Back Matter

Back Matter

Author(s):
Rabah Arezki, and Akito Matsumoto
Published Date:
December 2017
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Index

Page numbers followed by f, n, or t refer to figures, footnotes, or tables.

A

  • Alternative energy vehicles

    • biofuels and, 45

    • in U.S., 43–44, 44f

  • Aluminum, 61

B

  • Base metals, 58

  • Biofuel, 41t

    • food markets and, 79

    • greenhouse gas emissions and, 45

C

  • Carbon capture and storage, 47–48, 51

  • Carbon emissions. See Greenhouse gas emissions

  • China, 1

    • clean energy and, 50

    • coal consumption of, 39

    • food consumption in, 78

    • metal consumption and production in, 59, 61, 62, 64f, 65, 66f, 67

    • unconventional oil in, 11t

  • Clean energy, 37, 45f, 52

    • alternative fuel vehicles and, 43–44, 44f

    • battery technology and, 44–45

    • bioenergy and, 45

    • China and, 50

    • cost reductions and, 42, 43f

    • electricity generation and, 42f

    • Europe and, 49–50

    • forecasts for, 44

    • nuclear power as, 45–46

    • obstacles to, 44–45

    • R&D for, 42–43, 43f

    • solar power as, 49

  • Climate change, 88n13, 89n14

    • carbon capture and storage and, 47–48, 51

    • CSA and, 89

    • emerging economies and, 49, 52

    • energy transition and, 37

    • Ethiopia and, 88

    • food security and, 88–89

    • INDC and, 37, 50–51

    • Intergovernmental Panel on, 37

    • international conferences and agreements and, 50

    • Paris Agreement and, 50, 51t

    • UNFCCC and, 37

    • See also Greenhouse gas emissions

  • Climate-smart agriculture (CSA), 89

  • Coal

    • Asia consumption of, 41

    • carbon emissions and, 40–42, 41f, 41t

    • electricity generation of, 42f

    • in Europe, 46, 46n5, 46n6

    • forecasting consumption of, 40

    • global consumption of, 39

    • price of, 39, 46–47, 46n5

    • as stranded asset, 48

  • Conventional oil, 8, 15, 19

    • depletion of, 12

    • sunk costs for, 9

  • Copper, 60–61

  • CSA. See Climate-smart agriculture

D

  • Deepwater drilling, 1, 7–8

  • Demography, 2

  • Directional drilling, 7, 9

E

  • Emerging market economies, 1

    • carbon emissions and, 49, 52

    • food security and, 87, 91

    • global consumption and, 2

    • metal production and consumption in, 62, 65, 69

    • See also China; Metal extraction, new frontiers

  • Energy consumption, 25t, 39, 40f, 41t

    • power sector and, 40

  • Energy Policy Act, U.S. (2005), 2–3

  • Energy transition, 37

    • clean energy and, 37, 42–46, 42f, 43f, 44f, 45f, 49–50, 52

    • developing economies and, 49, 52

    • energy consumption and, 25t, 39, 40, 41t

    • fossil fuels and market forces in, 38–42, 39f, 40f, 41f, 41t, 42f

    • greenhouse gas emissions and, 40–42, 41f, 41t, 50t, 51t

    • large economies and, 49

    • price and metal extraction and, 68

    • world energy efficiency and, 38f

    • See also Climate change; Shale gas boom, U.S.

  • Energy transition, opportunities and risks, 47t, 49f

    • carbon capture and storage and, 47–48, 51

    • coal prices and, 46–47

    • energy patents and, 48f

    • stranded assets and, 47–49

  • Europe

    • clean energy and, 49–50

    • coal use in, 46, 46n5, 46n6

    • natural gas import prices in, 29, 32

    • Ukraine crisis and natural gas imports in, 32, 34

  • Extra-heavy oil, 8–9, 11t

F

  • FAO. See Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations

  • Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), 87, 89

  • Food markets, 3, 75

    • agriculture employment and, 76

    • biofuel and, 79

    • domestic consumption and, 76, 87

    • food exports, 82t, 88t, 90

    • food imports and, 87, 90

    • international price variations in, 76–77

    • price and, 87–90

    • trade policy and negotiations for, 77

    • transportation technology and, 76

  • Food production and consumption drivers, 77, 78f, 79f

    • global food demand forecasts for, 78

    • greenhouse gas emissions and, 80

    • income growth as, 78–79

    • land use and, 80, 81t

    • nonfood agriculture uses as, 79–80

    • population and, 78, 79–80, 80f

  • Food security and supplies, 89t, 91f

    • agricultural yields by country and, 82

    • climate change and, 88–89

    • CSA and, 89

    • emerging market economies and, 87, 91

    • FAO and, 87, 89

    • food production and, 83t

    • food sovereignty and, 3

    • four pillars of, 87

    • global food crisis (2007–2008) and, 82, 84

    • global food trade evolution and, 82–83, 82t, 83f, 83t

    • income growth and, 78–79, 82, 87, 89, 89t, 91

    • investment and, 82–83

    • land deals and, 84–86, 85f, 86t

    • Malthus and, 75

    • poor communities and, 75

    • population growth and, 75, 78, 79–80, 80f, 82, 90

    • urbanization and, 87t, 88n11

    • USAID, 89

    • violent events and, 90, 90f

    • See also Food markets

  • Forecasting

    • for clean energy, 44

    • coal consumption and, 40

    • global food demand, 78

    • natural gas market growth, 24

    • for oil industry, 18–19, 19f, 40

  • Fossil fuels

    • climate change and, 37

    • consumption of, 25t, 39, 41t

    • prices of, 1, 46

    • as stranded assets, 47–48

    • See also Coal; Natural gas; Oil

  • Fossil fuels, market forces and, 25t

    • carbon emissions and, 40–42, 41f, 41t

    • coal prices, 39, 46–47, 46n5

    • demand-side factors for, 38–39

    • electricity generation and, 42f

    • global consumption and, 39, 40f

    • projected growth and, 39–40

    • supply-side factors for, 38

  • Fracking. See Hydraulic fracturing

  • Fukushima disaster aftermath, 29, 32, 33f

G

  • Geopolitical tensions. See Ukraine crisis

  • Global carbon tax, 51

  • Global financial crisis (2008)

    • natural gas and, 26

    • oil industry investment and, 15

  • Global food crisis (2007–2008), 82, 84

  • Greenhouse gas emissions, 50t, 52

    • biofuels and, 45

    • coal and, 40–42, 41f, 41t

    • emerging market economies and, 49, 52

    • food production drivers and, 80

    • global carbon tax for, 51

    • for natural gas and oil, 40, 41f, 41t, 42

    • Paris Agreement and, 51t

H

  • Hydraulic fracturing (fracking), 1, 7, 9

I

  • Intended Nationally Determined Contribution (INDC), 37, 50

    • global carbon tax and, 51

  • Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, 37

  • Investment and production, in unconventional oil, 15f, 18f

    • breakeven price and, 16, 16f

    • cost structure and, 16–18

    • efficiency gains and, 16–17

    • expenditures and, 14f

    • forecasting and, 18–19, 19f

    • global financial crisis (2008) and, 15

    • peak oil theory and, 13

    • price and, 12, 13f

  • Iron ore, 60, 60n2, 60n3, 64f

J

  • Japan

    • liquefied natural gas imports of, 29, 33f

    • See also Fukushima disaster aftermath

L

  • Land deals, 85, 85f

    • food crisis (2007–2008) and, 84

    • food security and, 86, 86t

    • poor land governance and, 86

M

  • Malthus, Tomas Robert, 75

  • Metal extraction, new frontiers

    • discoveries and, 69–71, 70f

    • discovery drivers for, 71–72, 73t

    • hold-up problem for, 71

    • implications of, 73

    • institutional differences and, 69, 71–72

    • political risk and, 71–72

    • price and, 72, 73

  • Metals

    • aluminum, 61

    • base metals, 58

    • copper, 60–61

    • defining, 58

    • emerging market economies and, 62, 65, 69

    • iron ore, 60, 60n2, 60n3, 64f

    • new frontiers of extraction for, 69–73, 70f, 73t

    • nickel, 61

    • prices of, 57, 58f, 72, 73

  • Metals, market evolution for, 63f, 65f

    • in China, 59, 61, 62, 64f, 65, 66f, 67

    • emerging market economies and, 62, 65, 69

    • low energy prices and, 68

    • prices of, 67–68, 67f

    • production and consumption and, 59–63, 59f, 60, 60f, 60n2, 60n3, 61–63, 64f, 65, 65t, 66f, 67–68

N

  • Natural gas, 40n2

    • carbon emissions and, 40, 41f, 41t, 42

    • global consumption of, 39

    • growth of, 42

    • power sector and, 40

    • Russia exporting, 32, 34–35

    • Russian exports of, 34

    • U.S. domestic prices for, 35

    • U.S. exports and imports of, 27–28, 29, 34–35

  • Natural gas markets, 26f, 35

    • advantages of, 23

    • Asia import prices for, 29, 32

    • economic activity impacted by, 28

    • European dependence on, 32, 34

    • forecasting growth of, 24

    • fossil fuel consumption and, 25t

    • Fukushima disaster aftermath and, 29, 32, 33f

    • global consumption of, 24

    • global financial crisis and, 26

    • global trade of, 25, 26f, 29

    • Japan imports of liquefied, 29, 33f

    • prices of, 24f, 29, 32

    • producers of, 23–24

    • Russia and Ukraine political relations and, 32, 34–35

    • U.S. shale boom and global implications for, 26–28, 27t, 29f, 30–31, 30f, 32t

  • Nickel, 61

  • Nuclear power

    • benefits of, 45–46

    • risks of, 45

    • See also Fukushima disaster aftermath

O

  • Oil, 7

    • carbon emissions and, 40, 41f, 41t

    • forecasting consumption of, 40

    • global consumption of, 39

    • peak oil theory, 13

    • prices of, 46n4

    • as stranded asset, 48–49

    • transportation and, 40

    • See also conventional oil; Unconventional oil

  • Oil, production and reserve centers

    • economics of exploration and, 10

    • institutional factors and, 10–11

    • regulatory changes and, 12

    • unconventional oil and, 9–12, 10f, 11t

  • OPEC. See Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries

  • Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC), 8

    • global supply growth and, 16

    • oil production reduction and, 19

P

  • Paris Agreement (2015), 50, 51t

  • Peak oil theory, 13

  • Population

    • food production and consumption drivers and, 78, 80, 80f

    • food security and growth of, 75, 78, 79–80, 80f, 82, 90

    • urban, 87t

R

  • R&D. See Research and development

  • Renewable energy. See Clean energy

  • Research and development (R&D), 42–43, 43f

  • Russia, 32, 34–35

    • See also Ukraine crisis

S

  • Sen, Amartya, 87

  • Shale gas boom, U.S., 9, 12, 26n3, 31, 32t, 42

    • beneficiaries of, 26–27

    • energy intensity and manufacturing exports, 28

    • global energy trade and, 27–28, 27f, 27n5, 30

    • nonenergy product competitiveness and, 28

    • petrochemical sector and, 28

    • prices and, 38, 46

    • U.S. energy-intensive manufacturing exports and, 30, 30f

    • U.S. liquefied natural gas imports and, 27–28, 29

  • Shale oil (tight oil), 8, 11t, 13, 17f

    • cost structure and, 17

    • directional drilling and, 7, 9

    • efficiency gains for, 16–17

    • forecasting for, 19

    • fracking and, 1, 7, 9

    • global supply growth and, 16

    • regulatory obstacles to, 12

    • sunk costs and, 9, 15

  • Solar power, 49

  • Stranded assets, 47–49

T

  • Tight oil. See Shale oil

  • Transport sector

    • alternative energy vehicles and, 43–44, 44f, 45

    • food markets and technology in, 76

    • oil and, 40

U

  • Ukraine crisis, 35

    • European natural gas imports and, 32, 34

    • mitigating risks from, 34

  • Ultra-deepwater oil, 8, 11t

    • cost structure of, 17–18

    • deepwater oil drilling compared to, 9

  • UN. See United Nations

  • Unconventional oil

    • cost structure and, 16–18

    • deepwater drilling and, 1, 7–8

    • expenditures and, 14f

    • extra-heavy oil as, 8–9, 11t

    • global supply growth and, 16

    • production and reserve centers and, 9–12, 10f, 11t

    • ultra-deepwater oil as, 8, 9, 11t, 17–18

    • See also Investment and production, in unconventional oil; Shale oil

  • Unconventional oil, and technology, 8

    • forecasting for, 18–19, 19f

    • investment and production evolution, 12–13, 13f, 14f, 15–18, 15f, 16f, 17f, 18f

    • price and, 1, 7

  • UN Framework on Climate Change (UNFCCC), 37

  • United Nations (UN)

    • FAO and, 87, 89

    • Green Climate Fund and, 52

    • UNFCCC and, 37

  • United States (U.S.)

    • alternative energy vehicles in, 43–44, 44f

    • domestic natural gas prices in, 35

    • energy-intensive manufacturing exports and, 30, 30f

    • Energy Policy Act in, 2–3

    • food consumption and production in, 78

    • liquefied natural gas imports of, 27–28, 29

    • natural gas exports for, 34–35

    • unconventional oil in, 11t

    • See also Shale gas boom, U.S.

  • U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID), 89

  • USAID. See U.S. Agency for International Development

V

  • Vietnam, 87

W

  • World energy efficiency, 38f

Z

  • Zimbabwe, 87

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