPC = Nonmonetary Financial Public Corporations; SG = State Government; SS = Social Security Funds; TG = Territorial Governments.

Accounting Standard: A = Accrual; C = Cash.

Nominal GDP is not measured in the same way as real GDP.

Government FinanceBalance of Payments
CountryHistorical Data Source1Latest Actual DataStatistics Manual in Use at SourceSubsectors Coverage4Accounting Practice5Historical Data Source1Latest Actual DataStatistics Manual in Use at Source
AfghanistanMoF20132001CGCNSO2013BPM 5
AlbaniaIMF staff20121986CG,LG,SSOtherCB2012BPM 5
AlgeriaCB20141986CGCCB2014BPM 5
AngolaMoF20132001CG,LGOtherCB2013BPM 5
Antigua and BarbudaMoF20132001CGCCB2013BPM 5
ArgentinaMEP20131986CG,SG,LG,SSCCB2013BPM 5
ArmeniaMoF20132001CGCCB2013BPM 5
AustraliaMoF2013/142001CG,SG,LG,TGANSO2013BPM 6
AustriaNSO20132001CG,SG,LG,SSACB2013BPM 6
AzerbaijanMoF2012OtherCGCCB2012BPM 5
The BahamasMoF2013/142001CGCCB2013BPM 5
BahrainMoF20141986CGCCB2013BPM 5
BangladeshMoF2013/14OtherCGCCB2013BPM 4
BarbadosMoF2013/141986CG,SS,NFPCCCB2013BPM 5
BelarusMoF20132001CG,LG,SSCCB2013BPM 6
BelgiumCB20132001CG,SG,LG,SSACB2014BPM 6
BelizeMoF2013/141986CG,MPCCCB2013BPM 5
BeninMoF20132001CGCCB2012BPM 5
BhutanMoF2012/131986CGCCB2011/12BPM 6
BoliviaMoF20132001CG,LG,SS,MPC, NMPC,NFPCCCB2013BPM 5
Bosnia and HerzegovinaMoF20132001CG,SG,LG,SSACB2013BPM 6
BotswanaMoF2011/121986CGCCB2012BPM 5
BrazilMoF20142001CG,SG,LG,SS, MPC,NFPCCCB2014BPM 5
Brunei DarussalamMoF2014OtherCG, BCGCMEP2013BPM 5
BulgariaMoF20132001CG,SG,LG,SSCCB2013BPM 6
Burkina FasoMoF20142001CGCCB2013BPM 6
BurundiMoF20132001CGACB2012BPM 6
Cabo VerdeMoF20132001CG,SSACB2013BPM 5
CambodiaMoF20132001CG,LGCCB2013BPM 5
CameroonMoF20132001CG,NFPCCMoF2013BPM 5
CanadaNSO and OECD20142001CG,SG,LG,SSANSO2014BPM 6
Central African RepublicMoF20142001CGCCB2013BPM 5
ChadMoF20121986CG,NFPCCCB2012BPM 5
ChileMoF20132001CG,LGACB2013BPM 6
ChinaMoF20142001CG,SG,LGCSAFE2014BPM 6
ColombiaMoF20122001CG,SG,LG,SSC/ACB and NSO2013BPM 5
ComorosMoF20131986CGC/ACB and IMF staff2013BPM 5
Democratic Republic of the CongoMoF20132001CG,SG,LGACB2013BPM 5
Republic of CongoMoF20132001CGACB2008BPM 5
Costa RicaMoF and CB20131986CG,SS,NFPCCCB2013BPM 5
Note: BPM = Balance of Payments Manual (number following abbreviation signifies edition); CPI = consumer price index; ESA = European System of National Accounts; SNA = System of National Accounts.

BEA = U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis; CB = Central Bank; FEO = Foreign Exchange Office; IFS = IMF, International Financial Statistics; MEP = Ministry of Economy and/or Planning; MIAC = Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications; MoC = Ministry of Commerce; MoF = Ministry of Finance; NESDB = National Economic and Social Development Board; NSO = National Statistics Office; OECD = Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development; PFTAC = Pacific Financial Technical Assistance Centre; PMO = Prime Minister’s Office; SAFE = State Administration of Foreign Exchange.

National accounts base year is the period with which other periods are compared and the period for which prices appear in the denominators of the price relationships used to calculate the index.

Use of chain-weighted methodology allows countries to measure GDP growth more accurately by reducing or eliminating the downward biases in volume series built on index numbers that average volume components using weights from a year in the moderately distant past.

For some countries, the structures of government consist of a broader coverage than specified for the general government. Coverage: BCG = Budgetary Central Government; CG = Central Government; LG = Local Government; MPC = Monetary Public Corporation, including Central Bank; NFPC = Nonfinancial Public Corporations; NMPC = Nonmonetary Financial Public Corporations; SG = State Government; SS = Social Security Funds; TG = Territorial Governments.

Accounting Standard: A = Accrual; C = Cash.

Nominal GDP is not measured in the same way as real GDP.

National AccountsPrices (CPI)
CountryCurrencyHistorical Data Source1Latest Actual DataBase Year2System of National AccountsUse of Chain-Weighted Methodology3Historical Data Source1Latest Actual Data
Côte d’IvoireCFA francNSO20122009SNA 1993NSO2014
CroatiaCroatian kunaNSO20142005ESA 2010NSO2014
CyprusEuroEurostat20142005ESA 2010From 1995Eurostat2014
Czech RepublicCzech korunaNSO20142005ESA 2010From 1995NSO2014
DenmarkDanish kroneNSO20132010ESA 2010From 1980NSO2014
DjiboutiDjibouti francNSO20141990OtherNSO2014
DominicaEastern Caribbean dollarNSO20132006SNA 1993NSO2013
Dominican RepublicDominican pesoCB20132007SNA 2008From 2007CB2014
EcuadorU.S. dollarCB20132007SNA 1993NSO and CB2014
EgyptEgyptian poundMEP2013/142011/12SNA 1993NSO2013/14
El SalvadorU.S. dollarCB20131990OtherNSO2013
Equatorial GuineaCFA francMEP and CB20132006SNA 1993MEP2013
EritreaEritrean nakfaIMF staff20062000SNA 1993NSO2009
EstoniaEuroNSO20132010ESA 2010From 1995NSO2014
EthiopiaEthiopian birrNSO2013/142010/11SNA 1993NSO2013
FijiFiji dollarNSO201320086SNA 1993/ 2008NSO2013
FinlandEuroNSO20142000ESA 2010From 1980NSO and Eurostat2014
FranceEuroNSO20142010ESA 2010From 1980NSO2014
GabonCFA francMoF20132001SNA 1993MoF2013
The GambiaGambian dalasiNSO20122004SNA 1993NSO2013
GeorgiaGeorgian lariNSO20132000SNA 1993From 1996NSO2014
GermanyEuroNSO20132010ESA 2010From 1991NSO2014
GhanaGhanaian cediNSO20122006SNA 1993NSO2013
GreeceEuroNSO20142010ESA 2010From 1995NSO2014
GrenadaEastern Caribbean dollarNSO20132006SNA 1993NSO2013
GuatemalaGuatemalan quetzalCB20132001SNA 1993From 2001NSO2013
GuineaGuinean francNSO20092003SNA 1993NSO2014
Guinea-BissauCFA francNSO20112005SNA 1993NSO2011
GuyanaGuyana dollarNSO201220066SNA 1993NSO2012
HaitiHaitian gourdeNSO2012/131986/87SNA 2008NSO2013
HondurasHonduran lempiraCB20132000SNA 1993CB2013
Hong Kong SARHong Kong dollarNSO20142012SNA 2008From 1980NSO2014
HungaryHungarian forintNSO20132005ESA 1995From 2005NSO2013
IcelandIcelandic krónaNSO20132005ESA 2010From 1990NSO2013
IndiaIndian rupeeNSO2013/142011/12SNA 1993NSO2013/14
IndonesiaIndonesian rupiahNSO20142010SNA 2008NSO2014
IranIranian rialCB2012/132004/05SNA 1993CB2014
IraqIraqi dinarNSO20142007OtherNSO2014
IrelandEuroNSO20142012ESA 2010From 2012NSO2014
Note: BPM = Balance of Payments Manual (number following abbreviation signifies edition); CPI = consumer price index; ESA = European System of National Accounts; SNA = System of National Accounts.

BEA = U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis; CB = Central Bank; FEO = Foreign Exchange Office; IFS = IMF, International Financial Statistics; MEP = Ministry of Economy and/or Planning; MIAC = Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications; MoC = Ministry of Commerce; MoF = Ministry of Finance; NESDB = National Economic and Social Development Board; NSO = National Statistics Office; OECD = Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development; PFTAC = Pacific Financial Technical Assistance Centre; PMO = Prime Minister’s Office; SAFE = State Administration of Foreign Exchange.

National accounts base year is the period with which other periods are compared and the period for which prices appear in the denominators of the price relationships used to calculate the index.

Use of chain-weighted methodology allows countries to measure GDP growth more accurately by reducing or eliminating the downward biases in volume series built on index numbers that average volume components using weights from a year in the moderately distant past.

For some countries, the structures of government consist of a broader coverage than specified for the general government. Coverage: BCG = Budgetary Central Government; CG = Central Government; LG = Local Government; MPC = Monetary Public Corporation, including Central Bank; NFPC = Nonfinancial Public Corporations; NMPC = Nonmonetary Financial Public Corporations; SG = State Government; SS = Social Security Funds; TG = Territorial Governments.

Accounting Standard: A = Accrual; C = Cash.

Nominal GDP is not measured in the same way as real GDP.

Government FinanceBalance of Payments
CountryHistorical Data Source1Latest Actual DataStatistics Manual in Use at SourceSubsectors Coverage4Accounting Practice5Historical Data Source1Latest Actual DataStatistics Manual in Use at Source
Côte d’IvoireMoF20141986CGACB2012BPM 6
CroatiaMoF20142001CG,LGCCB2013BPM 6
CyprusEurostat2014ESA 2010CG,LG,SSCEurostat2014BPM 5
Czech RepublicMoF20132001CG,LG,SS,BCGANSO2013BPM 6
DenmarkNSO20132001CG,LG,SSANSO2014BPM 6
DjiboutiMoF20142001CGACB2014BPM 5
DominicaMoF2012/131986CGCCB2013BPM 5
Dominican RepublicMoF20142001CG,SG,LG,SSACB2013BPM 6
EcuadorCB and MoF20131986CG,SG,LG,SS, NFPCCCB2013BPM 5
EgyptMoF2013/142001CG,LG,SS,MPCCCB2013/14BPM 5
El SalvadorMoF20131986CG,LG,SSCCB2013BPM 6
Equatorial GuineaMoF20131986CGCCB2013BPM 5
EritreaMoF20082001CGCCB2008BPM 5
EstoniaMoF20131986/2001CG,LG,SSCCB2013BPM 6
EthiopiaMoF2013/141986CG,SG,LG,NFPCCCB2013/14BPM 5
FijiMoF20132001CGCCB2013BPM 6
FinlandMoF20132001CG,LG,SSACB2013BPM 6
FranceNSO20132001CG,LG,SSACB2014BPM 6
GabonIMF staff20132001CGACB2006BPM 5
The GambiaMoF20132001CGCCB and IMF staff2012BPM 4
GeorgiaMoF20132001CG,LGCNSO and CB2013BPM 5
GermanyNSO and Eurostat20142001CG,SG,LG,SSACB2013BPM 6
GhanaMoF20132001CG,SG,LGCCB2012BPM 5
GreeceMoF20131986CG,LG,SSACB2014BPM 5
GrenadaMoF20132001CGCCB2013BPM 5
GuatemalaMoF20131986CGCCB2013BPM 5
GuineaMoF20142001CGOtherCB and MEP2013BPM 6
Guinea-BissauMoF20112001CGACB2011BPM 6
GuyanaMoF20122001CG,SSCCB2012BPM 5
HaitiMoF2012/132001CGCCB2013BPM 5
HondurasMoF20131986CG,LG,SS,NFPCACB2013BPM 5
Hong Kong SARNSO2013/142001CGCNSO2013BPM 6
HungaryMEP and Eurostat20132001CG,LG,SS,NMPCACB2013BPM 6
IcelandNSO20132001CG,LGACB2013BPM 6
IndiaMoF2012/132001CG,SGACB2013/14BPM 5
IndonesiaMoF20142001CG,LGCCB2014BPM 6
IranMoF2012/132001CGCCB2013BPM 5
IraqMoF20142001CGCCB2012BPM 5
IrelandMoF20142001CG,LG,SSANSO2014BPM 6
Note: BPM = Balance of Payments Manual (number following abbreviation signifies edition); CPI = consumer price index; ESA = European System of National Accounts; SNA = System of National Accounts.

BEA = U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis; CB = Central Bank; FEO = Foreign Exchange Office; IFS = IMF, International Financial Statistics; MEP = Ministry of Economy and/or Planning; MIAC = Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications; MoC = Ministry of Commerce; MoF = Ministry of Finance; NESDB = National Economic and Social Development Board; NSO = National Statistics Office; OECD = Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development; PFTAC = Pacific Financial Technical Assistance Centre; PMO = Prime Minister’s Office; SAFE = State Administration of Foreign Exchange.

National accounts base year is the period with which other periods are compared and the period for which prices appear in the denominators of the price relationships used to calculate the index.

Use of chain-weighted methodology allows countries to measure GDP growth more accurately by reducing or eliminating the downward biases in volume series built on index numbers that average volume components using weights from a year in the moderately distant past.

For some countries, the structures of government consist of a broader coverage than specified for the general government. Coverage: BCG = Budgetary Central Government; CG = Central Government; LG = Local Government; MPC = Monetary Public Corporation, including Central Bank; NFPC = Nonfinancial Public Corporations; NMPC = Nonmonetary Financial Public Corporations; SG = State Government; SS = Social Security Funds; TG = Territorial Governments.

Accounting Standard: A = Accrual; C = Cash.

Nominal GDP is not measured in the same way as real GDP.

National AccountsPrices (CPI)
CountryCurrencyHistorical Data Source1Latest Actual DataBase Year2System of National AccountsUse of Chain-Weighted Methodology3Historical Data Source1Latest Actual Data
IsraelNew Israeli shekelNSO20142010SNA 2008From 1995Haver Analytics2014
ItalyEuroNSO20142010ESA 2010From 1980NSO2014
JamaicaJamaica dollarNSO20132007SNA 1993NSO2014
JapanJapanese yenCabinet Office20142005SNA 1993From 1980MIAC2014
JordanJordanian dinarNSO20131994OtherNSO2013
KazakhstanKazakhstani tengeNSO20132007OtherFrom 1994CB2013
KenyaKenya shillingNSO20142009SNA 2008NSO2014
KiribatiAustralian dollarNSO20132006OtherNSO2014
KoreaKorean wonCB20142010SNA 2008From 1980MoF2014
KosovoEuroNSO20132013OtherNSO2013
KuwaitKuwaiti dinarMEP and NSO20132010SNA 1993NSO and MEP2014
Kyrgyz RepublicKyrgyz somNSO20141995SNA 1993NSO2014
Lao P.D.R.Lao kipNSO20132002SNA 1993NSO2013
LatviaEuroNSO20132010ESA 1995From 1995Eurostat2013
LebanonLebanese poundNSO20112000SNA 2008From 2010NSO2013
LesothoLesotho lotiNSO20122004OtherNSO2013
LiberiaU.S. dollarCB20111992SNA 1993CB2013
LibyaLibyan dinarMEP20142003SNA 1993NSO2014
LithuaniaLithuanian litasNSO20132010ESA 1995From 2005NSO2013
LuxembourgEuroNSO20132005ESA 2010From 1995NSO2014
FYR MacedoniaMacedonian denarNSO20132005ESA 2010NSO2014
MadagascarMalagasy ariaryNSO20142000OtherNSO2014
MalawiMalawi kwachaNSO20102007SNA 2008NSO2014
MalaysiaMalaysian ringgitNSO20142005SNA 2008NSO2014
MaldivesMaldivian rufiyaaMoF and NSO201320036SNA 1993CB2014
MaliCFA francMoF20111987SNA 1993MoF2013
MaltaEuroEurostat20132010ESA 2010From 2000Eurostat2013
Marshall IslandsU.S. dollarNSO2012/132003/04OtherNSO2013
MauritaniaMauritanian ouguiyaNSO20141998SNA 1993NSO2014
MauritiusMauritian rupeeNSO20132006SNA 1993From 1999NSO2013
MexicoMexican pesoNSO20142008SNA 1993NSO2014
MicronesiaU.S. dollarNSO20132004OtherNSO2013
MoldovaMoldovan leuNSO20131995SNA 1993NSO2013
MongoliaMongolian togrogNSO20132010SNA 1993NSO2014
MontenegroEuroNSO20142006ESA 1995NSO2014
MoroccoMoroccan dirhamNSO20131998SNA 1993From 1998NSO2013
MozambiqueMozambican meticalNSO20132009SNA 1993NSO2014
MyanmarMyanmar kyatMEP2013/142010/11OtherNSO2014
NamibiaNamibia dollarNSO20112000SNA 1993NSO2012
NepalNepalese rupeeNSO2013/142000/01SNA 1993CB2013/14
NetherlandsEuroNSO20142010ESA 2010From 1980NSO2014
New ZealandNew Zealand dollarNSO2012/132009/10OtherFrom 1987NSO2014
NicaraguaNicaraguan córdobaIMF staff20132006SNA 1993From 1994CB2014
Note: BPM = Balance of Payments Manual (number following abbreviation signifies edition); CPI = consumer price index; ESA = European System of National Accounts; SNA = System of National Accounts.

BEA = U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis; CB = Central Bank; FEO = Foreign Exchange Office; IFS = IMF, International Financial Statistics; MEP = Ministry of Economy and/or Planning; MIAC = Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications; MoC = Ministry of Commerce; MoF = Ministry of Finance; NESDB = National Economic and Social Development Board; NSO = National Statistics Office; OECD = Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development; PFTAC = Pacific Financial Technical Assistance Centre; PMO = Prime Minister’s Office; SAFE = State Administration of Foreign Exchange.

National accounts base year is the period with which other periods are compared and the period for which prices appear in the denominators of the price relationships used to calculate the index.

Use of chain-weighted methodology allows countries to measure GDP growth more accurately by reducing or eliminating the downward biases in volume series built on index numbers that average volume components using weights from a year in the moderately distant past.

For some countries, the structures of government consist of a broader coverage than specified for the general government. Coverage: BCG = Budgetary Central Government; CG = Central Government; LG = Local Government; MPC = Monetary Public Corporation, including Central Bank; NFPC = Nonfinancial Public Corporations; NMPC = Nonmonetary Financial Public Corporations; SG = State Government; SS = Social Security Funds; TG = Territorial Governments.

Accounting Standard: A = Accrual; C = Cash.

Nominal GDP is not measured in the same way as real GDP.

Government FinanceBalance of Payments
CountryHistorical Data Source1Latest Actual DataStatistics Manual in Use at SourceSubsectors Coverage4Accounting Practice5Historical Data Source1Latest Actual DataStatistics Manual in Use at Source
IsraelMoF20132001CG,SSAHaver Analytics2014BPM 6
ItalyNSO20132001CG,SG,LG,SSANSO2013BPM 6
JamaicaMoF2013/141986CGCCB2013BPM 5
JapanCabinet Office20132001CG,LG,SSACB2014BPM 6
JordanMoF20132001CG,NFPCCCB2013BPM 5
KazakhstanIMF staff20132001CG,LGACB2013BPM 6
KenyaMoF20142001CGACB2013BPM 5
KiribatiMoF20131986CG,LGCNSO2012BPM 5
KoreaMoF20132001CGCCB2014BPM 6
KosovoMoF2013OtherCG,LGCCB2013BPM 5
KuwaitMoF20131986CGC/ACB2013BPM 5
Kyrgyz RepublicMoF2014OtherCG,LG,SSCMoF2014BPM 5
Lao P.D.R.MoF2012/132001CGCCB2013BPM 5
LatviaMoF2013OtherCG,LG,SS,NFPCCCB2013BPM 5
LebanonMoF20131986CGCCB and IMF staff2012BPM 5
LesothoMoF2012/132001CG,LGCCB2012BPM 6
LiberiaMoF20122001CGACB2013BPM 5
LibyaMoF20141986CG,SG,LGCCB2014BPM 5
LithuaniaMoF20132001CG,LG,SSACB2013BPM 6
LuxembourgMoF20132001CG,LG,SSANSO2013BPM 6
FYR MacedoniaMoF20141986CG,SG,SSCCB2014BPM 6
MadagascarMoF20131986CG,LGCCB2014BPM 5
MalawiMoF2014/151986CGCNSO2013BPM 5
MalaysiaMoF20131986CG,SG,LGCNSO2014BPM 6
MaldivesMoF and Treasury20121986CGCCB2013BPM 5
MaliMoF20132001CGC/ACB2011BPM 5
MaltaEurostat20132001CG,SSANSO2013BPM 6
Marshall IslandsMoF2012/132001CG,LG,SSANSO2013Other
MauritaniaMoF20141986CGCCB2013BPM 5
MauritiusMoF20132001CG,SG,LG,NFPCCCB2013BPM 5
MexicoMoF20142001CG,SS,NFPCCCB2014BPM 5
MicronesiaMoF2012/132001CG,SG,LG,SSOtherNSO2013Other
MoldovaMoF20131986CG,LG,SSCCB2013BPM 5
MongoliaMoF20132001CG,SG,LG,SSCCB2013BPM 5
MontenegroMoF20141986CG,LG,SSCCB2014BPM 5
MoroccoMEP20142001CGAFEO2013BPM 5
MozambiqueMoF20132001CG,SGC/ACB2013BPM 5
MyanmarMoF2013/142001CG,NFPCC/AIMF staff2013Other
NamibiaMoF2011/122001CGCCB2013BPM 5
NepalMoF2013/142001CGCCB2013/14BPM 5
NetherlandsMoF20142001CG,LG,SSACB2014BPM 6
New ZealandMoF2013/142001CGANSO2013BPM 6
NicaraguaMoF20141986CG,LG,SSCIMF staff2013BPM 6
Note: BPM = Balance of Payments Manual (number following abbreviation signifies edition); CPI = consumer price index; ESA = European System of National Accounts; SNA = System of National Accounts.

BEA = U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis; CB = Central Bank; FEO = Foreign Exchange Office; IFS = IMF, International Financial Statistics; MEP = Ministry of Economy and/or Planning; MIAC = Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications; MoC = Ministry of Commerce; MoF = Ministry of Finance; NESDB = National Economic and Social Development Board; NSO = National Statistics Office; OECD = Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development; PFTAC = Pacific Financial Technical Assistance Centre; PMO = Prime Minister’s Office; SAFE = State Administration of Foreign Exchange.

National accounts base year is the period with which other periods are compared and the period for which prices appear in the denominators of the price relationships used to calculate the index.

Use of chain-weighted methodology allows countries to measure GDP growth more accurately by reducing or eliminating the downward biases in volume series built on index numbers that average volume components using weights from a year in the moderately distant past.

For some countries, the structures of government consist of a broader coverage than specified for the general government. Coverage: BCG = Budgetary Central Government; CG = Central Government; LG = Local Government; MPC = Monetary Public Corporation, including Central Bank; NFPC = Nonfinancial Public Corporations; NMPC = Nonmonetary Financial Public Corporations; SG = State Government; SS = Social Security Funds; TG = Territorial Governments.

Accounting Standard: A = Accrual; C = Cash.

Nominal GDP is not measured in the same way as real GDP.

National AccountsPrices (CPI)
CountryCurrencyHistorical Data Source1Latest Actual DataBase Year2System of National AccountsUse of Chain-Weighted Methodology3Historical Data Source1Latest Actual Data
NigerCFA francNSO20132000SNA 1993NSO2014
NigeriaNigerian nairaNSO20142010SNA 2008NSO2014
NorwayNorwegian kroneNSO20142012ESA 2010From 1980NSO2014
OmanOmani rialNSO20122010SNA 1993NSO2014
PakistanPakistan rupeeNSO2013/142005/06SNA 1968/ 1993NSO2013/14
PalauU.S. dollarMoF20132005OtherMoF2013/14
PanamaU.S. dollarNSO20141996SNA 1993NSO2014
Papua New GuineaPapua New Guinea kinaNSO and MOF20131998SNA 1993NSO2013
ParaguayParaguayan guaraníCB20131994SNA 1993CB2013
PeruPeruvian nuevo solCB20142007SNA 1993CB2014
PhilippinesPhilippine pesoNSO20142000SNA 2008NSO2014
PolandPolish zlotyNSO20132010ESA 2010From 1995NSO2013
PortugalEuroNSO20142011ESA 2010From 1980NSO2014
QatarQatari riyalNSO and MEP20132004SNA 1993NSO2014
RomaniaRomanian leuNSO and Eurostat20142010ESA 2010From 2000NSO2014
RussiaRussian rubleNSO20132008SNA 1993From 1995NSO2014
RwandaRwanda francMoF20142011SNA 1993MoF2014
SamoaSamoa talaNSO2013/142009SNA 1993NSO2013/14
San MarinoEuroNSO20132007OtherNSO2014
São Tomé and PríncipeSão Tomé and Príncipe dobraNSO20122000SNA 1993NSO2014
Saudi ArabiaSaudi Arabian riyalNSO and MEP20142010SNA 1993NSO and MEP2014
SenegalCFA francNSO20132000SNA 1993NSO2011
SerbiaSerbian dinarNSO20142010ESA 2010From 2010NSO2014
SeychellesSeychelles rupeeNSO20122006SNA 1993NSO2013
Sierra LeoneSierra Leonean leoneNSO20132006SNA 1993From 2010NSO2014
SingaporeSingapore dollarNSO20142010SNA 1993From 2010NSO2014
Slovak RepublicEuroEurostat20142010ESA 2010From 1993Eurostat2014
SloveniaEuroNSO20142000ESA 2010From 2000NSO2014
Solomon IslandsSolomon Islands dollarCB20132004SNA 1993NSO2013
South AfricaSouth African randCB20142010SNA 1993NSO2014
South SudanSouth Sudanese poundNSO20142010SNA 1993NSO2014
SpainEuroNSO20142010ESA 2010From 1995NSO2014
Sri LankaSri Lanka rupeeCB20122002SNA 1993NSO2014
St. Kitts and NevisEastern Caribbean dollarNSO201320066SNA 1993NSO2013
St. LuciaEastern Caribbean dollarNSO20132006SNA 1993NSO2013
Note: BPM = Balance of Payments Manual (number following abbreviation signifies edition); CPI = consumer price index; ESA = European System of National Accounts; SNA = System of National Accounts.

BEA = U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis; CB = Central Bank; FEO = Foreign Exchange Office; IFS = IMF, International Financial Statistics; MEP = Ministry of Economy and/or Planning; MIAC = Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications; MoC = Ministry of Commerce; MoF = Ministry of Finance; NESDB = National Economic and Social Development Board; NSO = National Statistics Office; OECD = Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development; PFTAC = Pacific Financial Technical Assistance Centre; PMO = Prime Minister’s Office; SAFE = State Administration of Foreign Exchange.

National accounts base year is the period with which other periods are compared and the period for which prices appear in the denominators of the price relationships used to calculate the index.

Use of chain-weighted methodology allows countries to measure GDP growth more accurately by reducing or eliminating the downward biases in volume series built on index numbers that average volume components using weights from a year in the moderately distant past.

For some countries, the structures of government consist of a broader coverage than specified for the general government. Coverage: BCG = Budgetary Central Government; CG = Central Government; LG = Local Government; MPC = Monetary Public Corporation, including Central Bank; NFPC = Nonfinancial Public Corporations; NMPC = Nonmonetary Financial Public Corporations; SG = State Government; SS = Social Security Funds; TG = Territorial Governments.

Accounting Standard: A = Accrual; C = Cash.

Nominal GDP is not measured in the same way as real GDP.

Government FinanceBalance of Payments
CountryHistorical Data Source1Latest Actual DataStatistics Manual in Use at SourceSubsectors Coverage4Accounting Practice5Historical Data Source1Latest Actual DataStatistics Manual in Use at Source
NigerMoF20131986CGACB2012BPM 6
NigeriaMoF20132001CG,SG,LG,NFPCCCB2013BPM 5
NorwayNSO and MoF20142001CG,SG,LG,SSANSO2014BPM 6
OmanMoF20132001CGCCB2013BPM 5
PakistanMoF2013/141986CG,SG,LGCCB2013/14BPM 5
PalauMoF20132001CGOtherMoF2013BPM 6
PanamaMEP20131986CG,SG,LG,SS, NFPCCNSO2014BPM 5
Papua New GuineaMoF20131986CGCCB2013BPM 5
ParaguayMoF20132001CG,LGCCB2013BPM 5
PeruMoF20141986CG,SG,LG,SSCCB2014BPM 5
PhilippinesMoF20142001CG,LG,SSCCB2014BPM 6
PolandMoF20132001CG,LG,SSACB2013BPM 6
PortugalNSO20132001CG,LG,SSACB2014BPM 6
QatarMoF2013/141986CGCCB and IMF staff2013BPM 5
RomaniaMoF20141986CG,LG,SSCCB2013BPM 6
RussiaMoF20132001CG,SG,SSC/ACB2014BPM 6
RwandaMoF20142001CG,LGC/ACB2014BPM 5
SamoaMoF2013/142001CGACB2012/13BPM 6
San MarinoMoF2013OtherCG,SG,SSOther
São Tomé and PríncipeMoF and Customs20142001CGCCB2014BPM 5
Saudi ArabiaMoF20141986CG,SSCCB2013BPM 5
SenegalMoF20111986CGCCB and IMF staff2011BPM 5
SerbiaMoF2014OtherCG,SG,LG,SSCCB2014BPM 6
SeychellesMoF20131986CG,SSCCB2013BPM 6
Sierra LeoneMoF20131986CGCCB2013BPM 5
SingaporeMoF2013/142001CGCNSO2014BPM 6
Slovak RepublicEurostat20132001CG,LG,SSACB2013BPM 6
SloveniaMoF20141986CG,SG,LG,SSCNSO2014BPM 6
Solomon IslandsMoF20121986CGCCB2013BPM 6
South AfricaMoF2013/142001CG,SG,SSCCB2013BPM 6
South SudanMoF2014OtherCGCOther2014BPM 5
SpainMoF and Eurostat20142001CG,SG,LG,SSACB2013BPM 6
Sri LankaMoF20132001CG,SG,LG,SSCCB2012BPM 5
St. Kitts and NevisMoF20132001CGCCB2013BPM 5
St. LuciaMoF2012/131986CGCCB2013BPM 5
Note: BPM = Balance of Payments Manual (number following abbreviation signifies edition); CPI = consumer price index; ESA = European System of National Accounts; SNA = System of National Accounts.

BEA = U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis; CB = Central Bank; FEO = Foreign Exchange Office; IFS = IMF, International Financial Statistics; MEP = Ministry of Economy and/or Planning; MIAC = Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications; MoC = Ministry of Commerce; MoF = Ministry of Finance; NESDB = National Economic and Social Development Board; NSO = National Statistics Office; OECD = Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development; PFTAC = Pacific Financial Technical Assistance Centre; PMO = Prime Minister’s Office; SAFE = State Administration of Foreign Exchange.

National accounts base year is the period with which other periods are compared and the period for which prices appear in the denominators of the price relationships used to calculate the index.

Use of chain-weighted methodology allows countries to measure GDP growth more accurately by reducing or eliminating the downward biases in volume series built on index numbers that average volume components using weights from a year in the moderately distant past.

For some countries, the structures of government consist of a broader coverage than specified for the general government. Coverage: BCG = Budgetary Central Government; CG = Central Government; LG = Local Government; MPC = Monetary Public Corporation, including Central Bank; NFPC = Nonfinancial Public Corporations; NMPC = Nonmonetary Financial Public Corporations; SG = State Government; SS = Social Security Funds; TG = Territorial Governments.

Accounting Standard: A = Accrual; C = Cash.

Nominal GDP is not measured in the same way as real GDP.

National AccountsPrices (CPI)
CountryCurrencyHistorical Data Source1Latest Actual DataBase Year2System of National AccountsUse of Chain-Weighted Methodology3Historical Data Source1Latest Actual Data
St. Vincent and the GrenadinesEastern Caribbean dollarNSO201320066SNA 1993NSO2013
SudanSudanese poundNSO20132007OtherNSO2013
SurinameSurinamese dollarNSO20112007SNA 1993NSO2013
SwazilandSwaziland lilangeniNSO20102000SNA 1993NSO2014
SwedenSwedish kronaNSO20142013ESA 2010From 1993NSO2014
SwitzerlandSwiss francNSO20142010ESA 2010From 1980NSO2014
SyriaSyrian poundNSO20102000SNA 1993NSO2011
Taiwan Province of ChinaNew Taiwan dollarNSO20142011SNA 2008NSO2014
TajikistanTajik somoniNSO20131995SNA 1993NSO2013
TanzaniaTanzania shillingNSO20122007SNA 1993NSO2013
ThailandThai bahtNESDB20141988SNA 1993MoC2014
Timor-LesteU.S. dollarMoF201220106OtherNSO2013
TogoCFA francNSO20092000SNA 1993NSO2013
TongaTongan pa’angaCB20122010/11SNA 1993CB2013
Trinidad and TobagoTrinidad and Tobago dollarNSO20122000SNA 1993NSO2013
TunisiaTunisian dinarNSO20142004SNA 1993From 2009NSO2014
TurkeyTurkish liraNSO20131998SNA 1993/ ESA 1995NSO2014
TurkmenistanNew Turkmen manatNSO20132005SNA 1993From 2000NSO2013
TuvaluAustralian dollarPFTAC advisors20122005OtherNSO2013
UgandaUganda shillingNSO20132009/10SNA 1993CB2013/14
UkraineUkrainian hryvniaNSO20142010SNA 2008From 2005NSO2014
United Arab EmiratesU.A.E. dirhamNSO20132007SNA 1993NSO2014
United KingdomPound sterlingNSO20142011ESA 2010From 1980NSO2014
United StatesU.S. dollarNSO20142009OtherFrom 1980NSO2014
UruguayUruguayan pesoCB20142005SNA 1993NSO2014
UzbekistanUzbek sumNSO20121995SNA 1993NSO2012
VanuatuVanuatu vatuNSO20132006SNA 1993NSO2014
VenezuelaVenezuelan bolívar fuerteCB20131997SNA 2008CB2013
VietnamVietnamese dongNSO20132010SNA 1993NSO2013
YemenYemeni rialIMF staff20081990SNA 1993NSO and CB2009
ZambiaZambian kwachaNSO20132010SNA 1993NSO2013
ZimbabweU.S. dollarNSO20122009OtherNSO2013
Note: BPM = Balance of Payments Manual (number following abbreviation signifies edition); CPI = consumer price index; ESA = European System of National Accounts; SNA = System of National Accounts.

BEA = U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis; CB = Central Bank; FEO = Foreign Exchange Office; IFS = IMF, International Financial Statistics; MEP = Ministry of Economy and/or Planning; MIAC = Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications; MoC = Ministry of Commerce; MoF = Ministry of Finance; NESDB = National Economic and Social Development Board; NSO = National Statistics Office; OECD = Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development; PFTAC = Pacific Financial Technical Assistance Centre; PMO = Prime Minister’s Office; SAFE = State Administration of Foreign Exchange.

National accounts base year is the period with which other periods are compared and the period for which prices appear in the denominators of the price relationships used to calculate the index.

Use of chain-weighted methodology allows countries to measure GDP growth more accurately by reducing or eliminating the downward biases in volume series built on index numbers that average volume components using weights from a year in the moderately distant past.

For some countries, the structures of government consist of a broader coverage than specified for the general government. Coverage: BCG = Budgetary Central Government; CG = Central Government; LG = Local Government; MPC = Monetary Public Corporation, including Central Bank; NFPC = Nonfinancial Public Corporations; NMPC = Nonmonetary Financial Public Corporations; SG = State Government; SS = Social Security Funds; TG = Territorial Governments.

Accounting Standard: A = Accrual; C = Cash.

Nominal GDP is not measured in the same way as real GDP.

Government FinanceBalance of Payments
CountryHistorical Data Source1Latest Actual DataStatistics Manual in Use at SourceSubsectors Coverage4Accounting Practice5Historical Data Source1Latest Actual DataStatistics Manual in Use at Source
St. Vincent and the GrenadinesMoF20131986CGCCB2013BPM 5
SudanMoF20132001CGACB2013BPM 5
SurinameMoF20131986CGCCB2013BPM 5
SwazilandMoF2012/132001CGACB2013BPM 6
SwedenMoF20122001CG,LG,SSANSO2014BPM 6
SwitzerlandMoF20122001CG,SG,LG,SSACB2013BPM 6
SyriaMoF20091986CGCCB2009BPM 5
Taiwan Province of ChinaMoF20131986CG,LG,SSACB2014BPM 6
TajikistanMoF20131986CG,LG,SSCCB2013BPM 5
TanzaniaMoF20132001CG,LGCCB2011BPM 5
ThailandMoF2013/142001CG,BCG,LG,SSACB2014BPM 6
Timor-LesteMoF20122001CGCCB2013BPM 5
TogoMoF20132001CGCCB2012BPM 5
TongaCB and MoF20122001CGCCB and NSO2012BPM 5
Trinidad and TobagoMoF2012/131986CG,NFPCCCB and NSO2012BPM 5
TunisiaMoF20141986CGCCB2014BPM 5
TurkeyMoF20132001CG,LG,SSACB2014BPM 6
TurkmenistanMoF20131986CG,LGCNSO and IMF staff2012BPM 5
TuvaluIMF staff2013OtherCGC/AIMF staff2012BPM 6
UgandaMoF20132001CGCCB2013BPM 6
UkraineMoF20142001CG,SG,LG,SSCCB2013BPM 5
United Arab EmiratesMoF20132001CG,BCG,SG,SSACB2013BPM 5
United KingdomNSO20142001CG,LGANSO2013BPM 6
United StatesBEA20132001CG,SG,LGANSO2014BPM 6
UruguayMoF20141986CG,LG,SS,MPC, NFPCACB2014BPM 6
UzbekistanMoF2012OtherCG,SG,LG,SSCMEP2012BPM 5
VanuatuMoF20142001CGCCB2013BPM 5
VenezuelaMoF20102001CG,LG,SS,NFPCCCB2012BPM 5
VietnamMoF20132001CG,SG,LGCCB2013BPM 5
YemenMoF20132001CG,LGCIMF staff2009BPM 5
ZambiaMoF20131986CGCCB2013BPM 6
ZimbabweMoF20131986CGCCB and MoF2013BPM 4
Note: BPM = Balance of Payments Manual (number following abbreviation signifies edition); CPI = consumer price index; ESA = European System of National Accounts; SNA = System of National Accounts.

BEA = U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis; CB = Central Bank; FEO = Foreign Exchange Office; IFS = IMF, International Financial Statistics; MEP = Ministry of Economy and/or Planning; MIAC = Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications; MoC = Ministry of Commerce; MoF = Ministry of Finance; NESDB = National Economic and Social Development Board; NSO = National Statistics Office; OECD = Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development; PFTAC = Pacific Financial Technical Assistance Centre; PMO = Prime Minister’s Office; SAFE = State Administration of Foreign Exchange.

National accounts base year is the period with which other periods are compared and the period for which prices appear in the denominators of the price relationships used to calculate the index.

Use of chain-weighted methodology allows countries to measure GDP growth more accurately by reducing or eliminating the downward biases in volume series built on index numbers that average volume components using weights from a year in the moderately distant past.

For some countries, the structures of government consist of a broader coverage than specified for the general government. Coverage: BCG = Budgetary Central Government; CG = Central Government; LG = Local Government; MPC = Monetary Public Corporation, including Central Bank; NFPC = Nonfinancial Public Corporations; NMPC = Nonmonetary Financial Public Corporations; SG = State Government; SS = Social Security Funds; TG = Territorial Governments.

Accounting Standard: A = Accrual; C = Cash.

Nominal GDP is not measured in the same way as real GDP.

Classification of Countries

Summary of the Country Classification

The country classification in the WEO divides the world into two major groups: advanced economies and emerging market and developing economies.4 This classification is not based on strict criteria, economic or otherwise, and it has evolved over time. The objective is to facilitate analysis by providing a reasonably meaningful method of organizing data. Table A provides an overview of the country classification, showing the number of countries in each group by region and summarizing some key indicators of their relative size (GDP valued by purchasing power parity, total exports of goods and services, and population).

Some countries remain outside the country classification and therefore are not included in the analysis. Anguilla, Cuba, the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea, and Montserrat are examples of countries that are not IMF members, and their economies therefore are not monitored by the IMF. Somalia is omitted from the emerging market and developing economies group composites because of data limitations.

General Features and Composition of Groups in the World Economic Outlook Classification

Advanced Economies

The 37 advanced economies are listed in Table B. The seven largest in terms of GDP based on market exchange rates—the United States, Japan, Germany, France, Italy, the United Kingdom, and Canada—constitute the subgroup of major advanced economies often referred to as the Group of Seven (G7). The members of the euro area are also distinguished as a subgroup. Composite data shown in the tables for the euro area cover the current members for all years, even though the membership has increased over time.

Table C lists the member countries of the European Union, not all of which are classified as advanced economies in the WEO.

Emerging Market and Developing Economies

The group of emerging market and developing economies (152) includes all those that are not classified as advanced economies.

The regional breakdowns of emerging market and developing economies are Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), emerging and developing Asia, emerging and developing Europe (sometimes also referred to as “central and eastern Europe”), Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC), Middle East, North Africa, Afghanistan, and Pakistan (MENAP), and sub-Saharan Africa (SSA).

Emerging market and developing economies are also classified according to analytical criteria. The analytical criteria reflect the composition of export earnings and a distinction between net creditor and net debtor economies. The detailed composition of emerging market and developing economies in the regional and analytical groups is shown in Tables D and E.

The analytical criterion source of export earnings distinguishes between categories fuel (Standard International Trade Classification [SITC] 3) and nonfuel and then focuses on nonfuel primary products (SITCs 0, 1, 2, 4, and 68). Economies are categorized into one of these groups when their main source of export earnings exceeded 50 percent of total exports on average between 2009 and 2013.

The financial criteria focus on net creditor economies, net debtor economies, heavily indebted poor countries (HIPCs), and low-income developing countries (LIDCs). Economies are categorized as net debtors when their latest net international investment position, where available, was less than zero or their current account balance accumulations from 1972 (or earliest available data) to 2013 were negative. Net debtor economies are further differentiated on the basis of experience with debt servicing.5

The HIPC group comprises the countries that are or have been considered by the IMF and the World Bank for participation in their debt initiative known as the HIPC Initiative, which aims to reduce the external debt burdens of all the eligible HIPCs to a “sustainable” level in a reasonably short period of time.6 Many of these countries have already benefited from debt relief and have graduated from the initiative.

The LIDCs are countries that were designated as eligible to use the IMF’s concessional financing resources under the Poverty Reduction and Growth Trust (PRGT) in the 2013 PRGT eligibility review and had a level of per capita gross national income less than the PRGT income graduation threshold for non—small states (that is, twice the World Bank International Development Association operational threshold, or US$2,390 in 2011 as measured by the World Bank’s Atlas method) and Zimbabwe.

Box A1.Economic Policy Assumptions Underlying the Projections for Selected Economies

Fiscal Policy Assumptions

The short-term fiscal policy assumptions used in the World Economic Outlook (WEO) are based on officially announced budgets, adjusted for differences between the national authorities and the IMF staff regarding macroeconomic assumptions and projected fiscal outturns. The medium-term fiscal projections incorporate policy measures that are judged likely to be implemented. For cases in which the IMF staff has insufficient information to assess the authorities’ budget intentions and prospects for policy implementation, an unchanged structural primary balance is assumed unless indicated otherwise. Specific assumptions used in regard to some of the advanced economies follow. (See also Tables B5 to B9 in the online section of the Statistical Appendix for data on fiscal net lending/ borrowing and structural balances.)1

Argentina: The fiscal forecast is based on the projections for GDP growth, exports, and imports and the nominal exchange rate.

Australia: Fiscal projections are based on Australian Bureau of Statistics data, the 2014–15 budget documents, and the 2014–15 Mid-year Economic and Fiscal Outlook.

Austria: Projections take into account only the tax-related measures for the financing of the recent income tax reform (although the yield from the anti—tax fraud measures is highly uncertain). For 2014, the creation of a defeasance structure for Hypo Alpe Adria is assumed to increase the general-government-debt-to-GDP ratio by 5½ percentage points and the deficit by 1.8 percentage points.

Belgium: Projections reflect the authorities’ 2015 budget, adjusted for differences in the IMF staff’s macroeconomic framework and assumptions about fiscal developments in the federal, regional, and local governments.

Brazil: For 2014, outturn estimates are based on the information available as of February 2015. Projections for 2015 take into account the 2015 budget approved by Congress in March 2015 and recent announcements made by the authorities; any measures still to be identified as of the end of March 2015 to meet the annual fiscal target are assumed to be on the expenditure side. In outer years, projections are consistent with the announced surplus objective.

Canada: Projections use the baseline forecasts in the Economic Action Plan 2014 (the fiscal year 2014/15 budget) and 2014 provincial budgets as available. The IMF staff makes adjustments to this forecast for differences in macroeconomic projections. The IMF staff forecast also incorporates the most recent data releases from Statistics Canada’s Canadian System of National Economic Accounts, including federal, provincial, and territorial budgetary outturns through the end of the fourth quarter of 2014.

Chile: Projections are based on the authorities’ budget projections, adjusted to reflect the IMF staff’s projections for GDP and copper prices. Projections also include the official yield estimate of the tax reform submitted to Congress in April 2014.

China: The pace of fiscal consolidation is likely to be more gradual, reflecting reforms to strengthen social safety nets and the social security system announced as part of the Third Plenum reform agenda.

Denmark: Projections for 2014–15 are aligned with the latest official budget estimates and the underlying economic projections, adjusted where appropriate for the IMF staff’s macroeconomic assumptions. For 2016–20, the projections incorporate key features of the medium-term fiscal plan as embodied in the authorities’ 2014 Convergence Programme submitted to the European Union (EU).

France: Projections for 2015 reflect the budget law. For 2016–17, they are based on the multiyear budget, adjusted for differences in assumptions on macro and financial variables, and revenue projections. Historical fiscal data reflect the September 2014 revision by the statistical institute of the fiscal accounts and its May 2014 revision of the national accounts.

Germany: The IMF staff’s projections for 2015 and beyond reflect the authorities’ adopted core federal government budget plan, adjusted for the differences in the IMF staff’s macroeconomic framework and assumptions about fiscal developments in state and local governments, the social insurance system, and special funds. The estimate of gross debt includes portfolios of impaired assets and noncore business transferred to institutions that are winding up, as well as other financial sector and EU support operations.

Greece: Fiscal projections for 2014 and the medium term are consistent with the policies needed to achieve the fiscal targets underlying the program supported by the Extended Fund Facility, as agreed under the fifth review of the program.

Hong Kong SAR: Projections are based on the authorities’ medium-term fiscal projections on expenditures.

Hungary: Fiscal projections include IMF staff projections of the macroeconomic framework and of the impact of recent legislative measures, as well as fiscal policy plans announced in the 2014 budget.

India: Historical data are based on budgetary execution data. Projections are based on available information on the authorities’ fiscal plans, with adjustments for IMF staff assumptions. Subnational data are incorporated with a lag of up to two years; general government data are thus finalized well after central government data. IMF and Indian presentations differ, particularly regarding divestment and license auction proceeds, net versus gross recording of revenues in certain minor categories, and some public sector lending.

Indonesia: IMF projections are based on moderate tax policy and administration reforms, fuel subsidy pricing reforms introduced in January 2015, and a gradual increase in social and capital spending over the medium term in line with fiscal space.

Ireland: Fiscal projections are based on the 2015 budget, adjusted for differences between the IMF staff’s macroeconomic projections and those of the Irish authorities.

Italy: Fiscal projections incorporate the government’s announced fiscal policy, as outlined in the 2015 Stability Law, adjusted for different growth outlooks and estimated impact of measures. Sovereign yields have fallen significantly since the 2015 Stability Law was passed, and the IMF staff has assumed that the savings from a lower interest bill will be used to pay down debt. Estimates of the cyclically adjusted balance include the expenditures to clear capital arrears in 2013, which are excluded from the structural balance. After 2014, the IMF staff projects convergence to a structural balance in line with Italy’s fiscal rule, which implies corrective measures in some years, as yet unidentified.

Japan: The projections include fiscal measures already announced by the government, including consumption tax increases, earthquake reconstruction spending, and the stimulus package.

Korea: The medium-term forecast incorporates the government’s announced medium-term consolidation path.

Mexico: Fiscal projections for 2014 are broadly in line with the approved budget; projections for 2014 onward assume compliance with rules established in the fiscal responsibility law.

Netherlands: Fiscal projections for the period 2015–20 are based on the authorities’ Bureau for Economic Policy Analysis budget projections, after differences in macroeconomic assumptions are adjusted for. Historical data were revised following the June 2014 Central Bureau of Statistics release of revised macro data because of the adoption of the European System of National and Regional Accounts (ESA 2010) and the revisions of data sources.

New Zealand: Fiscal projections are based on the authorities’ Half Year Economic and Fiscal Update 2014 and on IMF staff estimates.

Portugal: For 2014, the general government fiscal balance projection does not include one-off transactions arising from banking support and other operations related to government-owned enterprises, pending decisions on their statistical classification by the Instituto Nacional de Estatística (INE)/Eurostat. Projections for 2014–15 remain consistent with the authorities’ EU budgetary commitments, subject to additional measures to be approved in the forthcoming 2015 budget; projections thereafter are based on IMF staff estimates, under the assumption of unchanged policies.

Russia: Projections for 2015–20 are based on the oil-price-based fiscal rule introduced in December 2012, with adjustments by the IMF staff.

Saudi Arabia: The authorities base their budget on a conservative assumption for oil prices, with adjustments to expenditure allocations considered in the event that revenues differ from budgeted amounts. IMF staff projections of oil revenues are based on WEO baseline oil prices. On the expenditure side, wage bill estimates incorporate 13th-month pay awards every three years in accordance with the lunar calendar; projections assume that, to adjust to lower oil prices, capital spending falls as a percentage of GDP over the medium term as large-scale projects currently being implemented are completed.

Singapore: For fiscal years 2014/15 and 2015/16, projections are based on budget numbers. For the remainder of the projection period, the IMF staff assumes unchanged policies.

South Africa: Fiscal projections are based on the authorities’ 2015 Budget Review.

Spain: For 2015 and beyond, fiscal projections are based on the measures specified in the Stability Programme Update 2014–17, the 2015 budget plan issued in October 2014, and the 2015 budget approved in December 2014.

Sweden: Fiscal projections take into account the authorities’ projections based on the December 2014 forecasts. The impact of cyclical developments on the fiscal accounts is calculated using the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development’s 2005 elasticity to take into account output and employment gaps.

Switzerland: The projections assume that fiscal policy is adjusted as necessary to keep fiscal balances in line with the requirements of Switzerland’s fiscal rules.

Turkey: Fiscal projections assume that both current and capital spending will be in line with the authorities’ 2013–15 Medium Term Programme based on current trends and policies.

United Kingdom: Fiscal projections are based on the U.K. Treasury’s 2015 Budget, published in March 2015. However, on the revenue side, the authorities’ projections are adjusted for differences between IMF staff forecasts of macroeconomic variables (such as GDP growth) and the forecasts of these variables assumed in the authorities’ fiscal projections. On the expenditure side, given uncertainties pertaining to the May elections, a slightly slower pace of consolidation than that in the Budget is assumed for FY2016/17 and beyond, though fiscal projections are fully consistent with the fiscal mandates. In addition, IMF staff data exclude public sector banks and the effect of transferring assets from the Royal Mail Pension Plan to the public sector in April 2012. Real government consumption and investment are part of the real GDP path, which, according to the IMF staff, may or may not be the same as projected by the U.K. Office for Budget Responsibility.

United States: Fiscal projections are based on the January 2015 Congressional Budget Office baseline adjusted for the IMF staff’s policy and macroeconomic assumptions. The baseline incorporates the key provisions of the Bipartisan Budget Act of 2013, including a partial rollback of the sequester spending cuts in fiscal years 2014 and 2015. The rollback is fully offset by savings elsewhere in the budget. In fiscal years 2016 through 2021, the IMF staff assumes that the sequester cuts will continue to be partially replaced, in proportions similar to those agreed upon under the Bipartisan Budget Act for fiscal years 2014 and 2015, with back-loaded measures generating savings in mandatory programs and additional revenues. Over the medium term, the IMF staff assumes that war drawdown will continue and Congress will continue to make regular adjustments to Medicare payments (“doc fix”) and will extend certain traditional programs (such as the research and development tax credit). Fiscal projections are adjusted to reflect the IMF staff’s forecasts of key macroeconomic and financial variables and different accounting treatment of financial sector support and of defined-benefit pension plans and are converted to a general government basis. Historical data start at 2001 for most series because data compiled according to the 2001 Government Finance Statistics Manual (GFSM 2001) may not be available for earlier years.

Monetary Policy Assumptions

Monetary policy assumptions are based on the established policy framework in each country. In most cases, this implies a nonaccommodative stance over the business cycle: official interest rates will increase when economic indicators suggest that inflation will rise above its acceptable rate or range; they will decrease when indicators suggest that inflation will not exceed the acceptable rate or range, that output growth is below its potential rate, and that the margin of slack in the economy is significant. On this basis, the London interbank offered rate (LIBOR) on six-month U.S. dollar deposits is assumed to average 0.7 percent in 2015 and 1.9 percent in 2016 (see Table 1.1). The rate on three-month euro deposits is assumed to average 0.0 percent in 2015 and 2016. The interest rate on six-month Japanese yen deposits is assumed to average 0.1 percent in 2015 and 0.2 percent in 2016.

Australia: Monetary policy assumptions are in line with market expectations.

Brazil: Monetary policy assumptions are consistent with gradual convergence of inflation toward the middle of the target range over the relevant horizon.

Canada: Monetary policy assumptions are in line with market expectations.

China: Monetary policy will remain broadly unchanged from its current status, consistent with the authorities’ announcement of maintaining stable economic growth.

Denmark: The monetary policy is to maintain the peg to the euro.

Euro area: Monetary policy assumptions for euro area member countries are in line with market expectations.

Hong Kong SAR: The IMF staff assumes that the currency board system remains intact.

India: The policy (interest) rate assumption is consistent with an inflation rate within the Reserve Bank of India’s targeted band.

Indonesia: Monetary policy assumptions are in line with a reduction of inflation to within the central bank’s targeted band by the end of 2015.

Japan: The current monetary policy conditions are maintained for the projection period, and no further tightening or loosening is assumed.

Korea: Monetary policy assumptions are in line with market expectations.

Mexico: Monetary assumptions are consistent with attaining the inflation target.

Russia: Monetary projections assume increasing exchange rate flexibility as part of the transition to the new full-fledged inflation-targeting regime, as indicated in recent statements by the Central Bank of Russia. Specifically, policy rates are assumed to remain at the current levels, gradually reducing the number of interventions in the foreign exchange markets.

Saudi Arabia: Monetary policy projections are based on the continuation of the exchange rate peg to the U.S. dollar.

Singapore: Broad money is projected to grow in line with the projected growth in nominal GDP.

South Africa: Monetary projections are consistent with South Africa’s 3–6 percent inflation target range.

Sweden: Monetary projections are in line with Riks-bank projections.

Switzerland: Monetary policy variables reflect historical data from the national authorities and the market.

Turkey: Broad money and the long-term bond yield are based on IMF staff projections. The short-term deposit rate is projected to evolve with a constant spread against the interest rate of a similar U.S. instrument.

United Kingdom: Projections assume no change in monetary policy or the level of asset purchases in 2015.

United States: Given the outlook for sluggish growth and inflation, the IMF staff expects the federal funds target to remain near zero until mid-2015, consistent with the Federal Open Market Committee’s forward guidance and market expectations.

1 The output gap is actual minus potential output, as a percentage of potential output. Structural balances are expressed as a percentage of potential output. The structural balance is the actual net lending/borrowing minus the effects of cyclical output from potential output, corrected for one-time and other factors, such as asset and commodity prices and output composition effects. Changes in the structural balance consequently include effects of temporary fiscal measures, the impact of fluctuations in interest rates and debt-service costs, and other noncyclical fluctuations in net lending/borrowing. The computations of structural balances are based on IMF staff estimates of potential GDP and revenue and expenditure elasticities. (See Annex I of the October 1993 WEO.) Net debt is calculated as gross debt minus financial assets corresponding to debt instruments. Estimates of the output gap and of the structural balance are subject to significant margins of uncertainty.

List of Tables

Balance of Payments and External Financing

Medium-Term Baseline Scenario

Table A1.Summary of World Output1(Annual percent change)
AverageProjections
1997–200620072008200920102011201220132014201520162020
World4.05.73.10.05.44.23.43.43.43.53.84.0
Advanced Economies2.82.80.2−3.43.11.71.21.41.82.42.41.9
United States3.31.8−0.3−2.82.51.62.32.22.43.13.12.0
Euro Area22.33.00.5−4.52.01.6−0.8−0.50.91.51.61.5
Japan0.92.2−1.0−5.54.7−0.51.81.6−0.11.01.20.7
Other Advanced Economies33.74.11.2−2.14.62.91.72.12.72.72.82.8
Emerging Market and Developing Economies5.58.75.83.17.46.25.25.04.64.34.75.3
Regional Groups
Commonwealth of Independent States45.59.05.3−6.34.64.83.42.21.0−2.60.32.4
Emerging and Developing Asia7.011.27.37.59.67.76.87.06.86.66.46.6
Emerging and Developing Europe4.15.53.1−3.04.85.41.32.92.82.93.23.4
Latin America and the Caribbean3.15.73.9−1.36.14.93.12.91.30.92.03.0
Middle East, North Africa, Afghanistan, and Pakistan5.16.35.22.24.84.44.82.42.62.93.84.1
Middle East and North Africa5.26.45.22.35.14.54.92.32.42.73.74.0
Sub-Saharan Africa4.97.66.04.06.75.04.25.25.04.55.15.4
Memorandum
European Union2.63.30.7−4.32.01.8−0.40.11.41.81.91.9
Analytical Groups
By Source of Export Earnings
Fuel5.27.75.4−0.95.05.04.72.62.30.72.33.3
Nonfuel5.59.06.04.28.16.65.35.65.25.25.35.7
Of Which, Primary Products3.86.73.81.06.65.73.14.12.42.42.83.3
By External Financing Source
Net Debtor Economies4.36.74.31.96.75.14.14.54.14.34.85.4
Net Debtor Economies by
Debt-Servicing Experience
Economies with Arrears and/or
Rescheduling during 2009–135.46.46.23.84.52.32.83.43.24.04.65.1
Memorandum
Median Growth Rate
Advanced Economies3.54.21.0−3.82.32.10.91.42.12.52.32.2
Emerging Market and Developing Economies4.46.15.01.74.54.54.03.93.53.53.94.0
Output per Capita
Advanced Economies2.12.0−0.6−4.02.51.20.70.81.31.91.91.5
Emerging Market and Developing Economies4.17.24.31.96.25.13.93.83.53.13.64.2
World Growth Rate Based on Market Exchange3.13.91.5−2.04.13.02.42.52.62.93.23.2
Value of World Output (billions of U.S. dollars)
At Market Exchange Rates37,52157,45662,99959,71165,20672,18873,47575,47177,30274,55178,30298,116
At Purchasing Power Parities54,30978,48682,37082,73988,15693,57698,191102,966107,921112,552118,471149,436

Real GDP.

Excludes Lithuania.

Excludes the United States, euro area countries, and Japan but includes Lithuania.

Georgia, Turkmenistan, and Ukraine, which are not members of the Commonwealth of Independent States, are included in this group for reasons of geography and similarity in economic structure.

Table A2.Advanced Economies: Real GDP and Total Domestic Demand1(Annual percent change)
Fourth Quarter2
AverageProjectionsProjections
1997–2006200720082009201020112012201320142015201620202014:Q42015:Q42016:Q4
Real GDP
Advanced Economies2.82.80.2−3.43.11.71.21.41.82.42.41.91.72.52.3
United States3.31.8−0.3−2.82.51.62.32.22.43.13.12.02.43.12.8
Euro Area32.33.00.5−4.52.01.6−0.8−0.50.91.51.61.50.91.71.6
Germany1.53.40.8−5.63.93.70.60.21.61.61.71.31.51.71.7
France2.42.40.2−2.92.02.10.30.30.41.21.51.90.21.61.3
Italy1.51.5−1.0−5.51.70.6−2.8−1.7−0.40.51.11.0−0.51.01.1
Spain3.93.81.1−3.60.0−0.6−2.1−1.21.42.52.01.72.02.41.8
Netherlands2.74.22.1−3.31.11.7−1.6−0.70.91.61.61.81.41.11.7
Belgium2.43.01.0−2.62.51.60.10.31.01.31.51.61.01.61.6
Austria2.53.61.5−3.81.93.10.90.20.30.91.61.1−0.21.61.5
Greece4.13.5−0.4−4.4−5.4−8.9−6.6−3.90.82.53.72.61.34.03.5
Portugal2.32.50.2−3.01.9−1.8−4.0−1.60.91.61.51.20.71.41.6
Ireland6.94.9−2.6−6.4−0.32.8−0.30.24.83.93.32.54.12.11.6
Finland3.85.20.7−8.33.02.6−1.4−1.3−0.10.81.41.8−0.21.61.3
Slovak Republic4.310.75.4−5.34.82.71.61.42.42.93.33.02.43.33.3
Lithuania6.411.12.6−14.81.66.13.83.32.92.83.23.72.13.76.1
Slovenia4.16.93.3−7.81.20.6−2.6−1.02.62.11.91.82.01.36.5
Luxembourg4.96.50.5−5.35.12.6−0.22.02.92.52.32.23.92.02.4
Latvia7.69.8−3.2−14.2−2.95.04.84.22.42.33.34.02.12.73.3
Estonia7.47.9−5.3−14.72.58.34.71.62.12.53.43.43.05.13.4
Cyprus43.94.93.6−2.01.40.3−2.4−5.4−2.30.21.41.8−2.0
Malta4.03.3−2.53.52.32.52.73.53.22.72.54.14.42.9
Japan0.92.2−1.0−5.54.7−0.51.81.6−0.11.01.20.7−0.72.40.5
United Kingdom3.12.6−0.3−4.31.91.60.71.72.62.72.32.12.72.72.2
Korea4.95.52.80.76.53.72.33.03.33.33.53.72.83.93.0
Canada3.42.01.2−2.73.43.01.92.02.52.22.01.92.61.82.0
Australia3.64.52.71.62.32.73.62.12.72.83.22.82.53.62.7
Taiwan Province of China4.96.50.7−1.610.63.82.12.23.73.84.14.23.53.44.6
Switzerland2.24.12.2−2.12.91.91.11.92.00.81.21.92.00.11.7
Sweden3.43.4−0.6−5.26.02.7−0.31.32.12.72.82.32.62.23.1
Singapore5.49.11.8−0.615.26.23.44.42.93.03.03.22.23.22.7
Hong Kong SAR3.76.52.1−2.56.84.81.72.92.32.83.13.52.23.03.2
Norway2.62.90.4−1.60.61.02.70.72.21.01.52.03.0−0.32.7
Czech Republic3.15.52.7−4.82.32.0−0.8−0.72.02.52.72.21.53.12.4
Israel3.76.33.51.95.84.23.03.22.83.53.32.92.93.13.7
Denmark2.30.8−0.7−5.11.61.2−0.7−0.51.01.62.02.21.31.52.3
New Zealand3.43.4−0.5−1.41.61.82.42.23.22.92.72.33.52.33.2
Iceland4.59.71.1−5.1−3.12.11.13.51.83.53.22.65.42.83.3
San Marino7.11.7−12.8−4.6−9.5−7.5−4.5−1.01.01.11.3
Memorandum
Major Advanced Economies2.52.1−0.2−3.82.91.61.41.51.72.32.31.71.62.52.1
Real Total Domestic Demand
Advanced Economies2.92.3−0.3−3.73.01.40.81.01.82.32.42.01.62.62.2
United States3.71.1−1.3−3.82.91.62.21.92.53.43.42.22.93.43.2
Euro Area32.32.80.4−3.91.50.7−2.3−0.90.81.21.51.50.71.41.5
Germany0.91.80.9−3.22.93.1−0.80.81.31.51.71.41.02.01.6
France2.53.10.5−2.52.12.0−0.30.20.70.81.41.80.51.01.6
Italy2.21.3−1.2−4.12.0−0.6−5.5−2.5−0.7−0.20.71.0−1.10.50.9
Spain4.84.1−0.4−6.0−0.5−2.7−4.2−2.72.33.11.71.42.82.81.6
Japan0.51.1−1.3−4.02.90.42.61.90.10.10.70.5−1.62.2−0.6
United Kingdom3.42.5−1.3−4.42.50.31.41.82.92.72.42.22.13.02.1
Canada3.63.42.8−2.75.23.32.21.81.41.21.91.71.40.92.3
Other Advanced Economies53.35.01.7−2.86.23.11.81.22.23.23.03.31.72.93.1
Memorandum
Major Advanced Economies2.71.6−0.7−3.72.91.51.21.41.72.22.41.81.52.62.1

In this and other tables, when countries are not listed alphabetically, they are ordered on the basis of economic size.

From the fourth quarter of the preceding year.

Excludes Lithuania.

Owing to the unusual macroeconomic uncertainty, quarterly real GDP projections are not available.

Excludes the G7 (Canada, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, United Kingdom, United States) and euro area countries but includes Lithuania.

Table A3.Advanced Economies: Components of Real GDP(Annual percent change)
AveragesProjections
1997–20062007-162007200820092010201120122013201420152016
Private Consumer Expenditure
Advanced Economies2.91.42.40.1−1.11.91.41.01.41.72.52.6
United States3.81.82.2−0.3−1.61.92.31.82.42.53.53.2
Euro Area12.10.41.80.3−1.00.80.2−1.3−0.71.01.71.5
Germany1.01.00.00.40.20.52.30.60.91.22.01.5
France2.50.92.50.40.21.80.5−0.40.20.61.01.7
Italy1.7−0.51.2−1.0−1.61.30.0−3.9−2.90.31.21.1
Spain3.90.03.3−0.7−3.60.3−2.0−2.9−2.32.43.92.5
Japan0.90.80.9−0.9−0.72.80.32.32.1−1.20.62.0
United Kingdom4.01.02.6−0.5−3.10.40.11.11.72.03.22.9
Canada3.52.54.22.90.33.42.31.92.52.72.32.2
Other Advanced Economies23.52.44.61.2−0.13.62.92.22.22.32.73.0
Memorandum
Major Advanced Economies2.81.31.9−0.2−1.21.81.51.21.71.62.52.6
Public Consumption
Advanced Economies2.71.01.92.43.01.0−0.60.40.10.80.80.4
United States2.10.41.42.53.70.1−2.7−0.6−1.30.40.00.5
Euro Area11.81.02.12.52.40.8−0.2−0.10.30.70.70.5
Germany0.81.51.53.43.01.30.71.20.71.11.01.0
France1.31.51.81.12.41.31.01.72.01.91.30.4
Italy2.8−0.20.41.00.40.6−1.8−1.2−0.3−0.90.10.1
Spain4.51.06.25.94.11.5−0.3−3.7−2.90.10.3−1.1
Japan2.10.91.1−0.12.31.91.21.71.90.30.4−1.6
United Kingdom2.80.81.22.01.20.00.02.3−0.31.50.8−0.7
Canada2.11.82.84.63.32.70.81.20.40.31.01.2
Other Advanced Economies22.92.53.13.03.32.81.62.02.02.43.01.8
Memorandum
Major Advanced Economies2.00.71.42.12.90.7−1.10.3−0.20.60.40.2
Gross Fixed Capital Formation
Advanced Economies3.30.52.4−2.6−11.11.92.91.81.12.73.33.9
United States4.60.8−1.2−4.8−13.11.13.75.32.73.95.86.2
Euro Area13.1−0.84.9−0.6−11.1−0.41.6−3.7−2.51.01.52.4
Germany0.91.34.40.5−9.84.67.50.0−0.53.41.42.2
France3.50.05.50.8−9.12.12.10.3−1.0−1.6−0.22.0
Italy3.0−3.31.6−3.1−9.9−0.5−1.9−9.3−5.8−3.3−0.30.4
Spain7.0−3.14.4−3.9−16.9−4.9−6.3−8.1−3.83.44.53.1
Japan−1.1−0.70.3−4.1−10.6−0.21.43.43.22.5−1.3−0.5
United Kingdom2.31.15.3−4.7−14.45.92.30.73.46.83.24.3
Canada5.91.43.21.6−12.011.34.84.80.40.4−0.71.7
Other Advanced Economies23.62.66.80.2−5.16.44.02.52.21.73.83.8
Memorandum
Major Advanced Economies3.00.41.0−3.3−11.92.13.22.81.62.83.13.9
Final Domestic Demand
Advanced Economies2.91.12.3−0.1−2.61.71.41.01.11.72.42.5
United States3.71.41.4−0.9−3.11.51.72.11.92.53.43.4
Euro Area12.20.32.60.5−2.70.60.4−1.6−0.80.91.41.5
Germany1.01.11.21.0−1.41.53.00.60.61.71.71.5
France2.40.83.00.7−1.51.80.90.30.40.40.81.4
Italy2.2−1.01.1−1.1−3.00.8−0.7−4.4−2.9−0.60.70.8
Spain4.8−0.64.1−0.5−5.9−0.7−2.6−4.2−2.72.13.31.9
Japan0.60.50.8−1.6−2.32.00.72.42.3−0.10.20.8
United Kingdom3.41.02.8−0.7−4.11.10.41.31.52.72.72.4
Canada3.82.13.72.9−1.95.02.52.51.51.71.31.9
Other Advanced Economies23.32.54.91.2−0.74.32.92.12.12.13.23.0
Memorandum
Major Advanced Economies2.71.01.6−0.5−2.71.71.41.41.41.72.32.4
Stock Building3
Advanced Economies0.00.00.0−0.2−1.21.30.1−0.2−0.10.10.00.0
United States0.00.0−0.2−0.5−0.81.5−0.10.20.10.10.00.0
Euro Area10.0−0.10.2−0.2−1.20.90.3−0.70.0−0.1−0.20.0
Germany0.0−0.10.6−0.1−1.71.30.1−1.40.1−0.4−0.20.1
France0.10.00.1−0.2−1.10.31.1−0.6−0.20.30.00.0
Italy0.0−0.10.2−0.1−1.21.30.2−1.10.4−0.1−0.90.0
Spain0.00.00.00.1−0.20.20.0−0.2−0.10.2−0.2−0.2
Japan0.00.00.30.2−1.50.9−0.20.2−0.40.10.00.0
United Kingdom0.00.1−0.1−0.5−0.61.5−0.20.10.30.20.10.0
Canada0.10.0−0.10.0−0.80.20.8−0.20.4−0.2−0.10.0
Other Advanced Economies20.00.00.10.4−2.02.00.2−0.3−0.80.10.10.0
Memorandum
Major Advanced Economies0.00.00.0−0.3−1.01.20.0−0.20.00.0−0.10.0
Foreign Balance3
Advanced Economies−0.10.20.40.50.30.10.30.40.30.10.00.0
United States−0.60.20.61.11.2−0.50.00.00.2−0.2−0.4−0.4
Euro Area10.10.40.30.1−0.60.60.91.50.40.10.30.2
Germany0.50.21.6−0.1−2.61.10.71.4−0.50.40.20.1
France−0.1−0.1−0.8−0.3−0.4−0.10.00.70.1−0.30.30.0
Italy−0.40.50.20.2−1.3−0.31.22.80.70.30.70.4
Spain−0.80.9−0.61.62.80.52.12.21.4−0.8−0.60.4
Japan0.40.11.00.2−2.02.0−0.8−0.7−0.20.30.50.4
United Kingdom−0.50.0−0.41.10.7−0.91.4−0.80.0−0.5−0.1−0.1
Canada−0.3−0.4−1.5−1.90.0−2.0−0.4−0.40.21.20.90.1
Other Advanced Economies20.60.50.70.31.6−0.10.40.60.90.50.30.3
Memorandum
Major Advanced Economies−0.20.10.50.50.00.00.10.20.10.00.0−0.1

Excludes Lithuania.

Excludes the G7 (Canada, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, United Kingdom, United States) and euro area countries but includes Lithuania.

Changes expressed as percent of GDP in the preceding period.

Table A4.Emerging Market and Developing Economies: Real GDP(Annual percent change)
AverageProjections
1997–200620072008200920102011201220132014201520162020
Commonwealth of Independent States1,25.59.05.3−6.34.64.83.42.21.0−2.60.32.4
Russia5.08.55.2−7.84.54.33.41.30.6−3.8−1.11.5
Excluding Russia6.610.45.6−2.55.06.23.64.21.90.43.24.3
Armenia9.413.76.9−14.12.24.77.13.53.4−1.00.03.5
Azerbaijan12.525.010.89.35.00.12.25.82.80.62.53.3
Belarus7.68.710.30.17.75.51.71.01.6−2.3−0.10.5
Georgia6.412.62.6−3.76.27.26.43.34.72.03.05.0
Kazakhstan7.48.93.31.27.37.55.06.04.32.03.14.2
Kyrgyz Republic4.38.57.62.9−0.56.0−0.910.53.61.73.45.3
Moldova3.33.07.8−6.07.16.8−0.79.44.6−1.03.04.0
Tajikistan7.27.87.93.96.57.47.57.46.73.04.15.0
Turkmenistan11.911.114.76.19.214.711.110.210.39.09.26.9
Ukraine34.68.22.2−15.10.35.50.20.0−6.8−5.52.04.0
Uzbekistan5.29.59.08.18.58.38.28.08.16.26.56.5
Emerging and Developing Asia7.011.27.37.59.67.76.87.06.86.66.46.6
Bangladesh5.66.55.55.36.06.56.36.16.16.36.86.7
Bhutan7.012.610.85.79.310.16.55.06.47.68.26.9
Brunei Darussalam1.90.2−1.9−1.82.63.40.9−1.8−0.7−0.52.85.0
Cambodia8.910.26.70.16.07.17.37.47.07.27.27.3
China9.414.29.69.210.49.37.87.87.46.86.36.3
Fiji2.2−0.91.0−1.43.02.71.84.64.13.33.03.0
India6.69.83.98.510.36.65.16.97.27.57.57.8
Indonesia2.56.37.44.76.46.26.05.65.05.25.56.0
Kiribati1.92.2−0.80.3−0.9−0.23.42.43.82.91.52.0
Lao P.D.R.6.27.87.87.58.18.07.98.07.47.37.87.3
Malaysia4.36.34.8−1.57.45.25.64.76.04.84.95.0
Maldives7.710.612.2−3.67.16.51.34.75.05.03.95.0
Marshall Islands3.8−2.0−1.76.10.04.73.00.51.72.21.6
Micronesia0.5−2.2−2.51.03.21.80.1−4.00.10.31.01.1
Mongolia5.48.88.1−2.320.917.312.311.67.84.44.29.2
Myanmar12.03.65.15.35.97.38.37.78.38.57.5
Nepal4.03.46.14.54.83.44.83.95.55.05.04.5
Palau1.7−5.5−10.73.25.25.5−0.28.02.22.72.0
Papua New Guinea1.07.26.66.17.710.78.15.55.819.33.33.5
Philippines4.06.64.21.17.63.76.87.26.16.76.36.0
Samoa3.61.12.9−6.4−2.36.21.2−1.11.92.81.42.0
Solomon Islands0.36.47.1−4.76.912.94.73.01.53.33.03.4
Sri Lanka4.56.86.03.58.08.26.37.37.46.56.56.5
Thailand2.75.02.5−2.37.80.16.52.90.73.74.03.8
Timor-Leste411.414.213.09.414.77.85.46.66.86.97.0
Tonga1.0−1.11.82.63.11.3−1.1−0.32.32.72.40.7
Tuvalu6.48.0−4.4−2.78.50.21.32.22.52.51.7
Vanuatu2.55.26.53.31.61.21.82.02.9−4.05.02.5
Vietnam6.97.15.75.46.46.25.25.46.06.05.86.0
Emerging and Developing Europe4.15.53.1−3.04.85.41.32.92.82.93.23.4
Albania5.15.97.53.43.72.51.61.42.13.04.04.5
Bosnia and Herzegovina6.05.6−2.70.81.0−1.22.50.82.33.14.0
Bulgaria3.86.95.8−5.00.72.00.51.11.71.21.52.5
Croatia3.85.22.1−7.4−1.7−0.3−2.2−0.9−0.40.51.02.0
Hungary4.00.50.9−6.60.81.8−1.51.53.62.72.32.1
Kosovo8.34.53.63.34.42.83.42.73.33.53.5
FYR Macedonia2.76.55.5−0.43.42.3−0.52.73.83.83.94.0
Montenegro10.76.9−5.72.53.2−2.53.31.14.73.53.3
Poland4.27.23.92.63.74.81.81.73.33.53.53.6
Romania2.76.98.5−7.1−0.81.10.63.42.92.72.93.5
Serbia5.95.4−3.10.61.4−1.02.6−1.8−0.51.54.0
Turkey4.34.70.7−4.89.28.82.14.12.93.13.63.5
Latin America and the Caribbean3.15.73.9−1.36.14.93.12.91.30.92.03.0
Antigua and Barbuda4.57.11.5−10.7−8.5−1.93.61.82.41.92.32.7
Argentina52.68.03.10.19.58.40.82.90.5−0.30.10.5
The Bahamas3.81.4−2.3−4.21.51.11.00.71.32.32.81.5
Barbados2.21.70.3−4.10.30.80.00.0−0.30.81.42.0
Belize6.01.23.80.33.12.13.31.53.42.03.02.5
Bolivia3.34.66.13.44.15.25.26.85.44.34.34.0
Brazil2.76.05.0−0.27.63.91.82.70.1−1.01.02.5
Chile4.15.23.2−1.05.75.85.54.31.82.73.33.9
Colombia2.76.93.51.74.06.64.04.94.63.43.74.3
Costa Rica5.37.92.7−1.05.04.55.23.43.53.84.44.3
Dominica2.56.17.4−1.11.1−0.1−1.4−0.91.12.42.91.9
Dominican Republic5.58.53.10.98.32.82.64.87.35.14.54.0
Ecuador3.22.26.40.63.57.95.24.63.61.93.64.0
El Salvador2.93.81.3−3.11.42.21.91.72.02.52.52.0
Grenada5.06.10.9−6.6−0.50.8−1.22.41.51.52.02.5
Guatemala3.56.33.30.52.94.23.03.74.04.03.93.8
Guyana1.37.02.03.34.45.44.85.23.83.84.43.2
Haiti0.83.30.83.1−5.55.52.94.22.73.33.83.5
Honduras4.16.24.2−2.43.73.84.12.83.13.33.43.8
Jamaica1.01.4−0.8−3.4−1.51.4−0.50.20.51.72.22.7
Mexico3.33.11.4−4.75.14.04.01.42.13.03.33.8
Nicaragua3.95.32.9−2.83.26.25.04.44.54.64.34.0
Panama5.012.110.13.97.510.810.78.46.26.16.46.0
Paraguay1.55.46.4−4.013.14.3−1.214.24.44.04.04.0
Peru3.98.59.11.08.56.56.05.82.43.85.04.5
St. Kitts and Nevis3.74.83.4−3.8−3.8−1.9−0.93.87.03.53.02.5
St. Lucia2.2−0.53.40.6−0.21.30.6−0.5−1.11.81.42.2
St. Vincent and the Grenadines4.33.0−0.5−2.0−2.30.21.12.41.12.13.13.2
Suriname3.95.14.13.04.25.34.84.12.92.73.84.2
Trinidad and Tobago8.54.83.4−4.4−0.10.01.41.71.11.21.52.0
Uruguay1.16.57.22.48.47.33.74.43.32.82.93.3
Venezuela2.68.85.3−3.2−1.54.25.61.3−4.0−7.0−4.00.0
Middle East, North Africa, Afghanistan, and Pakistan5.16.35.22.24.84.44.82.42.62.93.84.1
Afghanistan13.33.920.68.46.514.03.71.53.54.95.3
Algeria4.13.42.41.63.62.83.32.84.12.63.93.6
Bahrain5.28.36.22.54.32.13.45.34.72.72.42.9
Djibouti2.25.15.85.03.54.54.85.06.06.57.06.0
Egypt5.07.17.24.75.11.82.22.12.24.04.35.0
Iran4.69.10.92.36.63.7−6.6−1.93.00.61.32.1
Iraq1.98.23.46.47.513.96.6−2.41.37.67.5
Jordan5.48.27.25.52.32.62.72.83.13.84.54.5
Kuwait5.76.02.5−7.1−2.49.66.61.51.31.71.83.2
Lebanon3.29.49.110.38.00.92.82.52.02.52.54.0
Libya3.56.42.7−0.85.0−62.1104.5−13.6−24.04.617.73.0
Mauritania4.72.81.1−1.04.84.46.05.76.45.56.75.1
Morocco4.02.75.64.83.65.02.74.42.94.45.05.4
Oman2.54.58.26.14.84.15.84.72.94.63.11.3
Pakistan4.55.55.00.42.63.63.83.74.14.34.75.0
Qatar11.818.017.712.016.713.06.06.36.17.16.53.9
Saudi Arabia3.96.08.41.84.810.05.42.73.63.02.73.3
Sudan615.88.53.04.73.0−1.2−3.53.73.43.33.95.1
Syria72.95.74.55.93.4
Tunisia4.96.34.53.12.6−1.93.72.32.33.03.84.7
United Arab Emirates6.23.23.2−5.21.64.94.75.23.63.23.24.1
Yemen4.53.33.63.97.7−12.72.44.8−0.2−2.23.65.6
Sub-Saharan Africa4.97.66.04.06.75.04.25.25.04.55.15.4
Angola8.222.613.82.43.43.95.26.84.24.53.95.8
Benin4.44.65.02.72.63.35.45.65.55.55.45.8
Botswana6.28.73.9−7.88.66.24.35.94.94.24.03.4
Burkina Faso6.14.15.83.08.46.66.56.64.05.06.06.4
Burundi2.33.44.93.85.14.24.04.54.74.85.05.5
Cabo Verde7.49.26.7−1.31.54.01.20.51.03.04.04.0
Cameroon4.03.32.91.93.34.14.65.65.15.05.05.0
Central African Republic2.04.62.11.73.03.34.1−36.01.05.75.75.9
Chad8.43.33.14.213.50.18.95.76.97.64.92.9
Comoros2.40.51.01.82.12.23.03.53.33.54.04.0
Democratic Republic of the Congo0.56.36.22.97.16.97.28.59.19.28.45.3
Republic of Congo3.4−1.65.67.58.73.43.83.36.05.27.52.3
Côte d’Ivoire0.91.82.53.32.0−4.410.78.77.57.77.85.9
Equatorial Guinea31.713.112.3−8.1−1.35.03.2−4.8−3.1−15.43.7−7.2
Eritrea0.81.4−9.83.92.28.77.01.31.70.22.23.8
Ethiopia5.311.811.210.010.611.48.79.810.38.68.57.5
Gabon−0.16.31.7−2.36.36.95.55.65.14.45.55.9
The Gambia3.93.65.76.46.5−4.35.64.8−0.25.18.75.9
Ghana5.14.59.35.87.914.08.07.34.23.56.44.3
Guinea3.41.84.9−0.31.93.93.82.30.4−0.36.58.2
Guinea-Bissau0.03.23.23.34.49.0−2.20.32.54.54.04.0
Kenya3.06.90.23.38.46.14.55.75.36.97.26.6
Lesotho3.45.05.14.56.94.55.33.52.24.04.46.4
Liberia12.76.05.16.17.48.28.70.5−1.45.09.9
Madagascar3.46.47.2−4.70.31.53.02.43.05.05.05.0
Malawi2.59.58.39.06.54.31.95.25.75.55.75.9
Mali4.94.35.04.55.82.70.01.76.85.65.15.1
Mauritius4.55.95.53.04.13.93.23.23.23.53.53.5
Mozambique8.77.45.86.57.17.47.17.47.46.58.114.5
Namibia4.75.42.60.36.05.15.25.15.35.66.55.3
Niger4.43.29.6−0.78.42.211.84.66.94.65.45.1
Nigeria7.29.18.09.010.04.94.35.46.34.85.06.0
Rwanda8.47.611.26.26.37.58.84.77.07.07.07.5
São Tomé and Príncipe3.80.68.14.04.54.84.54.04.55.05.26.0
Senegal4.44.93.72.44.21.73.43.54.54.65.17.0
Seychelles2.810.4−2.1−1.15.97.96.06.62.93.53.83.5
Sierra Leone4.08.05.33.25.46.015.220.16.0−12.88.46.0
South Africa3.45.43.2−1.53.03.22.22.21.52.02.12.8
South Sudan−46.824.25.53.420.73.1
Swaziland2.53.52.41.21.9−0.61.92.81.71.91.81.6
Tanzania5.38.85.65.46.47.95.17.37.27.27.16.9
Togo1.32.32.43.54.14.85.95.45.26.06.06.1
Uganda6.88.110.48.17.76.82.63.94.95.45.66.3
Zambia4.68.47.89.210.36.46.86.75.46.76.96.4
Zimbabwe8−3.4−16.67.511.411.910.64.53.22.82.73.7

Data for some countries refer to real net material product (NMP) or are estimates based on NMP. The figures should be interpreted only as indicative of broad orders of magnitude because reliable, comparable data are not generally available. In particular, the growth of output of new private enterprises of the informal economy is not fully reflected in the recent figures.

Georgia, Turkmenistan, and Ukraine, which are not members of the Commonwealth of Independent States, are included in this group for reasons of geography and similarity in economic structure.

Data are based on the 2008 System of National Accounts. The revised national accounts data are available beginning in 2000 and exclude Crimea and Sevastopol from 2010 onward.

In this table only, the data for Timor-Leste are based on non-oil GDP.

The data for Argentina are officially reported data as revised in May 2014. On February 1, 2013, the IMF issued a declaration of censure, and in December 2013 called on Argentina to implement specified actions to address the quality of its official GDP data according to a specified timetable. On December 15, 2014, the Executive Board recognized the implementation of the specified actions it had called for by end-September 2014 and the steps taken by the Argentine authorities to remedy the inaccurate provision of data. The Executive Board will review this issue again as per the calendar specified in December 2013 and in line with the procedures set forth in the Fund’s legal framework.

Data for 2011 exclude South Sudan after July 9. Data for 2012 and onward pertain to the current Sudan.

Data for Syria are excluded for 2011 onward owing the uncertain political situation.

The Zimbabwean dollar ceased circulating in early 2009. Data are based on IMF staff estimates of price and exchange rate developments in U.S. dollars. IMF staff estimates of U.S. dollar values may differ from authorities’ estimates. Real GDP is in constant 2009 prices.

Table A5.Summary of Inflation(Percent)
AverageProjections
1997–200620072008200920102011201220132014201520162020
GDP Deflators
Advanced Economies1.72.21.90.81.01.31.21.21.30.91.21.7
United States2.12.72.00.81.22.11.81.51.50.91.52.0
Euro Area11.72.42.01.00.71.11.31.30.91.00.91.5
Japan−1.0−0.9−1.3−0.5−2.2−1.9−0.9−0.51.71.60.50.8
Other Advanced Economies22.02.83.01.02.42.01.31.31.40.51.42.0
Consumer Prices
Advanced Economies2.02.23.40.11.52.72.01.41.40.41.42.0
United States2.52.93.8−0.31.63.12.11.51.60.11.52.3
Euro Area1,32.02.23.30.31.62.72.51.30.40.11.01.7
Japan−0.10.11.4−1.3−0.7−0.30.00.42.71.00.91.5
Other Advanced Economies21.92.13.91.42.43.42.11.71.50.81.82.3
Emerging Market and Developing Economies8.86.69.45.35.97.36.15.95.15.44.84.5
Regional Groups
Commonwealth of Independent States420.59.715.511.17.19.86.26.48.116.89.44.9
Emerging and Developing Asia4.25.47.62.85.26.54.74.83.53.03.13.7
Emerging and Developing Europe24.26.08.04.85.65.46.04.33.82.73.74.0
Latin America and the Caribbean55.58.16.16.26.86.17.1
Middle East, North Africa, Afghanistan, and
Pakistan5.510.211.77.16.59.29.89.16.76.16.25.6
Middle East and North Africa5.510.511.76.06.28.79.79.36.56.26.45.7
Sub-Saharan Africa11.35.413.09.88.29.59.46.56.36.67.05.7
Memorandum
European Union3.42.43.70.92.03.12.61.50.50.01.21.9
Analytical Groups
By Source of Export Earnings
Fuel13.110.013.48.37.39.18.49.18.211.79.36.9
Nonfuel7.55.68.24.45.56.85.55.14.33.83.73.9
Of Which, Primary Products57.610.76.77.08.18.68.4
By External Financing Source
Net Debtor Economies9.65.89.36.86.47.46.86.35.65.45.04.5
Net Debtor Economies by
Debt-Servicing Experience
Economies with Arrears and/or
Rescheduling during 2009-139.89.111.813.210.310.69.88.510.48.98.35.3
Memorandum
Median Inflation Rate
Advanced Economies2.12.24.00.81.83.32.61.30.70.21.52.0
Emerging Market and Developing Economies5.16.110.24.14.35.54.94.03.23.03.43.7

Excludes Lithuania.

Excludes the United States, euro area countries, and Japan but includes Lithuania.

Based on Eurostat’s harmonized index of consumer prices.

Georgia, Turkmenistan, and Ukraine, which are not members of the Commonwealth of Independent States, are included in this group for reasons of geography and similarity in economic structure.

See note 5 to Table A7.

Table A6.Advanced Economies: Consumer Prices1(Annual percent change)
End of Period2
AverageProjectionsProjections
1997–200620072008200920102011201220132014201520162020201420152016
Advanced Economies2.02.23.40.11.52.72.01.41.40.41.42.00.80.71.7
United States2.52.93.8−0.31.63.12.11.51.60.11.52.30.90.52.1
Euro Area3,42.02.23.30.31.62.72.51.30.40.11.01.7−0.20.21.2
Germany1.42.32.70.21.22.52.11.60.80.21.31.90.20.21.3
France1.61.63.20.11.72.32.21.00.60.10.81.70.30.10.8
Italy2.32.03.50.81.62.93.31.30.20.00.81.3−0.10.01.2
Spain2.92.84.1−0.22.03.12.41.5−0.2−0.70.71.5−1.00.40.4
Netherlands2.41.62.21.00.92.52.82.60.3−0.10.91.60.10.41.0
Belgium1.81.84.50.02.33.42.61.20.50.10.91.7−0.40.51.2
Austria1.52.23.20.41.73.62.62.11.51.11.51.91.51.11.5
Greece3.62.94.21.24.73.31.5−1.0−1.4−0.30.31.8−2.60.10.6
Portugal2.82.42.7−0.91.43.62.80.4−0.20.61.31.7−0.3−1.65.9
Ireland3.12.93.1−1.7−1.61.21.90.50.30.21.52.00.20.30.8
Finland1.51.63.91.61.73.33.22.21.20.61.62.00.61.21.6
Slovak Republic6.91.93.90.90.74.13.71.5−0.10.01.42.0−0.10.71.4
Lithuania5.811.14.21.24.13.21.20.2−0.32.02.3−0.20.52.0
Slovenia6.13.65.70.91.81.82.61.80.2−0.40.71.70.2−0.21.9
Luxembourg2.42.74.10.02.83.72.91.70.70.51.62.2−0.92.01.5
Latvia4.410.115.33.3−1.24.22.30.00.70.51.72.00.31.61.7
Estonia4.96.710.60.22.75.14.23.20.50.41.72.20.00.82.1
Cyprus32.72.24.40.22.63.53.10.4−0.3−1.00.91.9−1.0−1.00.9
Malta2.80.74.71.82.02.53.21.00.81.11.41.70.41.11.4
Japan−0.10.11.4−1.3−0.7−0.30.00.42.71.00.91.52.60.90.5
United Kingdom31.52.33.62.23.34.52.82.61.50.11.72.00.90.51.9
Korea3.42.54.72.82.94.02.21.31.31.52.53.00.82.62.5
Canada2.12.12.40.31.82.91.51.01.90.92.02.01.91.02.4
Australia2.62.34.41.82.93.31.82.42.52.02.32.51.72.61.9
Taiwan Province of China0.81.83.5−0.91.01.41.90.81.20.71.32.00.61.31.4
Switzerland0.80.72.4−0.50.70.2−0.7−0.20.0−1.2−0.41.0−0.3−1.50.3
Sweden1.02.23.4−0.51.23.00.90.0−0.20.21.12.2−0.30.41.5
Singapore0.72.16.60.62.85.24.62.41.00.01.71.80.00.82.1
Hong Kong SAR−0.42.04.30.62.35.34.14.34.43.23.43.54.83.23.4
Norway2.10.73.82.22.41.30.72.12.02.32.22.52.12.32.3
Czech Republic3.92.96.31.01.51.93.31.40.4−0.11.32.00.10.81.8
Israel3.10.54.63.32.73.51.71.50.5−0.22.12.0−0.20.72.2
Denmark2.11.73.41.32.32.82.40.80.60.81.62.00.30.81.6
New Zealand2.12.44.02.12.34.01.11.11.20.82.12.00.81.61.8
Iceland3.95.112.712.05.44.05.23.92.00.92.12.50.80.82.3
San Marino2.54.12.42.62.02.81.31.10.40.91.41.10.40.9
Memorandum
Major Advanced Economies1.82.23.2−0.11.42.61.91.31.50.31.32.01.00.51.7

Movements in consumer prices are shown as annual averages.

Monthly year-over-year changes and, for several countries, on a quarterly basis.

Based on Eurostat’s harmonized index of consumer prices.

Excludes Lithuania.

Table A7.Emerging Market and Developing Economies: Consumer Prices1(Annual percent change)
End of Period2
AverageProjectionsProjections
1997–200620072008200920102011201220132014201520162020201420152016
Commonwealth of Independent States3, 420.59.715.511.17.19.86.26.48.116.89.44.911.412.38.0
Russia21.89.014.111.76.98.45.16.87.817.99.84.011.412.08.0
Excluding Russia16.811.719.39.77.813.29.15.68.714.38.66.711.512.87.9
Armenia4.14.69.03.57.37.72.55.83.16.44.04.04.65.44.0
Azerbaijan2.616.620.81.65.77.91.02.41.47.96.24.0−0.18.93.5
Belarus61.88.414.813.07.753.259.218.318.122.117.416.516.222.018.1
Georgia7.19.210.01.77.18.5−0.9−0.53.13.05.04.02.05.05.0
Kazakhstan9.010.817.17.37.18.35.15.86.75.25.55.77.44.95.5
Kyrgyz Republic11.010.224.56.87.816.62.86.67.510.78.62.510.510.17.8
Moldova14.912.412.70.07.47.64.64.65.17.56.35.04.78.65.4
Tajikistan26.413.220.46.46.512.45.85.06.112.86.36.07.411.76.5
Turkmenistan16.66.314.5−2.74.45.35.36.86.07.76.64.74.26.27.0
Ukraine512.412.825.215.99.48.00.6−0.312.133.510.65.024.926.78.7
Uzbekistan24.012.312.714.19.412.812.111.28.49.59.810.09.89.49.5
Emerging and Developing Asia4.25.47.62.85.26.54.74.83.53.03.13.73.32.83.1
Bangladesh5.39.18.94.99.411.56.27.57.06.46.45.96.16.46.5
Bhutan5.35.26.37.14.88.610.18.77.76.36.15.69.68.47.6
Brunei Darussalam0.31.02.11.00.20.10.10.4−0.20.00.10.1−0.20.00.1
Cambodia4.17.725.0−0.74.05.52.93.03.9−0.32.53.21.01.22.9
China0.94.85.9−0.73.35.42.62.62.01.21.53.01.51.21.5
Fiji2.94.87.73.73.77.33.42.90.51.53.02.90.13.03.0
India5.45.99.210.69.59.410.210.06.06.15.75.06.05.85.9
Indonesia14.06.79.85.05.15.34.06.46.46.85.84.88.44.64.8
Kiribati1.73.613.79.8−3.91.5−3.0−1.52.11.40.32.13.11.40.3
Lao P.D.R.27.34.57.60.06.07.64.36.44.14.05.05.52.44.65.4
Malaysia2.52.05.40.61.73.21.72.13.12.73.03.02.72.73.0
Maldives1.96.812.04.56.111.310.94.02.50.32.14.01.20.42.8
Marshall Islands2.614.70.51.85.44.31.91.1−0.61.02.30.5−0.61.0
Micronesia1.93.66.67.73.74.36.32.10.7−1.01.92.00.7−1.01.9
Mongolia9.98.226.86.310.27.715.08.612.99.27.66.510.78.07.4
Myanmar30.911.52.28.22.82.85.75.98.47.65.17.59.35.9
Nepal5.76.26.712.69.59.68.39.99.07.16.35.78.16.56.2
Palau3.010.04.71.12.65.42.84.01.82.02.01.82.02.0
Papua New Guinea8.90.910.86.95.14.44.55.05.34.85.05.06.34.85.0
Philippines5.52.98.24.23.84.73.22.94.22.12.83.62.72.43.4
Samoa4.54.76.314.6−0.22.96.2−0.2−1.23.02.23.00.22.32.1
Solomon Islands8.87.717.37.10.97.45.95.45.13.83.44.54.00.26.7
Sri Lanka9.215.822.43.56.26.77.56.93.31.73.45.02.13.23.6
Thailand3.12.25.5−0.93.33.83.02.21.90.32.42.20.62.11.8
Timor-Leste8.67.4−0.25.213.210.99.52.51.83.34.01.02.73.8
Tonga7.07.47.53.53.94.62.01.51.30.81.53.31.01.21.9
Tuvalu2.310.4−0.3−1.90.51.42.03.33.13.02.63.33.13.0
Vanuatu2.43.84.25.22.70.71.41.31.02.02.23.01.12.22.5
Vietnam4.48.323.16.79.218.79.16.64.12.53.23.81.93.13.4
Emerging and Developing Europe24.26.08.04.85.65.46.04.33.82.73.74.03.13.63.6
Albania6.82.93.42.33.63.42.01.91.61.82.53.00.72.12.8
Bosnia and Herzegovina1.57.4−0.42.13.72.0−0.1−0.90.61.12.0−0.51.21.7
Bulgaria36.27.612.02.53.03.42.40.4−1.6−1.00.62.1−2.00.30.9
Croatia3.52.96.12.41.02.33.42.2−0.2−0.90.92.20.2−0.61.2
Hungary8.57.96.14.24.94.05.71.7−0.30.02.33.0−0.91.72.4
Kosovo4.49.4−2.43.57.32.51.80.40.31.41.8−0.41.51.5
FYR Macedonia2.02.87.2−0.61.73.93.32.8−0.10.11.32.0−0.50.81.8
Montenegro3.49.03.60.73.13.62.2−0.70.51.01.5−0.30.91.2
Poland5.82.54.23.42.64.33.70.90.0−0.81.22.5−1.00.41.5
Romania35.74.87.85.66.15.83.34.01.11.02.42.50.82.22.2
Serbia26.76.012.48.16.111.17.37.72.12.74.04.01.84.24.0
Turkey41.38.810.46.38.66.58.97.58.96.66.56.08.27.06.0
Latin America and the Caribbean65.58.16.16.26.86.17.1
Antigua and Barbuda1.71.45.3−0.63.43.53.41.11.11.21.32.51.31.01.6
Argentina68.88.66.310.59.810.010.618.623.219.123.920.520.5
The Bahamas1.72.54.71.91.33.22.00.41.22.31.61.40.22.31.6
Barbados2.84.08.13.75.79.44.51.81.91.31.42.32.30.91.9
Belize1.62.36.4−1.10.91.71.20.50.90.51.92.0−0.41.52.3
Bolivia3.96.714.03.32.59.94.55.75.85.15.05.05.25.05.0
Brazil6.93.65.74.95.06.65.46.26.37.85.94.56.48.05.4
Chile3.54.48.71.51.43.33.01.94.43.03.03.04.62.93.0
Colombia9.35.57.04.22.33.43.22.02.93.43.03.03.73.63.2
Costa Rica11.39.413.47.85.74.94.55.23.24.64.04.05.14.04.0
Dominica1.53.26.40.02.81.11.40.00.7−0.81.12.1−0.10.90.6
Dominican Republic12.46.110.61.46.38.53.74.83.01.63.54.01.63.04.0
Ecuador25.42.38.45.23.64.55.12.73.63.23.03.03.73.03.0
El Salvador3.14.67.30.51.25.11.70.81.1−0.81.72.00.50.61.7
Grenada1.93.98.0−0.33.43.02.40.0−0.9−1.51.81.9−0.7−1.02.3
Guatemala7.16.811.41.93.96.23.84.33.43.03.04.02.93.03.4
Guyana5.412.28.13.04.34.42.42.21.01.22.63.91.21.23.9
Haiti15.99.014.43.44.17.46.86.83.96.45.35.05.36.15.0
Honduras10.36.911.45.54.76.85.25.26.14.15.15.45.84.75.2
Jamaica9.39.222.09.612.67.56.99.47.15.97.16.04.77.07.2
Mexico8.94.05.15.34.23.44.13.84.03.23.03.04.13.13.0
Nicaragua8.811.119.83.75.58.17.27.16.05.47.07.06.56.07.0
Panama1.24.28.82.43.55.95.74.02.60.92.02.01.02.42.0
Paraguay8.78.110.22.64.78.33.72.75.03.64.54.54.24.54.5
Peru3.41.85.82.91.53.43.72.83.22.52.02.03.22.22.0
St. Kitts and Nevis3.84.55.32.10.67.11.40.71.02.02.02.02.02.02.0
St. Lucia2.52.85.5−0.23.32.84.21.52.52.42.42.41.73.13.1
St. Vincent and the Grenadines1.57.010.10.40.83.22.60.80.20.20.91.80.60.11.6
Suriname26.76.614.9−0.46.817.75.01.93.41.92.63.23.92.13.0
Trinidad and Tobago4.87.912.07.610.55.19.35.27.07.35.74.08.56.05.3
Uruguay9.88.17.97.16.78.18.18.68.97.97.56.48.37.47.3
Venezuela23.818.730.427.128.226.121.140.662.296.883.775.368.594.978.4
Middle East, North Africa, Afghanistan, and Pakistan5.510.211.77.16.59.29.89.16.76.16.25.66.46.06.3
Afghanistan8.726.4−6.82.211.86.47.44.63.75.55.01.45.05.0
Algeria3.13.74.95.73.94.58.93.32.94.04.04.05.34.04.0
Bahrain0.93.33.52.82.0−0.42.83.32.52.11.51.72.51.51.5
Djibouti2.05.012.01.74.05.13.72.42.93.03.53.02.83.03.0
Egypt4.411.011.716.211.711.18.66.910.110.310.56.38.211.010.7
Iran14.818.425.310.812.421.530.534.715.516.517.017.016.017.017.0
Iraq30.82.7−2.22.45.66.11.92.23.03.03.01.63.03.0
Jordan2.64.714.0−0.74.84.24.54.82.91.22.52.01.72.32.5
Kuwait1.85.56.34.64.54.93.22.72.93.33.64.02.93.33.6
Lebanon2.14.110.81.24.05.06.64.81.91.12.82.9−0.73.02.5
Libya−1.06.210.42.42.515.96.12.62.82.24.42.53.70.97.4
Mauritania6.27.37.52.16.35.74.94.13.54.54.65.14.03.74.2
Morocco1.72.03.91.01.00.91.31.90.41.52.02.01.61.52.0
Oman0