Front Matter

Front Matter

Author(s):
International Monetary Fund. Finance Dept.
Published Date:
November 2016
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    IMF

    Financial Operations

    2016

    International Monetary Fund

    Third Edition, © 2016 International Monetary Fund

    First Edition 2014

    Cataloging-in-Publication Data

    Joint Bank-Fund Library

    • IMF Financial operations / Finance Department, International Monetary Fund. – Washington, D.C. : International Monetary Fund, 2016.

    • p. ; cm.

    • Includes bibliographic references.

    1. International Monetary Fund. 2. International finance. 3. Financial organization and operations of the IMF. I. International Monetary Fund. Finance Department.

    HG3881.5.I58 F48 2015

    ISBN: 978-1-47553-219-7 (Paper)

    Disclaimer: The analysis expressed in this publication is that of the IMF staff and does not represent IMF policy or the views of the IMF, its Executive Board, or IMF management.

    Recommended citation: International Monetary Fund, IMF Financial Operations (Washington, October 2016).

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    Contents

    Preface

    The International Monetary Fund was conceived in July 1944, at a United Nations conference in Bretton Woods, New Hampshire, United States. The 44 participating governments sought to build a framework for economic cooperation that would forestall any repetition of the disastrous policies, including competitive devaluations, that contributed to the Great Depression of the 1930s and, ultimately, to World War II.

    The IMF now has 189 member countries and has evolved over time as the global economy has expanded, become more integrated, and endured both boom and bust. But the IMF’s mission has remained the same: to ensure the stability of the international monetary system—the system of exchange rates and international payments that enables countries (and their citizens) to transact with one other and that is essential for promoting sustainable economic growth, increasing living standards, and reducing poverty.

    This publication provides a broad introduction to how the IMF fulfills this mission through its financial activities. It covers the financial structure and operations of the IMF and also provides background detail of the financial statements for the IMF’s activities during the most recent financial year. Making such financial information publicly available is part of the IMF’s overarching commitment to transparency. Transparency in economic policy and the availability of reliable data on economic and financial developments is critical for sound decision-making and for the smooth functioning of the international economy. Toward that end, this publication also contains numerous links to other publicly available information on IMF finances, including on the IMF’s website, www.imf.org.

    Chapter 1 reviews the evolution of the IMF’s financial structure and operations, its role and functions, governance structure, and the nature of recent reforms. Chapters 2 and 3 explain how the IMF provides lending to member countries experiencing actual or potential balance of payments problems, meaning that the country cannot find sufficient financing on affordable terms to meet its net international payments (for example, for imports or external debt redemptions). This financial assistance enables countries to rebuild their international reserves, stabilize their currencies, continue paying for imports, and restore conditions for strong economic growth, while undertaking policies to correct underlying problems. Chapter 2 reviews IMF lending made at market rates (that is, nonconcessional lending facilities), and Chapter 3 describes the various concessional facilities by which the IMF lends to low-income member countries at favorable rates (currently, a zero interest rate).

    Chapter 4 reviews the SDR mechanism; Chapter 5 outlines the sources of income for the IMF; and Chapter 6 outlines the institution’s approach to financial risk management. The publication also includes a list of common abbreviations, a glossary, and an index.

    What’s New

    This publication updates a previous report entitled Financial Organization and Operations of the IMF, first published in 1986 and last issued in 2001 (the sixth edition). That 2001 report reflected the seismic shifts in the global economy and in the IMF’s structure and operations that occurred after the fall of the Soviet Union and the various currency and financial crises of the 1990s. This revised and updated report covers more recent developments, including reform of the IMF’s income model, measures taken in response to the global financial crisis of 2007-09, and the institutional reforms aimed at ensuring that the IMF’s governance structure evolves in line with developments in the global economy.

    The IMF significantly bolstered its lending capacity in the wake of the global financial crisis. This was done to meet the unprecedented financing needs of a number of countries hit hard by the crisis and to help strengthen global economic and financial stability. IMF lending capacity was expanded in several ways, including through borrowing, completion of a general quota review that resulted in a doubling of its quota resources (with a corresponding rollback of previously increased resources under the New Arrangements to Borrow), and implementation of two SDR allocations. Moreover, the IMF refined its general lending framework to better meet member country needs and, in particular, to emphasize measures to prevent crises in the future.

    The IMF also reformed its policies toward low-income countries and significantly increased the resources available to the world’s poorest countries. In January 2016, IMF member countries ratified a historic governance reform that creates a more representative, all elected Executive Board and increases the voting power of emerging market and developing economies, while simultaneously preserving the voice of the low-income members.

    How to Use This Document

    This publication includes descriptions of the IMF’s financial organization, its policies and lending arrangements, and details on its financial statements. These are meant only to explain and synthesize official IMF documents, records, and agreements. For authoritative versions of these materials, readers should directly consult the official institutional records, which are available at www.imf.org/external/fin.htm.1

    Digital technology and the Internet make it easier to create and distribute this type of compendium in multiple formats and also to keep it up to date. This publication will be updated on an annual basis, and in line with the IMF’s financial year on April 30, and it will be available in multiple digital and print formats, including print copies, PDF files available for online viewing and print-on-demand, and formats for eReaders (eBook, iBook, Mobi, Kindle, Nook, and more).2 We will update individual chapters more regularly if there are significant changes to IMF structures or lending facilities or if we uncover errors in the published edition. These updates will be available online and will note the date of the last revision. The version of record will be the latest electronic version published on the IMF’s website and eLibrary.

    We invite your feedback and comments. This publication is meant to answer your questions about the IMF. If some of your questions remain unanswered, please contact us at publicaffairs@imf.org.

    Andrew Tweedie

    Director, Finance Department

    Acknowledgments

    This publication was prepared by staff members of the Finance Department under the direction of Chris Geiregat. Christine Kadama served as project manager and also provided outstanding research and information technology support. Vanessa Ince provided exceptional administrative support for the project. From the IMF Communications Department, Linda Griffin Kean and Michael Harrup led the editorial effort and managed production of this publication, with copyediting support from Linda Long. In addition, valuable contributions were provided by Mariel Acosta, Maria Albino-War, Dannah Al-Jarbou, Alexander Attie, Rina Bhattacharya, Elena Budras, Sonja Davidovic, Chris Faircloth, Khawaja Farhan, Gilda Fernandez, Elodie Goirand, Joanna Gro-chalska, Ivetta Hakobyan, Heikki Hatanpaa, Janne Hukka, Hideaki Imamura, Lukas Kohler, Sandra Marcelino, Diana Mikhail, Diviesh Nana, Amadou Ndiaye, Anne Oeking, Ceyda Oner, Ezgi Ozturk, Jean-Guillaume Poulain, Sergio Rodriguez-Apolinar, Izabela Rut-kowska, Rachel Saperstein, Debra Spagnola, Mariusz Sumlinski, Yan Sun-Wang, Olaf Unteroberdoerster, Riaan van Greuning, Barry Yuen, and Ruifeng Zhang. Comments and suggestions were also received from the Legal Department. The initial edition was prepared by staff members of the Finance Department under the direction of Susan Prowse, with principal contributors including Elena Budras, Lia Cruz, Joanna Grochalska, Curtis Hatch, Lodewyk Erasmus, Lukas Kohler, Sergio Rodriguez, and Fang Yang.

    IMF Financial Operations (now in its third edition) provides a summary of financial operations and policies of the International Monetary Fund. It represents a thorough updating of a previous report entitled Financial Organization and Operations of the IMF, first published in 1986 and last issued in 2001. Many descriptions have been simplified in a reader-friendly manner and should not be treated as authoritative statements on IMF policies. The views expressed in this publication are those of IMF staff and do not necessarily represent the views of the Executive Board or their national authorities.

    Abbreviations

    BIS

    Bank for International Settlements

    BPM6

    Balance of Payments Manual, sixth edition

    CCRT

    Catastrophe Containment and Relief Trust

    CEP

    Committee of Eminent Persons

    EAC

    External Audit Committee

    ECF

    Extended Credit Facility

    EDD

    Economic Development Document

    EFF

    Extended Fund Facility

    ENDA

    Emergency Natural Disaster Assistance

    EPCA

    Emergency Post Conflict Assistance

    ESAF

    Enhanced Structural Adjustment Facility

    ESF

    Exogenous Shocks Facility

    FCC

    Forward Commitment Capacity

    FCL

    Flexible Credit Line

    FSAP

    Financial Sector Assessment Program

    FTP

    Financial Transactions Plan

    FY

    Financial Year

    GAB

    General Arrangements to Borrow

    G-20

    Group of Twenty

    GDP

    Gross Domestic Product

    GFSR

    Global Financial Stability Report

    GLA

    General Loan Account

    GRA

    General Resources Account

    GSA

    General Subsidy Account

    HAPA

    High Access Precautionary Arrangement

    HIPC

    Heavily Indebted Poor Countries

    IA

    Investment Account

    IDA

    International Development Association

    IFI

    International Financial Institution

    IFRS

    International Financial Reporting Standards

    IFS

    International Financial Statistics

    IMF

    International Monetary Fund

    IMFC

    International Monetary and Financial Committee

    LIC

    Low-Income Country

    MDRI

    Multilateral Debt Relief Initiative

    NAB

    New Arrangements to Borrow

    NPV

    Net Present Value

    OECD

    Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development

    OPEC

    Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries

    PCDR

    Post-Catastrophe Debt Relief

    PLL

    Precautionary and Liquidity Line

    PPP

    Purchasing Power Parity

    PRGT

    Poverty Reduction and Growth Trust

    PRSP

    Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper

    PSI

    Policy Support Instrument

    QPC

    Quantitative Performance Criteria

    RA

    Reserve Account

    RAP

    Rights Accumulation Program

    RCF

    Rapid Credit Facility

    REIT

    Real Estate Investment Trust

    RFI

    Rapid Financing Instrument

    RMP

    Resource Mobilization Plan

    SBA

    Stand-By Arrangement

    SCA

    Special Contingent Account

    SCF

    Standby Credit Facility

    SDA

    Special Disbursement Account

    SDR

    Special Drawing Right

    SLA

    Special Loan Accounts

    SMP

    Staff Monitored Program

    SSA

    Special Subsidy Account

    TBRE

    Time-Based Repurchase Expectation Policy

    TF

    Trust Fund

    TIM

    Trade Integration Mechanism

    TMU

    Technical Memorandum of Understanding

    UCT

    Upper-Credit Tranche

    VTA

    Voluntary Trading Arrangements

    The following symbols have been used throughout this publication:

    . . .to indicate that data are not available

    — to indicate that the figure is zero or less than half the final digit shown, or that the item does not exist

    – between years or months (for example, 2012-13 or January-June) to indicate the years or months covered, including the beginning and ending years or months

    / between years (for example, 2012/13) to indicate a fiscal or financial year

    “Billion” means a thousand million; “trillion” means a thousand billion.

    “Basis points” refer to hundredths of 1 percentage point (for example, 25 basis points are equivalent to ¼ of 1 percentage point).

    FY refers to the IMF’s financial year (May 1–April 30) unless otherwise noted.

    “n.a.” means “not applicable.”

    Minor discrepancies between sums of constituent figures and totals are due to rounding.

    As used in this publication, the term “country” does not in all cases refer to a territorial entity that is a state as understood by international law and practice. As used here, the term also covers some territorial entities that are not states but for which statistical data are maintained on a separate and independent basis.

    In addition, a complete archive of the Annual Reports issued by the Executive Board is available on the IMF eLibrary at www.elibrary.imf.org.

    For web PDF files, visit www.imf.org; for other digital formats, visit www.elibrary.imf.org.

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