- International Monetary Fund. Research Dept.
- Published Date:
- April 2008
The conversion rate for Cyprus was established prior to inclusion in the euro area on January 1, 2008.
The conversion rate for Greece was established prior to inclusion in the euro area on January 1, 2001.
The conversion rate for Malta was established prior to inclusion in the euro area on January 1, 2008.
The conversion rate for Slovenia was established prior to inclusion in the euro area on January 1, 2007.
Charles Steindel, 1995, “Chain-Weighting: The New Approach to Measuring GDP,” Current Issues in Economics and Finance (Federal Reserve Bank of New York), Vol. 1 (December).
Commission of the European Communities, International Monetary Fund, Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development, United Nations, and World Bank, System of National Accounts 1993 (Brussels/ Luxembourg, New York, Paris, and Washington, 1993); International Monetary Fund, Balance of Payments Manual, Fifth Edition (Washington, 1993); International Monetary Fund, Monetary and Financial Statistics Manual (Washington, 2000); and International Monetary Fund, Government Finance Statistics Manual (Washington, 2001).
Averages for real GDP and its components, employment, per capita GDP, inflation, factor productivity, trade, and commodity prices are calculated based on the compound annual rate of change, except for the unemployment rate, which is based on the simple arithmetic average.
See Box A2 of the April 2004 World Economic Outlook for a summary of the revised PPP-based weights and Annex IV of the May 1993 World Economic Outlook. See also Anne-Marie Gulde and Marianne Schulze-Ghattas, “Purchasing Power Parity Based Weights for the World Economic Outlook,” in Staff Studies for the World Economic Outlook (International Monetary Fund, December 1993), pp. 106–23.
As used here, the term “country” does not in all cases refer to a territorial entity that is a state as understood by international law and practice. It also covers some territorial entities that are not states, but for which statistical data are maintained on a separate and independent basis.
During 2002–06, 49 countries incurred external payments arrears or entered into official or commercial bank debt-rescheduling agreements. This group of countries is referred to as countries with arrears and/or rescheduling during 2002–06.
See David Andrews, Anthony R. Boote, Syed S. Rizavi, and Sukwinder Singh, Debt Relief for Low-Income Countries: The Enhanced HIPC Initiative, IMF Pamphlet Series, No. 51 (Washington: International Monetary Fund, November 1999).