- Arvind Subramanian, Richard Harmsen, Peter Uimonen, Naheed Kirmani, and Michael Leidy
- Published Date:
- February 1995
International Trade Policies
The Uruguay Round and Beyond Volume I. Principal Issues
Prepared by a Staff Team led by Naheed Kirmani
INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND
© 1994 International Monetary Fund
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Volume II: Background Papers
I. Economic Implications of the Uruguay Round
Richard Harmsen and Arvind Subramanian
II. Trade Reforms in Fund-Supported Programs
Nur Calika and Uwe Corsepius
III. Antidumping: Solution or Problem in the 1990s?
IV. The International Dimension of Competition Policies
V. Trade and the Environment
Arvind Subramanian and Peter Uimonen
VI. Regional Trading Arrangements
Richard Harmsen and Michael Leidy
The following symbols have been used throughout this paper:
… 10 indicate that data are not available;
—to indicate that the figure is zero or less than half the final digit shown, or that the item does not exist;
–between years or months (e.g., 1991–92 or January-June) to indicate the years or months covered, including the beginning and ending years or months;
/ between years (e.g., 1991/92) to indicate a crop or fiscal (financial) year.
“Billion” means a thousand million.
Minor discrepancies between constituent figures and totals are due to rounding.
The term “country,” as used in this paper, does not in all cases refer to a territorial entity that is a state as understood by international law and practice; the term also covers some territorial entities that are not states, but for which statistical data are maintained and provided internationally on a separate and independent basis.
This study reviews major issues and developments in the trade area and their implications for the work of the International Monetary Fund. It is presented in two volumes. The first provides an overview of the principal issues and developments in the world trading system; the second presents more detailed background papers on selected trade and trade-related issues. The study focuses mainly on the period 1990–93 and reflects information available as of June 1994. It follows the pattern of the Fund staff surveys prepared in 1978, 1981, 1982, 1985, 1988, and 1992.1
The study was prepared in the Trade Policy Division of the Policy Development and Review Department (PDR) of the Fund. The principal authors of the study are Naheed Kirmani, Division Chief; Nur Calika, Senior Economist; Richard Harmsen, Michael Leidy, and Arvind Subramanian, Economists; and Peter Uimonen, Research Assistant; they provided major contributions to both volumes of the study. Uwe Corsepius, Economist in the Fund at the time of the preparation of the study, was a major contributor to the background paper on Fund programs in Volume II. Selected sections in some of the papers in both volumes were prepared by Ali Ibrahim and Clinton Shiells, Economists; and Manmohan Agarwal, Consultant. Michael Da Costa, Senior Economist, provided input to Volume I of the study. Selected sections of some of the papers in Volume II were prepared by Filippo Cartiglia, Economist; and Rosa Alonso i Terme, Summer Intern.
To obtain information and collect views for this paper, the staff held discussions with trade and economics officials in Beijing, Bonn, Brussels (the Commission of the European Communities), Canberra, Jakarta, London, Mexico City, New Delhi, Ottawa, Paris, Tokyo, and Washington. In addition, a staff team visited Geneva and Paris for discussions with officials at the GATT, ILO, UNCTAD, and the OECD, and consulted the World Bank in Washington. The staff team was assisted by the Fund Office in Europe and the Fund Office in Geneva in some of the discussions in Europe, and by the offices of the Fund resident representative in Beijing, Jakarta, and New Delhi.
The authors are indebted to Jack Boorman, Director, and Anoop Singh, Senior Advisor (PDR) for their guidance in preparation of the study. Acknowledgment is due to numerous colleagues both in the Fund and in other national and international agencies for their willingness to exchange views and provide information, and to Professor Jagdish Bhagwati for helpful comments. The authors are grateful to the editor, Juanita Roushdy of the External Relations Department, and to Joan Wise, Lourdes Alvero, and Suzanne King-Loken for secretarial assistance. The authors alone are responsible for the study; any opinions expressed are theirs and do not necessarily reflect the views of the Fund.
List of AbbreviationsAPEC
Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation ForumASEAN
Association of South East Asian NationsCAP
Common Agricultural PolicyCMEA
Council for Mutual Economic Assistance, formerCUSFTA
Canada-United States Free Trade AgreementECO
Economic Cooperation OrganizationECU
European currency unitEEA
European Economic AreaEFF
Extended Fund facilityEFTA
European Free Trade AssociationEMS
European Monetary SystemESAF
Enhanced structural adjustment facilityEU
Foreign direct investmentGATT
General Agreement on Tariffs and TradeGDP
Gross domestic productGSP
Generalized System of PreferencesILO
International Labour OrganizationIMF
International Monetary FundITO
International Trade OrganizationMFA
Most favored nationMTN
Multilateral trade negotiationsNAFTA
North American Free Trade AgreementNTB
Organization for Economic Cooperation and DevelopmentQR
Real effective exchange rateSAF
Structural adjustment facilityTPRM
Trade Policy Review MechanismTRIMs
Trade-related investment measuresTRIPs
Trade-related intellectual property rightsUNCTAD
United Nations Conference on Trade and DevelopmentUSITC
United States International Trade CommissionVER
Voluntary export restraintVIE
Voluntary import expansionWTO
World Trade Organization