Back Matter

Back Matter

Editor(s):
Kalpana Kochhar, Sonali Jain-Chandra, and Monique Newiak
Published Date:
February 2017
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Author Biographies

Lone Christiansen is a senior economist in the Strategy, Policy, and Review Department of the IMF, working on emerging market issues. She has previously worked in the IMF’s European and Research Departments. Ms. Christiansen has conducted research on a range of macroeconomic and structural issues, including macro-financial linkages, productivity, and structural reforms and growth. She earned a Ph.D. in economics from the University of California, San Diego in 2007. She has a B.Sc. in economics from the University of Copenhagen.

Benedict Clements is division chief in the African Department of the IMF, where he leads the IMF country team on Kenya. He was previously division chief in the Fiscal Affairs Department and the Western Hemisphere Department, where he led country teams working on Brazil and Colombia. Mr. Clements has published extensively in economic journals and has authored/co-authored a number of books. The most recent ones are The Economics of Public Health Care Reform in Advanced and Emerging Economies (2012); Energy Subsidy Reform: Lessons and Implications (2013); Equitable and Sustainable Pensions: Challenges and Experience (2014); and Inequality and Fiscal Policy (2015), all published by the IMF.

David Cuberes is an associate professor of economics at Clark University. He is a consultant for the World Bank and the IMF and an external expert for the European Institute for Gender Equality on topics related to economic growth and development as well as urban economics. He started his academic career as an assistant professor at Clemson University. He then spent some years at the University of Alicante (Spain) and the University of Sheffield (United Kingdom). He has also been a visiting professor at Warwick University and Royal Holloway (University of London). Dr. Cuberes’ research focuses on topics related to economic growth and urban and population economics. He has studied several topics in these areas, including the link between democracy and economic volatility, the historical pattern of city growth, the determinants of the fertility transition, the aggregate costs of gender inequality, the link between wars and fiscal policy, and the determinants of Internet diffusion across countries. His papers have been published in the Economic Journal, Journal of Urban Economics, Journal of Human Capital, and Macroeconomic Dynamics, among others. He has taught several courses on Macroeconomics, Economic Growth, and Urban Economics. He is also the author of a chapter in the book Frontiers of Economics and Globalization and another in the World Development Report 2012. He received a B.A. from Universitat Pompeu Fabra (Barcelona, Spain), a master in economics and finance from CEMFI (Madrid, Spain) and an M.A. and Ph.D. from the University of Chicago. He has been at Clark University since 2015.

Mai Dao is an economist in the IMF Research Department working on topics in labor and macroeconomics. Previously, she has worked on issues of structural reforms in euro area countries at the IMF European Department. She holds a Ph.D. in economics from Columbia University and an M.A. in economics from Free University Berlin.

Sonali Das is an economist in the IMF’s Asia and Pacific Department, covering India and Nepal. Previously, she was in the IMF’s Strategy, Policy, and Review Department, where her responsibilities included working on the IMF program with Pakistan. Sonali received a Ph.D. in economics from Cornell University in 2012, and holds an M.A. from McGill University and a B.Sc. from the University of Toronto. During the course of her doctoral studies, Sonali was a visiting fellow at the Federal Reserve Bank of San Francisco, a research associate at the Brookings Institution, and a summer intern at the IMF. Her research interests include financial intermediation and economic development.

Corinne Deléchat is division chief in the African Department of the IMF and mission chief for Cameroon. She has previously held positions in the Western Hemisphere Department and the Strategy, Policy, and Review Department, covering a number of low- and middle-income countries, as well as financial sector and private capital flow issues, donor coordination, capacity building, and external debt sustainability. She has also worked at the Swiss Ministry of Economy, in charge of bilateral assistance to a group of low-income countries, and at the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development. Her research interests and publications focus on development, particularly in the context of fragile countries, financial sector and banking issues, and natural resources management. Ms. Deléchat holds an M.A. and a Ph.D. in economics from Georgetown University, and an M.A. in international economics degree from the Graduate Institute of International Studies in Geneva.

Davide Furceri is a senior economist at the IMF Research Department. He holds a Ph.D. in economics from the University of Illinois. He previously worked as an economist in the Fiscal Policy Division of the European Central Bank, and in the Macroeconomic Analysis Division of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development Economics Department. He has published extensively in leading academic and policy-oriented journals on a wide range of topics in the area of macroeconomics, public finance, and international macroeconomics.

Christian Gonzales is a researcher who specializes in the economic modeling of the effects of gender inequality. Prior to the IMF, he worked at the World Bank, United Nations, and the Organization of American States. Outside of gender inequality, his research and publications have focused on the areas of economic development, income inequality, and macro-structural reforms. He holds an M.Sc. in applied economics from Johns Hopkins University, an M.A. in international relations from Syracuse University, and a B.A./B.Sc. in economics, finance, and mathematics from Berea College. He is a native of Honduras.

Dalia S. Hakura is a deputy chief in the Regional Studies Division of the IMF’s African Department and mission chief for the Republic of Congo; she has worked at the IMF since 1995. She was previously a deputy chief in the IMF’s Institute for Capacity Development, where she worked on regional training strategies and led training courses for government officials. She has also worked for the IMF’s Executive Board, Middle East and Central Asia Department, and Research Department. She holds a Ph.D. in economics from the University of Michigan, Ann Arbor. She has published extensively on various macroeconomic issues.

John Hooley is an economist in the African Department at the IMF. Prior to joining the IMF, he was a senior economist at the Bank of England where he had held a number of roles across monetary policy, financial stability, and emerging markets. His research interests and publications to date have mainly focused on cross-border capital flows and international shock transmission as well as monetary policy in low-income countries. Mr. Hooley holds degrees in economics from the London School of Economics and Cambridge University.

Mumtaz Hussain is a senior economist in the Regional Studies Division of the IMF’s African Department. As a member of the Regional Studies Division, he has authored many chapters of the IMF publication, Regional Economic Outlook. He previously worked in the IMF’s European Department as well as Strategy, Policy, and Review Department. He has wide-ranging country experience, having worked on Tanzania, Sudan, Albania, and Nigeria. Mr. Hussain’s research interests and publications have mainly focused on macroeconomic management in developing countries, building resilience to shocks and crises, Islamic finance, and economic inclusion. His papers have been published in Review of World Economics, Journal of International Money and Finance, Review of Development Economics, and Journal of International Commerce, Economics and Policy. He holds a Ph.D. in economics from Northeastern University, and an M.Sc. in economics from International Islamic University of Pakistan.

Jisoo Hwang is an assistant professor in the Department of International Economics and Law at Hankuk University of Foreign Studies (HUFS), Seoul, Korea. Before joining the faculty at HUFS, she worked as an economist at the Bank of Korea. She received a B.A. in economics at Seoul National University and a Ph.D. in economics at Harvard University. Her primary research interest is labor economics and family economics, including topics such as female labor force participation, fertility rates, child gender effects, marriage markets, and education.

Anna Ivanova is mission chief for Guatemala in the Western Hemisphere Department of the IMF. Previously she worked as a senior desk for Costa Rica, Germany, the Netherlands, as an economist in the Fiscal Affairs and Middle East and Central Asia departments of the IMF, and as a physicist in the Institute of Nuclear Problems in Belarus. She has published a series of papers in the areas of fiscal policy, the role of international financial institutions, current account, and growth. She obtained a Ph.D. in economics from the University of Wisconsin-Madison (U.S.), an M.A. in economic development from Vanderbilt University (U.S.), and an M.S. in nuclear physics from Belarussian State University (Belarus).

Sonali Jain-Chandra is a deputy division chief in the IMF’s Asia and Pacific Department, working on China and Hong Kong SAR. She has wide-ranging country experience, also having worked on India, Korea, Indonesia, Cambodia, Nepal, and Bhutan. She was also a member of the Regional Studies Division, and has authored many chapters of the IMF publication Regional Economic Outlook. She previously worked in the IMF’s Strategy, Policy, and Review Department on vulnerabilities in emerging markets and advanced economies. Ms. Jain-Chandra’s research interests and publications have mainly focused on labor markets, capital flows, international banking linkages, macroeconomics of gender, and financial inclusion and deepening. She holds a Ph.D. in economics from Columbia University; a B.A. and M.A. in philosophy, politics, and economics from Oxford University; and a B.A. in economics from Lady Shri Ram College, University of Delhi.

Eva Jenkner is currently a senior economist in the Institute for Capacity Development of the IMF. Prior to taking this position, she spent time in the IMF’s Fiscal Affairs and Western Hemisphere Departments, working on a broad range of countries, including Hungary, Mexico, Nicaragua, Peru, and Serbia. Outside of the IMF, she has served as the Deputy Representative for UNICEF in Malaysia and Senior Economic Adviser in the Republic of Georgia’s Ministry of Finance. Ms. Jenkner’s research interests and publications have mainly focused on social spending issues, income inequality, and political economy considerations. She holds an M.A. in economics and public policy from Princeton University and an M.A. in economics from the University of Cambridge, England.

Romina Kazandjian is currently a projects officer in the Strategy, Policy, and Review (SPR) Department of the IMF, researching the effects of gender inequality on economic diversification. In 2014, she was a Fund Internship Program (FIP) Intern in SPR. Ms. Kazandjian is a third-year Ph.D. student in economics and a teaching assistant at American University in Washington, D.C. Her research focuses on macroeconomics and monetary, international, and gender economics. She has previously worked at the Gender Asset Gap project, Innovations for Poverty Action, Open Society Foundations, and the United Nations Population Fund. Ms. Kazandjian holds an M.A. in economics from American University and a B.A. in economics and political science from Adelphi University’s Honors College. She has been a visiting student at the London School of Economics and Political Science and the University of Ghana.

Stefan Klos is a research analyst in the African Department of the IMF, concentrating mainly on Article IV research and program work for Mali, Guinea-Bissau, and the WAEMU. Prior to his time at the IMF, Mr. Klos received a bachelor’s degree in mathematics and economics from Northeastern University in Boston. Topics of interest include governance, inequality, and their effects on economic performance.

Kalpana Kochhar is currently the director of the IMF’s Human Resource Department. Prior to this position, she was a Deputy Director in the Asia and Pacific Department of the IMF. Between 2010 and 2012, she was the Chief Economist for the South Asia Region of the World Bank. Prior to joining the World Bank, she held the position of Deputy Director in the Asia and Pacific Department since August 2008 leading the IMF’s work on Japan, India, Sri Lanka, Maldives, Bhutan, and Nepal. She has also worked on China, Korea, and the Philippines. Prior to taking this position, she spent time in the IMF’s Research Department, Strategy and Policy Review Department, and Fiscal Affairs Department. Ms. Kochhar’s research interests and publications have mainly focused on studies of Asian economies, including a major report on jobs in South Asia. She holds a Ph.D. and an M.A. in economics from Brown University and an M.A. in economics from Delhi School of Economics in India. She has a B.A in economics from Madras University in India.

Lisa Kolovich is an economist at the IMF and is the co-lead for gender research under a joint IMF-DFID collaboration that focuses on macroeconomic issues in low-income countries. Before joining the IMF, she conducted program evaluations for the U.S. Department of Labor and has been a consultant for the World Bank and Inter-American Development Bank. She completed her Ph.D. at the University of Navarra and an M.A. at the University of Maryland.

Naresh Kumar is currently a research analyst in the IMF’s African Department. Prior to this, he worked on India at the IMF office in Delhi and on Latin American countries while in the private sector before joining the IMF. He joined the IMF in 2009. He is an Indian national and has an M.A. and B.A. in economics from Delhi University. He has published on growth and inequality, labor market issues, and inflation in India. His research interests are in trade, structural issues, inequality, and labor market issues.

Huidan Lin is currently an economist in the unit responsible for euro area surveillance in the European Department of the IMF. She has previously worked on Korea, Portugal, Solomon Islands, Tonga, and Vanuatu since joining the IMF in 2009. Ms. Lin’s research has focused on a range of macroeconomic and finance issues on China, euro area, and the United States, covering growth, structural policies, labor markets, and corporate finance. She holds a Ph.D. in economics from Columbia University and a B.A. in economics from Peking University in China.

Lusine Lusinyan is a senior economist in the IMF’s Western Hemisphere Department, working on the Argentina desk and, prior to this, on the country desks for Canada and the United States. She was previously in the European Department, working on the Italy desk, and the Fiscal Affairs Department. Her recent research has focused on structural reforms, productivity, energy issues, and fiscal decentralization.

Ryo Makioka is a Ph.D. student in Department of Economics at Pennsylvania State University, and was a summer intern of the Japan-IMF Scholarship Program for Advanced Studies (JISP) in the IMF’s Western Hemisphere Department. He received a B.A. in social science from Waseda University (Japan) and an M.A. in economics from Hitotsubashi University (Japan).

Masato Nakane is an economist in the South Asia Department, Asian Development Bank (ADB). Prior to joining ADB, Mr. Nakane was an economist in the Food and Agriculture Organization, Italy, where he was responsible for monitoring economic and trade policy developments of different projects and for proposing policy recommendations to the developing countries. He also worked as an economist at the IMF, where he was responsible for conducting economic surveillance and providing policy advice to Asian countries to aid in the recovery from recessions. He also worked for the World Bank as a consultant, where he analyzed the relationship between rural development and poverty in Nepal and suggested the aid strategy to enhance employment and reduce poverty. Earlier in his career, he worked as a research assistant at Cornell University, and as a staff member in the Japan International Cooperation Agency. Mr. Nakane completed a Ph.D. and M.S. in applied economics from Cornell University. He also holds a B.A. in international relations from the University of Tokyo.

Monique Newiak is an economist in the Regional Studies Division of the IMF’s African Department. Her country work has focused on anglophone and francophone Western African countries, such as Ghana and members of the West African Economic and Monetary Union. Prior to joining the African Department, she worked in the IMF’s Strategy, Policy, and Review Department on issues related to jobs and growth, program conditionality, and trade. Ms. Newiak holds a Ph.D. in economics from The Ludwig-Maximilans-University in Munich, and master’s degrees in business administration and in economics. Her research interests and publications have focused on development economics, international economics, the economics of gender, and monetary economics.

Joana Pereira is an economist at the European Department of the IMF, in the unit responsible for the macroeconomic surveillance of Germany. She has previously worked in the Fiscal Affairs and Western Hemisphere Departments. Prior to joining the IMF, Ms. Pereira was a researcher at Erasmus University, Rotterdam. At the IMF, she has conducted research on a number of macrofiscal issues, covering labor markets, social security, fiscal frameworks, fiscal multipliers, and intergovernmental relations in federations. She holds a Ph.D. in economics from the European University Institute and an economics degree from Nova University.

Tobias Rasmussen is a senior economist in the IMF’s African Department. With the IMF since 2001, he has worked on a wide range of countries and was until recently the Fund’s resident representative in Zambia. He holds a Ph.D. in economics from Aarhus University in Denmark and a master of international affairs degree from Columbia University. His research and publications have focused on natural resource management and economic growth.

Ferhan Salman is a senior economist in the Middle East and Central Asia Department of the IMF. Previously, he spent time at the Strategy, Policy, and Review Department. Prior to joining the IMF, Ferhan worked at the Central Bank of Turkey. He is currently the president of the World Bank-IMF Turkish Staff Association and founder and co-chair of the D.C.-based think tank, Capital Turkish Connections. His experience and publications are in the areas of global financial crisis, vulnerability analysis, macro-financial spillovers, and fiscal policy. Since the global crisis he has worked on a number of emerging market economies in Europe, Asia, and the Middle East. He holds a Ph.D. in economics from Boston University and M.S. and B.S. degrees in economics from Middle East Technical University in Turkey. He received docent of economics from the Turkish Higher Education Board.

Chad Steinberg is a deputy division chief for the Emerging Market Division in the IMF’s Strategy, Policy, and Review Department. He has worked at the IMF since 2002 and was most recently a representative at the IMF’s Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific in Tokyo. His research interests include international trade, economic development, and labor markets. He holds a Ph.D. from Harvard University.

Janet Stotsky is a visiting scholar at the IMF, working on gender and macroeconomic issues and is leading a project on gender budgeting. Previously, she was an advisor at the IMF and held managerial positions in the Fiscal Affairs, Western Hemisphere, and African Departments and in the Office of Budget and Planning. She has led country and technical assistance missions. She also worked for the U.S. Treasury and has taught at American and Rutgers Universities. She has a Ph.D. from Stanford University. She has published widely on fiscal, gender, and macroeconomic issues.

Marc Teignier is currently an assistant professor in the economic theory department of the University of Barcelona (Spain). Prior to that, he was a Professor at the University of Alicante and a post-doctorate researcher at the University of the Basque Country. Mr. Teignier earned a Ph.D. in economics from the University of Chicago in June 2010 after receiving B.A. and M.A. degrees in economics from Universitat Pompeu Fabra (Barcelona, Spain). He also worked as an external consultant for the IMF, the World Bank, and the Human Development Report Office of the United Nations. Mr. Teignier teaches graduate and undergraduate courses in microeconomics and macroeconomics, and conducts research on economic growth, international trade, and macroeconomics. His research interests include the study of the macroeconomic effects of gender gaps, the importance of international trade in structural transformation, the determinants of technology adoption, the relationship between financial development and income volatility, and the optimal industrial policy in an environment with learning-by-doing externalities. His articles have been published in the Journal of Money, Credit and Banking; Journal of Human Capital; and Journal of International Development.

Vimal Thakoor is an economist in the IMF’s African Department. He is currently part of the Zimbabwe team and has also worked on Rwanda and Côte d’Ivoire. He was previously in the Expenditure Policy Division of the IMF’s Fiscal Affairs Department, where he focused on subsidies and fiscal risks as part of technical assistance mission teams. His current research focuses on the growth and fiscal impacts of demographics and climate change. He holds a doctoral degree in economics from the University of Birmingham, United Kingdom.

Petia Topalova is a deputy division chief at the IMF, where she currently works on the World Economic Outlook. Prior to that, she worked in the IMF’s European Department, Research Department, and Asia and Pacific Department, and was a lecturer at the Harvard Kennedy School of Government. She earned a Ph.D. in economics from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in 2005. Her research is in the areas of structural reforms, economic development, and international trade.

Rima A. Turk recently joined the IMF to work in the Nordic Unit of the European Department. Prior to that, she was a tenured faculty member in finance at the Lebanese American University, a consultant for the World Bank and the United Nations, and a regular visiting researcher at the Bank of Finland. Her research interests include the competition-stability nexus in banking, market discipline, macro-financial linkages, Islamic finance, the measurement of credit constraints, and corporate governance across developed and developing countries, Middle-East and North Africa, China, and Russia. Her work is published in the Journal of International Financial Markets; Institutions & Money; Journal of Banking and Finance; Journal of International Money and Finance; Journal of Comparative Economics; and Journal of Financial Services Research, among others. Ms. Turk holds a Ph.D. in finance from Cardiff University.

Joyce Cheng Wong is a desk economist for Jamaica in the Western Hemisphere Department of the IMF. She has previously worked as a desk economist for Costa Rica and El Salvador and in the Finance Department. She obtained a Ph.D. in economics from New York University and has published papers on drivers of female labor force participation and divorce in the United States.

Fan Yang is a research analyst in the IMF’s African Department, working on the West African region. He has been at the IMF for almost four years and has been involved in numerous publications on macroeconomic issues, including public investment efficiency, financial inclusion, gender inequality, and monetary policy. Previously he was a student at George Mason University, where he earned an M.S. in statistics.

Tlek Zeinullayev, a national of Kazakhstan, is the desk economist for Samoa in the Small States Unit of the IMF’s Asia and Pacific Department. Prior to joining the IMF, he worked as a consultant at the World Bank in the Europe and Central Asia Chief Economist Office. He holds a M.Phil. in economics from Oxford University and a B.S. in mathematics from University of Texas at Austin.

Lusha Zhuang is a research analyst in the Asia and Pacific Department of the IMF. Prior to joining the IMF, she worked as a consultant at the World Bank. She graduated from Fudan University in Shanghai and pursued M.B.A. and M.P.A. degrees in the United States. She holds an M.S. in economic policy management from Columbia University and a M.B.A. degree from Rochester Institute of Technology.

Index

[Page numbers followed by b, f, n, or t refer to boxed text, figures, footnotes, or tables, respectively.]

A

  • Abe, Masahiro, 110

  • Act to Advance Women’s Success in Their Working Life, in Japan, 105

  • Adolescent fertility rate, 6, 15f

    • gender inequality and, 64f

    • poverty and, 62, 64f

    • in SSA, 15

    • in WAEMU, 220f

  • Advanced countries

    • FLP in, 97, 98f, 100–102, 102f

    • gender education inequality in, 13

    • gender labor force participation gap in, 37f

    • gender wage gap in, 105f

    • immigration in, 97, 98f

    • maternity leave in, 108f

    • poverty in, 114f

    • senior positions in, 103f

    • tax wedge in, 9

  • Afghanistan, gender budgeting in, 276

  • Africa

    • education in, 269

    • taxes in, 272

    • See also Middle East and north Africa; Sub-Saharan Africa; West African Economic and Monetary Union

  • Aging population

    • in Europe, xiv, 141

    • FLP and, 39–41

    • in Germany, 173

    • in Hungary, 162

    • in Japan, xiii, 97, 98f

  • Aguirre, DeAnne, 7–8

  • Alderman, 267–68

  • Amin, M., 51, 78

  • Antigender discrimination laws, 67

  • Arellano-Bond test statistic, 206

  • Argentina, 272

  • ASEAN. See Association of Southeast Asian Nations

  • Asia

    • FLP in, xiii

    • gender budgeting in, 274–75

    • gender inequality in, 95–137

    • See also Central Asia; East Asia and Pacific; South Asia

  • Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN), xv, 196

    • SSA and, 199–200, 199f, 201f

  • Austen, Siobhan, 270

  • Austria, 277

B

  • Back to Work Program, in Mauritius, 242

  • Bahrain, 184f

  • Barro, R. J., 78n2, 90

  • Basic Law for a Gender-Equal Society, in Japan, 113

  • Beaman, L., 6n2

  • Becker, G. S., 32, 183

  • Belgium, 278

  • Benazir Income Support Program, in Pakistan, 190–91

  • Benin, 223f

  • Berge, K., 78

  • Bick, A., 177n7

  • Birth control pill, 33

  • Bloom, E., 296

  • Branisa, B., 298

  • Browne, James, 274

  • Budlender, Debbie, 272

  • Bureau van Dijk, 147n7

  • Burkina Faso, 223f

C

  • Cadot, O., 89

  • Career positions (sogoshoku), 103–4, 104f

  • Carrere, C., 89

  • Casale, Daniela, 272

  • Catalyst, 8n6, 152

  • Cavalcanti, T. V. de V., 34, 79

  • Central America, 23

  • Central Asia

    • countries in, 48

    • gender budgeting in, 276

  • Chakraborty, Lekha, 272, 274

  • Childcare

    • in Chile, 247, 248–49, 248f

    • in Europe, 148f

    • FLP and, 9, 33n2, 99, 132n2, 305

    • in Germany, xiv, 176–77, 176n6, 177n7

    • in Hungary, 164, 164n3, 165f, 170

    • in India, 118

    • in Japan, 100, 106–11, 110f, 111f

    • in Korea, 132–36, 132n1, 134n3

    • in Mauritius, xv, 240, 242

    • in OECD, 132n2

    • in Pakistan, 191

    • time spent on, 5

  • Child labor, 7, 7n5

  • Childrearing allowance, in Japan, 113

  • Chile

    • childcare in, 247, 248–49, 248f

    • flexible work arrangements in, 247, 249

    • gender discrimination in, 247

    • gender inequality in, 247–49, 248t

    • gender labor force participation gap in, 248

    • legal restrictions in, 247

    • maternity leave in, 248

    • paternity leave in, 248, 249

    • property ownership in, 247

  • China, gender wage gap in, 6, 25

  • Cho, Kenka, 108

  • Christiaensen, Luc, 267–68

  • Christiansen, Lone, 148, 148n9, 282n10

  • Christie, Tamoya A. L., 275

  • Commodities, 73–74

  • Contraception, 33

    • in Mali, xv

  • Costa Rica

    • economic growth in, 253f

    • economy of, 254–55, 254f

    • education in, 253

    • fertility rate in, 253

    • FLP in, 251–61, 253f, 256t, 257t, 258f

    • GDP per capita in, 260

    • gender education gap in, 252f

    • gender inequality in, 251–61

    • income inequality in, 253

    • as middle-income country, 251–53

  • Côte d’Ivoire, 217, 223f

  • Country Policy and Institutional Assessments Gender Equality Rating, of World Bank, 18

  • Courts, WBL and, 290

  • Cuberes, D., 31, 40, 78n3, 78

  • Current weekly status, in NSSO, 119

D

  • Dabla-Norris, Era, 62, 65, 66

  • Daniels, Reza C., 273

  • Das, S., 238

  • Daycare. See Childcare

  • De Laat, J., 296

  • Demery, Lionel, 268–69

  • Demographic dividend

    • in India, 117, 117n1

    • in Japan, 97

  • Demographics

    • FLP and, 101, 300

    • in Japan, 98f, 101

    • in labor force participation, 39, 40f, 41t

    • in Mauritius, 231–32, 232f

    • See also Aging population

  • Denmark

    • FLP in, 131

    • senior positions in, 103f

  • Developing economies

    • economic diversification in, 74, 82, 91

    • education in, 279

    • gender inequality in, 38–39, 38t, 82

  • Dezso, C., 8n6

  • Discrimination. See Gender discrimination

  • Domestic violence

    • gender budgeting for, 275

    • in WAEMU, 221

    • WBL and, 290

  • Dougherty, S., 124

  • Dual Training Program, in Mauritius, 242

E

  • East Asia and Pacific

    • countries in, 48

    • economic growth in, 51

  • Eckstein, Z., 296, 297

  • Econometric methodology, 70–71

  • Economic cycle, vulnerability to, 7

  • Economic diversification, 73–92, 81t

    • benefits of, 75f

    • economic growth and, 74, 75f

    • education for, 74

    • empirical strategy and results for, 79–83

    • GDP per capita and, 91

    • gender inequality and, xii–xiii, 74, 76f, 79, 80–83, 84t

    • gender labor force participation gap and, 76

    • gender wage gap and, 79

    • human development for, 74

    • IV-GMM and, 76, 83, 85t, 92

    • in LIDC, 83, 90

    • literature review on, 77–79

    • macroeconomics and, 80–83

    • policies for, 92

    • structural transformation and, 74, 74n1

  • Economic growth

    • in Costa Rica, 253f

    • economic diversification and, 74, 75f

    • education and, 33

    • fertility rate and, 33

    • FLP and, 253f

    • in fragile states, 200, 201f

    • in GDP per capita, 204–6, 205t

    • gender education inequality and, 77–78, 78n2

    • gender inequality and, 32–34, 51, 199

    • gender wage gap and, 79

    • in Hungary, 167–69

    • income inequality and, 50, 196–99

    • legal rights and, 33

    • in LIDC, 199

    • in Mauritius, 235–38

    • in middle-income countries, 201f

    • in oil-exporting countries, 201f

    • in SSA, 195, 196–99, 198t

    • technological progress and, 32–33

  • Economic outcomes

    • FLP and, 22–25

    • gender inequality and, 22–25, 50–51, 76

  • Economist Intelligence Unit, 18

  • Education

    • in Africa, 269

    • in Costa Rica, 253

    • in developing economies, 279

    • economic diversification and, xii–xiii, 74

    • economic growth and, 33

    • in Europe, 148f

    • fertility rate and, 79, 197, 253

    • FLP and, 9, 22, 297, 300, 305

    • in GCC, 183, 185t

    • gender budgeting for, 275

    • gender inequality in, xii, 6, 13–15, 14f, 19f, 35f, 60–62, 61f

    • in Gindex, 26

    • government spending for, 266–71

    • in Hungary, xiv

    • in India, 125

    • in Japan, 97n1

    • in Mali, xv, 227, 230f

    • in Mauritius, 233–34, 233f

    • in SSA, 197

    • in WAEMU, 217–18, 224

    • See also Gender education gap

  • Egypt, 291

  • Emerging markets

    • in Europe, 278

    • gender education inequality in, 13

    • labor force participation in, 252f

    • paid employment in, 8

  • Employment. See Labor force participation

  • Employment Protection Legislation index, of OECD, 122–24

  • Entrepreneurship

    • financial services for, 208

    • gender inequality and, 21f, 42, 78

    • gender labor force participation gap and, 76

    • labor force participation and, 36

    • legal restrictions to, 5

    • in Mauritius, 242

    • restrictions on, 78n3

    • underrepresentation in, 5

  • Equal employment opportunities, 9

  • Equal Employment Opportunity Act of 1986, in Japan, 105

  • Esteve-Volart, B., 34n3, 80

  • Ethiopia, 268

  • Europe

    • aging population in, xiv, 141

    • childcare in, 148f

    • countries in, 48

    • economic challenges of, 143f

    • education in, 148f

    • emerging markets in, 278

    • FLP in, xiv, 22, 141–56, 145f

    • gender budgeting in, 277–78

    • gender education gap in, 144

    • gender equality in, 17, 141–42

    • gender inequality in, 139–77

    • gender labor force participation gap in, 143f

    • gender roles in, 148f

    • old-age dependency ratio in, 141, 143f

    • parental leave in, 148f

    • senior positions in, 145–47, 146f, 151, 151n10, 153f

    • taxes in, 148f, 274

  • Exports. See Economic diversification; Oil-exporting countries

F

  • Female labor force participation (FLP)

    • in advanced countries, 97, 98f, 100–102, 102f

    • aging population and, 39–41

    • in Asia, xiii

    • childcare and, 9, 33n2, 99, 132n2, 305

    • in Costa Rica, 251–61, 253f, 256t, 257t, 258f

    • demographics and, 101, 300

    • drivers of, 294–98, 295f

    • economic growth and, 253f

    • economic outcomes and, 22–25

    • education and, 9, 22, 297, 300, 305

    • in Europe, xiv, 22, 141–56, 145f

    • fertility rate and, 22, 33

    • financial services and, 209f

    • fiscal policies for, 9, 278–82, 280t–281t, 297

    • in G7, 8, 99

    • in GCC, xiv, 183, 184f, 184t, 185t

    • GDP per capita and, 305

    • gender inequality in, xi–xii, xvi, 4–5, 4t, 22f

    • gender wage gap and, 305

    • in Germany, xiv, 131f, 173–79, 175f

    • government spending and, 297

    • in high-tech, 144, 152–56, 155f

    • in Hungary, xiv, 131f, 160f, 162f, 163f

    • income per capita and, 22–23

    • in India, xiii, 117–22, 120f, 121f, 122f

    • in Japan, xiii, 97, 103–112, 107f

    • job scarcity and, 42

    • in Kenya, 295–96

    • in Korea, xiii–xiv, 129–37, 130f, 133t, 135t

    • in Latin America and Caribbean, 258f

    • legal restrictions and, 291–94, 292f, 293f, 298–100, 299f, 301t

    • legal rights and, xvi, 289–306, 300

    • in Mali, 227–30

    • maternity leave and, 99, 297–98, 300, 305

    • in Mauritius, xv, 232–33, 238–43

    • neutral taxes and, xiv, 99

    • in OCC, 185t

    • in OECD, 97, 98f, 100–102, 102f, 131f

    • in Pakistan, 187–91

    • parental leave and, 132n2

    • paternity leave and, 297–98

    • pensions and, 279

    • policies to promote, 9

    • religion and, 33

    • senior positions and, 298

    • in service sector, 33

    • shrinking workforce and, ix

    • in SSA, 211t

    • taxes and, 9, 282, 282n10, 297

    • tax wedge and, 164, 282, 305

    • trends in, xi, 4–5, 4t

    • in WAEMU, 219f

  • Fernandez, R., 296

  • Fernández, Raquel, 33

  • Fertility rate, 215

    • in Costa Rica, 253

    • economic growth and, 33

    • education and, 79, 197, 253

    • FLP and, 22, 33

    • in Gindex, 26

    • in Hungary, 162

    • income effect and, 32

    • income per capita and, 32

    • in India, 117n1

    • labor force participation and, 230f

    • in Mali, 230f

    • in Mauritius, 231–32, 232f

    • in OCC, 183, 185t

    • in SSA, 197

    • See also Adolescent fertility rate

  • 50 Years of Women’s Rights database, 24, 26

  • Figari, Francesco, 274

  • Filmer, Deon, 269

  • Financial services

    • for entrepreneurship, 208

    • FLP and, 209f

    • gender equality and, 209f

    • income inequality and, 208–10

    • in Pakistan, 191

    • PCA for, 214

    • poverty and, 209f

    • in SSA, 208–10, 208f

    • in WAEMU, 224

    • WBL and, 290

    • See also Gender financial services gap

  • Finland, 131

  • Fiscal policies

    • for FLP, 9, 278–82, 280t–281t, 297

    • gender education gap and, 266–68

    • for gender equality, xv–xvi, 274–78

    • gender inequality and, 265–83

    • for pensions, 265

    • See also Government spending; Taxes

  • Flexible work arrangements

    • in Chile, 247, 249

    • in Hungary, 165–66, 165f, 170

    • in Japan, 111, 112t

    • in Mauritius, 242

  • FLP. See Female labor force participation

  • Fortin, N. M., 33, 40

  • Fragile states, economic growth in, 200, 201f

  • Fragoso, Pérez, 274

  • France

    • gender wage gap in, 105f

    • maternity leave in, 108f

    • poverty in, 114f

    • senior positions in, 103f

  • Frasier Summary Index of Institutions, 82

  • Full-time equivalent (FTE), 176

G

  • G7, 33n2

    • FLP in, 8, 99

  • G20. See Group of Twenty

  • Gaddis, I., 118

  • Galor, O., 33, 34

  • Garnero, A., 152n12

  • GCC. See Gulf Cooperation Council

  • GDI. See Gender Development Index

  • GDP losses

    • from gender inequality, 188f, 197

    • in Mauritius, 235–38, 236f, 237f, 238f

  • GDP per capita, 214

    • in Costa Rica, 260

    • economic diversification and, 91

    • economic growth in, 204–6, 205t

    • FLP and, 305

    • gender equality and, 50, 218f

    • gender inequality and, 19, 21f, 51f

    • in Israel, 37

    • in Korea, 132

    • property ownership and, 298

    • in SSA, 195–96, 204–6, 205t

    • in Turkey, 37

    • in WAEMU, 218f

  • Gender budgeting

    • in Afghanistan, 276

    • in Asia, 274–75

    • in Austria, 277

    • in Belgium, 278

    • in central Asia, 276

    • in Europe, 277–78

    • in India, 274–75

    • in Korea, 275

    • in Latin America and Caribbean, 275–76

    • in Mauritius, 243–44, 241f, 242

    • in Mexico, 275

    • in Middle East and north Africa, 276

    • in Morocco, 276

    • in Philippines, 275

    • in Rwanda, 276–77

    • in South Africa, 277

    • in SSA, 276–77

    • in Uganda, 276–77

  • Gender Development Index (GDI), 55, 89

  • Gender discrimination

    • in Chile, 247

    • laws on, 67

    • legal rights from, 290

    • for senior positions, 78

    • in taxes, 271–72

    • in WAEMU, 221

  • Gender education gap, 214

    • in Costa Rica, 252f

    • economic growth and, 77–78, 78n2

    • in Europe, 144

    • fiscal policies and, 266–68

    • in Ghana, 269

    • in Hungary, 160f

    • in India, 121–22, 122f

    • in Pakistan, 189, 190f, 269

    • in Uganda, 269

    • in WAEMU, 218–21, 220f

  • Gender Empowerment Measure, 55

  • Gender equality

    • in Europe, 17, 141–42

    • financial services and, 209f

    • fiscal policies for, xv–xvi, 274–78

    • FLP and, 9

    • GDP per capita and, 50, 218f

    • in Hungary, xiv

    • improvements in, ix

    • macroeconomics and, 141–42, 209f

    • in Mali, xv

    • as social objective, xi

  • Gender financial services gap, 6, 16, 16f, 19f, 60–62, 63f

    • income inequality and, 207–10

    • in SSA, 207–10

  • Gender inequality (gender gap)

    • adolescent fertility rate and, 64f

    • adverse macroeconomic consequences of, xi

    • in Asia, 95–137

    • challenges with, xi–xii

    • in Chile, 247–49, 248t

    • in Costa Rica, 251–61

    • economic diversification and, xii–xiii, 76, 76f, 79, 80–83, 84t

    • economic growth and, 32–34, 51, 199

    • economic outcomes and, 22–25, 50–51, 76

    • in education, xii, 6, 13–15, 14f, 19f, 35f, 60–62, 61f

    • entrepreneurship and, 21f, 42, 77

    • in Europe, 139–77

    • in financial services, 6, 16, 16f, 19f, 60–62, 63f

    • fiscal policies and, 265–83

    • in FLP, xi–xii, xvi, 22f

    • in GCC, 183

    • GDP losses from, 188f, 197

    • GDP per capita and, 19, 21f, 51f

    • in Germany, 173–79

    • in Gindex, 26

    • Gini coefficient and, 67f

    • happiness and, 19, 19n2, 21f

    • in health care, 15, 15f, 19f, 60–62, 64f

    • human development and, 20, 21f

    • in Hungary, 159–70

    • income inequality and, xii, 49–56, 54n1, 58f, 65t

    • income losses from, 38–39, 38t

    • in India, 117–26

    • infant mortality and, 19, 21f

    • in Japan, 23, 97–114

    • in Korea, 129–37

    • in labor force participation, xii, 4–5, 4t, 23, 31–46, 36t

    • in Latin America and Caribbean, 38t, 39

    • in legal restrictions, 16, 17f

    • legal rights and, 19f, 43t

    • in LIDC, 38t, 39, 83

    • in literacy rates, 13–15

    • macroeconomics of, xi, xii, 50–54, 77–78, 218f

    • in Mali, 223f, 227–30, 228f

    • in Mauritius, 231–43

    • measures of, 19f, 55–56, 56t

    • in Middle East and north Africa, 17, 38t, 39, 54n2, 181–91

    • in OECD, 23, 31

    • in oil-exporting countries, 200, 200n1

    • in Pakistan, 187–91, 189f

    • in pensions, 3

    • poverty and, 20, 21f, 58f, 218f

    • in south Asia, 38t, 39, 54n2

    • in SSA, xv, 17, 54n2, 193–242, 198t

    • structural transformation and, 79

    • in Sweden, 23

    • taxes and, 67, 271–74

    • theoretical model for, 34–39

    • trends in, 19f

    • in WAEMU, xv, 217–25, 218f, 223f–224f

    • why it matters economically, 7–9

  • Gender inequality index (Gindex), 17–20

    • changes in, 20f

    • constructing, 26–27

  • Gender Inequality Index (GII), of UN, 54n2, 55–56, 56t, 57f, 196f, 204–6

    • changes from 1990 to 2010, 57f

    • economic diversification and, 76

    • gender wage gap and, 78–79

    • Gini coefficient and, 64

    • income inequality and, 26

    • Mali and, 227, 228f

    • WAEMU and, 217

  • Gender labor force participation gap

    • in advanced countries, 37f

    • in Chile, 248

    • economic diversification and, 76

    • entrepreneurship and, 76

    • in Europe, 143f

    • in Germany, 144

    • in Hungary, 159–70

    • income inequality and, 56–60, 60f

    • job scarcity and, 32, 33, 42, 43t

    • legal restrictions on, 71

    • legal rights and, 40–43, 44f, 45f

    • in Mali, 229f

    • in Norway, 144

    • in OECD, 59, 59f

    • in Pakistan, 187–91, 188f

    • in Sweden, 144

    • in WAEMU, 219f

  • Gender roles, 270–71

    • in Europe, 148f

    • in Hungary, 166–67, 168f

  • Gender wage gap, ix, 6, 23f, 34

    • in advanced countries, 105f

    • economic diversification and, 79

    • economic growth and, 78

    • FLP and, 305

    • in France, 105f

    • GII and, 78–79

    • in Hungary, 160f, 161f, 166–67, 167f, 170

    • ILO on, 25

    • income inequality and, 49

    • in India, 124

    • in Japan, 105, 105f

    • in Korea, 105, 105f, 132

    • in Mauritius, 239, 241t

    • motherhood penalty in, 25

    • in OECD, 25

    • part-time employment and, 6

    • in Sweden, 105, 105f

    • in United Kingdom, 105f

    • in United States, 105f

  • Germany

    • aging population in, 173

    • childcare in, xiv, 176–77, 176n6, 177n7

    • FLP in, xiv, 131f, 173–79, 175f

    • gender inequality in, 173–79

    • gender labor force participation gap in, 144

    • health care in, 173

    • health care insurance in, 177

    • immigration in, 173

    • low-income households in, 177

    • maternity leave in, 108f

    • old-age dependency ratio in, 173

    • part-time employment in, 174–77, 175f

    • poverty in, 114f

    • senior positions in, 103f

    • taxes in, 175–76, 175nn2–3, 177

    • tax wedge in, 174–75

  • Ghana, 269

  • Ghani, E., 297

  • Gherardi, Natalia, 272

  • GII. See Gender Inequality Index

  • Gindex. See Gender inequality index

  • Gini coefficient, 62

    • econometric methodology and, 70

    • gender inequality and, 67f

    • GII and, 64

    • for income inequality, 196f

    • income inequality and, 64–65, 214

    • in LIDC, 197

  • Giuliano, L., 152n11

  • Glewwe, Paul, 267–68

  • Glick, Peter, 269

  • Global Competitiveness Report, 260

  • Global financial crisis, 7

  • Global FINDEX, of World Bank, 209n1

  • Global Gender Gap Index, of World Economic Forum, 18, 187, 187n1, 189f, 251, 291

  • Global Gender Gap Report, of World Economic Forum, 117

  • Goldin, C., 117

  • Gonzales, Christian, 71, 80

  • Government spending

    • for education, 266–71

    • FLP and, 297

    • for health care, 266–71

    • income inequality and, 66

    • in Pakistan, 190–91

    • in WAEMU, 224

  • Greece, GII coefficient for, 64

  • Group of Twenty (G20), 117, 118

  • Grown, Caren, 272, 273

  • Guatemala, 290

  • Guinea-Bissau, income and gender inequality in, 223f

  • Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC)

    • education in, 183, 185t

    • fertility rate in, 183, 185t

    • FLP in, xiv, 183, 184f, 184t, 185t

    • gender inequality in, 183

    • labor market in, 185t

  • GYED childcare, 164, 164n3, 170

  • GYES childcare, 164n3

H

  • Hakura, Dalia, 51

  • Hansen J statistic, 206

  • Hansen test, 71

  • Happiness, gender inequality and, 19, 19n2, 21f

  • Hausman test, 70

  • Headcount ratios, in LIDC, 20

  • Health care

    • gender inequality in, 15, 15f, 19f, 60–62, 64f

    • in Germany, 173

    • in Gindex, 26

    • government spending for, 266–71

    • income inequality and, 62

    • for maternal health services, 6

  • Health care insurance, in Germany, xiv, 177

  • Heckscher-Ohlin model, 74

  • High-tech, FLP in, 144, 152–56, 155f

  • Higuchi, Yoshio, 108

  • Hillman, Arye, 273

  • Household work, time spent on, 4–5

  • Hsieh, C., 34

  • Human development

    • for economic diversification, 74

    • gender inequality and, 20, 21f

    • measures of, 20n3

  • Human Development Index, of United Nations, 20n3

  • Hungary

    • aging population in, 162

    • childcare in, 164, 164n3, 165f, 170

    • economic growth in, 167–69

    • fertility rate in, 162

    • flexible work arrangements in, 165–66, 165f, 170

    • FLP in, xiv, 131f, 160f, 162f, 163f

    • gender education gap in, 160f

    • gender inequality in, 159–70

    • gender labor force participation gap in, 159–70

    • gender roles in, 166–67, 168f

    • gender wage gap in, 160f, 161f, 166– 67, 167f, 170

    • Job Protection Act in, 164

    • parental leave in, 164–65, 170

    • part-time employment in, 165f, 167n5

    • paternity leave in, 170, 170n9

    • senior positions in, 159, 160f

    • taxes in, xiv, 164

I

  • Iceland, FLP in, 131

  • IFC. See International Finance Corporation

  • ILO. See International Labour Organization

  • Immigration

    • in advanced countries, 97, 98f

    • in Germany, 173

    • in Japan, 97

    • in OECD, 97, 98f

  • Income effect, 32

    • in India, 118, 118n2

  • Income inequality, 49–71

    • in Costa Rica, 253

    • economic growth and, 50, 196–99

    • financial services and, 208–10

    • gender financial services gap and, 207–10

    • gender inequality and, xii, 49–56, 54n1, 58f, 65t

    • gender labor force participation gap and, 56–60, 60f

    • gender wage gap and, 49

    • GII and, 26

    • Gini coefficient and, 64–65, 196f, 214

    • government spending and, 66

    • health care and, 62

    • labor market regulation easing and, 66

    • macroeconomics of, 50–54

    • in Mauritius, 234f

    • measurement of, 54n1

    • in OECD, 56, 59, 59f

    • in SSA, xv, 193–242, 207–10, 210f

    • in WAEMU, 221–22, 223f–224f

    • See also Gender wage gap

  • Income losses, from gender inequality, 38t, 38–39

  • Income per capita

    • fertility rate and, 32

    • FLP and, 22–23

  • India

    • childcare in, 118

    • demographic dividend in, 117, 117n1

    • education in, 125

    • fertility rate in, 117n1

    • FLP in, xiii, 117–22, 120f, 121f, 122f

    • gender budgeting in, 274–75

    • gender education gap in, 121–22, 122f

    • gender wage gap in, 124

    • income effect in, 118, 118n2

    • labor force participation in, 123t

    • labor market flexibility in, 122–25

    • MGNREGA in, 118, 118n3, 119, 125

    • Ministry of Statistics and Programme Implementation of, 124

    • NSSO of, 118–19, 119n4

    • politicians in, 6n2

    • Report of the Committee of Experts on Unemployment Estimates in, 119n5

    • unemployment in, 118–19, 119n5

  • Indonesia, gender wage gap in, 6, 25

  • Infant mortality, 19, 21f

  • Ingreso Etico Familiar, in Chile, 248

  • Inheritance

    • legal restrictions to, 79, 197

    • legal rights to, 24

  • Instrumental variable general method of moments (IV-GMM), 76, 85t, 83, 92

    • for SSA, 206

  • International Finance Corporation (IFC), 290

    • Kenya and, 295–96

  • International Labour Organization (ILO), 8

    • on gender wage gap, 25

  • Ippanshoku (noncareer positions), 103

  • Ishizuka, Hiromi, 113

  • Israel, 37

  • IV-GMM. See Instrumental variable general method of moments

J

  • Japan

    • Act to Advance Women’s Success in Their Working Life in, 105

    • aging population in, xiii, 97, 98f

    • Basic Law for a Gender-Equal Society in, 113

    • childcare in, 100, 106–11, 110f, 111f

    • childrearing allowance in, 113

    • demographic dividend in, 97

    • demographics in, 98f, 101

    • education in, 97n1

    • Equal Employment Opportunity Act of 1986 in, 105

    • flexible work arrangements in, 111, 112t

    • FLP in, xiii, 97, 103–112, 107f

    • gender inequality in, 23, 97–114

    • gender wage gap in, 104-5, 105f

    • immigration in, 97

    • labor force participation in, 102f

    • low-income households in, 112–14

    • maternity leave in, 108f

    • parental leave in, 99, 99n3, 100, 106–7, 107f

    • part-time employment in, 100

    • poverty in, 114, 114f

    • promotions in, 103–5

    • senior positions in, 103, 103f

    • taxes in, 112–14, 113f

  • Jaumotte, Florence, 66, 114, 132n2, 296

  • Jehn, K., 152n12

  • Jenkner, Eva, 273

  • Job Protection Act, in Hungary, 164

  • Job scarcity, gender labor force participation gap and, 32, 33, 42, 43t

K

  • Kampelmann, S., 152n12

  • Kang, A., 298

  • Kebhaj, Suhaib, 276

  • Kenya, 269

    • FLP in, 295–96

  • Kerr, W., 297

  • Klasen, S., 77, 118, 268, 298

  • Knight, John, 268

  • Kolovich, Lisa, 276

  • Korea

    • childcare in, 132–36, 132n1, 134n3

    • FLP in, xiii–xiv, 129–37, 130f, 133t, 135t

    • GDP per capita in, 132

    • gender budgeting in, 275

    • gender inequality in, 129–37

    • gender wage gap in, 104–5, 105f, 132

    • labor force participation in, 102f

    • parental leave in, 132

    • senior positions in, 103f

    • tax wedge in, 132–36, 132n1, 134n3

    • unemployment in, 129

  • Kuntchev, V., 51, 78

  • Kuwait, 184f

L

  • Labor force participation

    • convergence of, 169f

    • demographics in, 39, 40f, 41t

    • in emerging markets, 252f

    • entrepreneurship and, 36

    • fertility rate and, 230f

    • gender inequality in, 23, 31–46, 36t

    • in Germany, 102f

    • in India, 123t

    • in Japan, 102f

    • in Korea, 102f

    • in Mali, 229f, 230f

    • in Mauritius, 233f

    • in Pakistan, 188f

    • in Sweden, 102f

    • in Turkey, 37

    • in United Kingdom, 102f

    • in United States, 102f

    • in WAEMU, 217

    • See also Female labor force participation; Gender labor force participation gap

  • Labor market

    • easing of regulations in, 66

    • flexibility of, in India, 122–25

    • in GCC, 185t

    • legal restrictions to, 5

  • Lamanna, Francesca, 268

  • Latin America and Caribbean

    • countries in, 48

    • FLP in, 22, 258f

    • gender budgeting in, 275–76

    • gender inequality in, 38t, 39

    • gender labor force inequality in, 4, 4t

    • global financial crisis in, 7

    • SSA and, 199f

  • Lee, J., 78n2, 90

  • Legal restrictions, 90

    • in Chile, 247

    • decrease in, xvi

    • evolution of, 291f

    • FLP and, 291–94, 292f, 293f, 298–300, 299f, 301t

    • gender inequality in, 16, 17f

    • on gender labor force participation gap, 71

    • to inheritance, 79, 197

    • to labor market, 5

    • in Middle East and north Africa, 291

    • to property ownership, 79, 197

    • in south Asia, 291

    • in SSA, 197, 200, 200n1, 291

    • in WAEMU, 221, 224

  • Legal rights

    • economic growth and, 33

    • 50 Years of Women’s Rights database and, 24, 26

    • FLP and, xvi, 289–306, 300

    • gender budgeting for, 275

    • gender inequality and, 19f, 43t

    • gender labor force participation gap and, 40–43, 44f, 45f

    • in Gindex, 26

    • to inheritance, 24

    • in Mali, xv

    • to property ownership, 24, 81

  • Leonard, J., 152n11

  • Lesotho, 290

  • Levine, D. I., 152n11

  • Lewis, H. G., 32

  • LIDC. See Low-income and developing countries

  • Lifshitz, O., 296, 297

  • Literacy rates, 6

    • gender inequality in, 13–15

    • increases in, xii

    • in LIDC, 60

    • in Mali, 227–28

    • in middle-income countries, 60

    • in WAEMU, 217–18

  • Lorgelly, P. K., 78n2

  • Low-income and developing countries (LIDC)

    • commodities from, 73–74

    • economic diversification in, 76, 83, 91

    • economic growth in, 199, 201f

    • gender inequality in, 20, 83

    • Gini coefficient in, 197

    • headcount ratios in, 20

    • human development in, 20

    • infant mortality in, 19

    • literacy rates in, 60

    • paid employment in, 8

    • poverty in, 20

  • Low-income households

    • in Germany, 177

    • in Japan, 112–14

  • Lucas, R. E., Jr., 34

M

  • Macroeconomics

    • economic diversification and, 80–83

    • gender equality and, 141–42, 209f

    • of gender inequality, xi, xii, 31–45, 50–54, 77–78, 218f

    • of income inequality, 50–54

    • in WAEMU, 218f

    • in World Development, 77

  • Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act (MGNREGA), 118, 118n3, 125

  • Malawi, 294

  • Mali

    • education in, xv, 227, 230f

    • fertility rate in, 230f

    • FLP in, 227–30

    • gender equality in, xv

    • gender inequality in, 223f, 227–30, 228f

    • gender labor force participation gap in, 229f

    • Gini coefficient in, 64

    • income and gender inequality in, 223f

    • labor force participation in, 229f, 228f

    • literacy rates in, 227–30

  • Management. See Senior positions

  • Married Persons Equality Act, in Namibia, 294

  • Más Capaz, in Chile, 248

  • Maternal health services, 6

  • Maternal mortality, 6

    • in Gindex, 26

    • rates of, 15f

    • in south Asia, 15

    • in SSA, 15

    • in WAEMU, 220f

  • Maternity leave

    • in advanced countries, 108f

    • in Chile, 248

    • FLP and, 99, 297–98, 300, 305

    • in France, 108f

    • in Germany, 108f

    • in Japan, 108f

    • in Mauritius, 240, 242

    • in Pakistan, 191

    • in Sweden, 108f

    • in United Kingdom, 108f

    • in United States, 108f

  • Mauritius

    • Back to Work Program in, 242

    • childcare in, xv, 240, 242

    • demographics in, 231–32, 232f

    • Dual Training Program in, 242

    • economic growth in, 235–38

    • education in, 233–34, 233f

    • entrepreneurship in, 242

    • fertility rate in, 231–32, 232f

    • flexible work arrangements in, 242

    • FLP in, xv, 232–35, 238–43

    • GDP losses in, 235–38, 236f, 237f, 238f

    • gender budgeting in, 241–42, 241f, 242

    • gender inequality in, 231–43

    • gender wage gap in, 239, 241t

    • income inequality in, 234f

    • labor force participation in, 233f

    • maternity leave in, 240, 242

    • paternity leave in, xv

    • taxes in, 242

    • unemployment in, 234–35, 235f

    • Youth Employment Program in, 242

  • McKinsey and Company, 8n6, 152

  • M-curve, 106, 107f

  • Mexico, 275

  • MGNREGA. See Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act

  • Middle East and north Africa

    • countries in, 48

    • economic growth in, 51

    • FLP in, 22, 23

    • gender budgeting in, 276

    • gender education inequality in, 60

    • gender financial services gap in, 16, 64

    • gender inequality in, 17, 54n2, 181–91

    • gender labor force inequality in, 4, 4t

    • gender wage gap in, 6

    • GII for, 54n2

    • global financial crisis in, 7

    • legal restrictions in, 16, 291

    • literacy rates in, 13

  • Middle-income countries

    • Costa Rica as, 251–53

    • economic growth in, 201f

    • gender education inequality in, 13

    • gender inequality in, 19

    • literacy rates in, 60

  • Milanovic, B., 50

  • Minijobs, 174, 174n1, 176

  • Ministry of Statistics and Programme Implementation, of India, 124

  • Mishra, V., 296

  • Mogues, Tewodaj, 262

  • Morocco

    • gender budgeting in, 276

    • taxes in, 272

  • Motherhood penalty, 25

  • Mozambique, 290

  • Murakami, Akane, 110, 113

N

  • Nakane, Masato, 183, 297, 300

  • Namibia, 294

  • Nanda, Priya, 273

  • National Sample Survey Office (NSSO), 118–19, 119n4

  • Neale, M., 152n12

  • Netherlands, 99

    • flexible work arrangements in, 112

  • Neutral taxes, xiv, 99

  • Niger, 195, 217

    • income and gender inequality in, 223f

  • Noncareer positions (ippanshoku), 103

  • Norando, G. C., 297

  • North America

    • countries in, 48

    • gender labor force inequality in, 4, 4t

    • See also United States

  • Northcraft, G., 152n12

  • Norway

    • FLP in, 131f

    • gender labor force participation gap in, 144

    • GII coefficient for, 64

  • NSSO. See National Sample Survey Office

O

  • O’Connell, S., 297

  • OECD. See Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development

  • Ohkusa, Yasushi, 108

  • Oil-exporting countries

    • economic growth in, 201f

    • gender inequality in, 200, 200n1

  • Oil price decline, 73

  • Old-age dependency ratio, 39–40, 40f, 41t

    • in Europe, 141, 143f

    • in Germany, 173

  • Oman, 184f

  • Orbis database, 147n7

  • Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), 5, 141

    • childcare in, 132n2

    • countries of, 36n6

    • Employment Protection Legislation index of, 122–24

    • FLP in, 97, 98f, 100–102, 102f, 131f

    • GCC and, 183

    • gender inequality in, 23, 31

    • gender labor force participation gap in, 59, 59f

    • gender wage gap and, 6, 25

    • Hungary and, 159

    • immigration in, 97, 98f

    • income inequality in, 56, 59, 59f

    • India and, 122–24

    • Mali and, 227

    • parental leave in, 132n2

    • SIGI of, 18, 291, 298

    • Social Expenditure Database of, 176

  • Osorio Buitron, Carolina, 66

  • Owen, P. D., 78n2

P

  • Pakistan, 273

    • Benazir Income Support Program in, 190–91

    • financial services in, 191

    • FLP in, 187–91

    • gender education gap in, 189, 190f, 269

    • gender inequality in, 187–91, 189f

    • gender labor force participation gap in, 187–91, 188f

    • government spending in, 190–91

    • labor force participation in, 188f

    • maternity leave in, 191

    • paternity leave in, 191

    • senior positions in, 191

  • Parental leave

    • in Europe, 148f

    • FLP and, 132n2

    • in Hungary, 164–65, 170

    • in Japan, 99, 99n3, 100, 106–7, 107f

    • in Korea, 132

    • in OECD, 132n2

    • See also Maternity leave; Paternity leave

  • Part-time employment

    • gender wage gap and, 6

    • in Germany, 174–77, 175f

    • in Hungary, 165f, 167n5

    • in Japan, 100

  • Paternity leave

    • in Chile, 248, 249

    • FLP and, 9, 297–98

    • in Hungary, 170, 170n9

    • in Mauritius, xv

    • in Pakistan, 191

  • PCA. See Principal components analysis

  • Penn World Tables, 70

  • Pensions

    • fiscal policies for, 265

    • FLP and, 279

    • gender inequality in, 3

  • Peru, 294

  • Petracco, Carly, 262

  • Philippines, 275

  • Population density ratios, 39, 40f

  • Poverty

    • adolescent fertility rate and, 62, 64f

    • in advanced countries, 114f

    • financial services and, 209f

    • in France, 114f

    • gender inequality and, 20, 21f, 58f, 218f

    • in Germany, 114f

    • in Japan, 114, 114f

    • in LIDC, 20

    • in Sweden, 114f

    • in United Kingdom, 114f

    • in United States, 114, 114f

    • in WAEMU, 218f

  • Prat, A., 152n12

  • Principal components analysis (PCA), 214

  • Promotions, in Japan, 103–6

  • Property ownership

    • in Chile, 247

    • GDP per capita and, 298

    • legal restrictions to, 79, 197

    • legal rights to, 24, 81

    • in SSA, 197

    • in WAEMU, 221, 224

    • WBL and, 290

Q

  • Qatar, 183

    • FLP in, 184f

  • Quinn, Sheila, 277

R

  • Randriamamonjy, Josee, 262

  • Recessions

    • child labor in, 7, 7n5

    • vulnerability in, 7, 7n4

  • Report of the Committee of Experts on Unemployment Estimates, in India, 119n5

  • Ricardo’s theory of comparative advantage, 73

  • Rights. See Legal rights

  • Rodríguez Enríquez, Corina, 272, 275

  • Ross, D., 8n6

  • Rossignolo, Dario, 272

  • Rwanda, 298

    • gender budgeting in, 276–77

  • Rycx, F., 152n12

S

  • Sahn, David E., 262, 269

  • Sakamoto, Kazuyasu, 110

  • Sala-i-Martin, 78n2

  • SALDRU, 273

  • Sasaki, Masaru, 110

  • Saudi Arabia, 183

    • FLP in, 184f

  • Schmidt, M., 51, 78

  • Schober, T., 79

  • Schultz, T. Paul, 267, 268

  • Senegal, 224f

  • Senior positions (management)

    • in advanced countries, 103f

    • in Denmark, 103f

    • in Europe, 145–47, 146f, 151, 151n10, 153f

    • FLP and, 298

    • in France, 103f

    • gender discrimination for, 78

    • in Germany, 103f

    • in Hungary, 159, 160f

    • in Japan, 103, 103f

    • in Korea, 103f

    • in Pakistan, 191

    • representation in, 8, 8n6

    • underrepresentation in, 5, 6n1

    • in United Kingdom, 103f

    • in United States, 103f

  • Service sector

    • employment in, 7

    • FLP in, 33

    • structural transformation in, 79

  • Sevilla-Sanz, A., 296

  • Shibuya, Sakina, 276

  • Shigeno, Yukikon, 108

  • Siddiqui, Rizwana, 273

  • Sierra Leone, 195

  • SIGI. See Social Institutions and Gender Index

  • Singulate mean age at marriage (SMAM), 214

  • Smyth, R., 296

  • Social Expenditure Database, of OECD, 176

  • Social Institutions and Gender Index (SIGI), of OECD, 18, 291, 298

  • Sogoshoku (career positions), 103–4, 104f

  • South Africa, 290

    • gender budgeting in, 277

    • gender wage gap in, 6, 25

  • South Asia

    • countries in, 48

    • economic growth in, 51

    • FLP in, 23

    • gender financial services gap in, 16, 64

    • gender inequality in, 38t, 39, 54n2

    • GII for, 54n2

    • legal restrictions in, 16, 291

    • literacy rates in, 13

    • maternal mortality in, 6, 15

  • SSA. See Sub-Saharan Africa

  • Standardized World Income Inequality Database, 204

  • Steinberg, Chad, 183, 297, 300

  • Sticky floor, 15

  • Stotsky, Janet, 7n4, 276, 277

  • Strauss-Kahn, V., 89

  • Structural transformation

    • economic diversification and, 74, 74n1

    • gender inequality and, 79

  • Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA)

    • adolescent fertility rate in, 15

    • ASEAN and, 199–200, 199f, 201f

    • countries in, 48

    • economic growth in, 51, 195, 196–99, 198t

    • education in, 197

    • fertility rate in, 197

    • financial services in, 208–10, 208f

    • FLP in, 22, 211t

    • GDP per capita in, 195–96, 204–6, 205t

    • gender budgeting in, 276–77

    • gender education inequality in, 60

    • gender financial services gap in, 16, 64, 207–10

    • gender inequality in, xv, 17, 54n2, 193–242, 198t

    • gender labor force inequality in, 4, 4t

    • GII for, 54n2

    • income inequality in, xv, 193–242, 207–10, 210f

    • IV-GMM for, 206

    • Latin America and Caribbean and, 199f

    • legal restrictions in, 16, 197, 200, 200n1, 291

    • maternal mortality in, 6, 15

    • property ownership in, 197

  • Substitution effect, 32

  • Suruga, Terukazu, 108

  • Sweden

    • FLP in, 131

    • gender inequality in, 23

    • gender labor force participation gap in, 144

    • gender wage gap in, 104–5, 105f

    • labor force participation in, 102f

    • maternity leave in, 108f

    • poverty in, 114f

  • Switzerland, 64

T

  • Tavares, J., 34, 79

  • Taxes

    • in Africa, 272

    • in Argentina, 272

    • in Europe, 148f, 274

    • FLP and, 9, 282, 282n10, 297

    • gender discrimination in, 271–72

    • gender inequality and, 67, 271–74

    • in Germany, xiv, 175–76, 175nn2–3, 177

    • in Hungary, xiv, 164

    • in Japan, 112–14, 114f

    • in Mauritius, 242

    • in Morocco, 272

    • neutral, xiv, 99

    • in United Kingdom, 274

    • WBL and, 290

  • Tax wedge

    • in advanced countries, 9

    • FLP and, 164, 282, 305

    • in Germany, 174–75

    • in Korea, 132–36, 132n1, 134n3

  • Technological progress, economic growth and, 32–33

  • Teignier, M., 31, 42, 78n3, 80

  • Thakur, Dhanaraj, 275

  • Theil index, 80, 89–90

  • Timor-Leste, 270, 275

  • Togo, 224f

  • Turkey, 290

    • FLP in, 131f

    • GDP per capita in, 37

    • labor force participation in, 37

U

  • Uganda

    • gender budgeting in, 276–77

    • gender education gap in, 269

  • UN. See United Nations

  • Unemployment

    • in India, 118–19, 119n5

    • in Korea, 129

    • in Mauritius, 234–35, 235f

  • United Arab Emirates, 183

    • FLP in, 184f

  • United Kingdom

    • gender wage gap in, 105f

    • labor force participation in, 102f

    • maternity leave in, 108f

    • poverty in, 114f

    • senior positions in, 103f

    • taxes in, 274

  • United Nations (UN)

    • Human Development Index of, 20n3

    • See also Gender Inequality Index

  • United Nations Population Fund, 39

  • United States

    • FLP in, 131f

    • gender wage gap in, 105f

    • labor force participation in, 102f

    • maternity leave in, 108f

    • poverty in, 114, 114f

  • User fees, 273–74

  • Usual activity status, in NSSO, 119

  • Usual principal activity status, in NSSO, 119, 119n4

  • Usual secondary activity status, in NSSO, 119

V

  • Valodia, Imraan, 272, 273

  • Van der Weide, R., 50

  • Vietnam, 39

W

  • WAEMU. See West African Economic and Monetary Union

  • Wage gap. See Gender wage gap

  • Waldfogel, Jane, 108

  • WBL. See Women, Business and Law database

  • Weil, D. N., 33, 34

  • Weir, Sharada, 268

  • West African Economic and Monetary Union (WAEMU)

    • adolescent fertility rate in, 220f

    • domestic violence in, 221

    • education in, 217–18, 224

    • financial services in, 224

    • FLP in, 219f

    • GDP per capita in, 218f

    • gender discrimination in, 221

    • gender education gap in, 218–21, 218f

    • gender inequality in, xv, 217–25, 218f, 223f–224f

    • gender labor force participation gap in, 219f

    • government spending in, 224

    • income inequality in, 221–22, 223f–224f

    • labor force participation in, 217

    • legal restrictions in, 221, 224

    • literacy rates in, 217–18

    • macroeconomics in, 218f

    • maternal mortality in, 220f

    • poverty in, 218f

    • property ownership in, 221, 224

  • Winter-Ebmer, R., 79

  • Women, Business and Law database (WBL), of World Bank, 16, 26, 71, 90, 289–90, 289n1, 305

  • Women’s Economic Opportunity Index, of Economist Intelligence Unit, 18

  • Wong, J., 296

  • Wood, A., 78

  • World Bank, 33, 40, 67

    • Country Policy and Institutional Assessments Gender Equality Rating of, 18

    • 50 Years of Women’s Rights database of, 24, 26

    • Global FINDEX of, 209n1

    • Kenya and, 295–96

    • on WAEMU, 221

    • WBL of, 16, 26, 71, 90, 289–90, 289n1, 305

  • World Development, 77

  • World Economic Forum

    • Global Gender Gap Index of, 18, 187, 187n1, 189f, 251, 291

    • Global Gender Gap Report of, 117

  • World Happiness Report, 19n2

  • World Values Survey (WVS), 32, 33, 40–42

Y

  • Younger, Stephen D., 262, 269

  • Youth Employment Program, in Mauritius, 242

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