Back Matter

Back Matter

Author(s):
Reda Cherif, Fuad Hasanov, and Min Zhu
Published Date:
April 2016
    Share
    • ShareShare
    Show Summary Details

    Index

    • Abdesselam, Belaid, 49–50

    • Acemoglu, D., 120, 125

    • The Achieving Society (McClelland), 59

    • Advanced countries

      • competition in, 170

      • growth model for, 131

      • productivity growth in, 118–19

    • Affirmative action, in Malaysia, 87

    • Agency of Science, Technology and Research (A*STAR), in Singapore, 69, 74

    • Aghion, Philippe, 118, 121, 124, 125, 170

    • Airbus, 30

    • Akcigit, U., 120, 121

    • Alcoa, 30

    • Algeria, 94

      • El Hajdar in, 55

      • human capital in, xvi, 51, 168

      • industrialization in, 37–38, 49–54

      • manufacturing in, 51f, 56f

      • oil exports of, 15

      • World Trade Organization and, 56

    • Alp, K., 120, 121

    • Amsden, Alice, 20

    • Apprenticeship programs, 32

    • Arab Barometer, 60

    • Arabization, of Algeria, 54

    • Arezki, Rabah, 13

    • Argentina, 104

    • Askenazy, P., 119

    • Association of Southeast Asian Nations, 41

    • A*STAR. See Agency of Science, Technology and Research

    • Automobile industry, in Mexico, 18, 42

    • Badawi, Tun Abdullah Ahmad, 85

    • Bahrain, 3, 10–11, 11f, 13–14, 37

      • export structure of, 12f

      • GDP per capita in, 8

      • output composition in, 5

    • Banco Nacional de Desenvolvimento Econômico e Social. See Brazilian Development Bank

    • Banks, 53–54, 53t

      • in Korea, 99

      • in MENA, 60, 61t

      • See also Brazilian Development Bank

    • Barbados, 21

    • Bartelsman, E., 121

    • El Beblawi, H., 12–13

    • Beck, T., 121n2

    • Bendjedid, Chadli, 50

    • Beteiligungskapital für junge Technologieunternehmen (BJTU), 142

    • Big Push, 21, 29, 99–100

    • Biomedical sciences industry, in Singapore, 73–74

    • Biopolis, 77

    • Biosimilars, 150, 150n3

    • BJTU. See Beteiligungskapital für junge Technologieunternehmen

    • Bloom, D., 120

    • Blundell, R., 118

    • BNDESPAR. See BNDES Participações

    • BNDES Participações (BNDESPAR), 152

    • Boeing, 30

    • Boumediene, Houari, 37–38, 50, 94

    • Boustan, L., 118

    • Branco, Castello, 98

    • Brasil Maior Plan, 147

    • Brazil, 98

      • industrialization in, xvii, 145–53

      • industrial policy in, 145–47

      • manufacturing in, 146–47, 146f

      • R&D in, 147

      • SOEs in, 146

      • technological innovation in, 148, 148f, 149f, 149t, 170

    • Brazilian Development Bank (Banco Nacional de Desenvolvimento Econômico e Social), xvii, 145–53

      • industrial policy and, 149–51

      • pharmaceuticals and, 150, 170

      • software industry and, 151, 151f, 170

      • sugarcane industry and, 150–51, 170

      • venture capital from, 152

    • Cable, Vincent, 123

    • Canada, 15, 21, 140

    • Capital-to-labor ratio, 27

    • Carbon price, 125

    • Cette, G., 119

    • Chang, Ha-Joon, 20, 28

    • Chemicals industry, in Singapore, 72–73

    • Cherif, Reda, 8, 14n9, 28n18, 47, 94, 95, 98

    • Chile, 36f, 104, 105, 106

    • China, 95, 122, 124

    • Clean innovations, 125–26

    • Climate change, 122–23

    • Colombia, 36f, 106

    • Comparative-advantage sectors, 4, 27–33, 65–77

    • Competition, 124

      • in advanced countries, 170

      • frontier innovations and, 126

      • industrial policy and, 125

      • productivity growth and, 118

      • R&D and, 111

    • Concept Plan, of Singapore, 67

    • Conglomerates (zaibatsu), 97–98

    • Consumption per capita, xiv, 19, 19f

    • Cooperation Council for the Arab States of the Gulf. See Gulf Cooperation Council

    • Coordination failures, 20–21, 29

    • Corporation Law, in Korea, 96

    • Creative destruction, 110, 118, 146n1

    • Crespi, G., 108

    • Demirgüç-Kunt, A., 121n2

    • Denmark, 17

    • Destanne de Bernis, Gérard, 49

    • Development Decade, in Algeria, 50

    • Di John, Jonathan, 38

    • Dirty innovations, 125

    • Discouragement effect, 118

    • Diversification

      • in Algeria, xvi

      • capital supply and, 132

      • data on, 135–36

      • in Dubai, 3, 95

      • empirical findings on, 137, 138t

      • entrepreneurship and, xvii

      • in GCC, xv, 3–43, 173–74

      • GDP and, xvii, 131–32

      • GDP per capita and, 8

      • government and, 139–42, 174–75

      • for growth, xv

      • in Indonesia, 41–42

      • key policies for, xvii

      • in Korea, 93–101, 162f

      • lack of, xiii–xiv

      • in Latin America, xvii, 102–12

      • in Malaysia, 39–40, 83–91

      • to manufacturing, 8

      • measurement of, 136–37

      • in MENA, 47–61

      • in Mexico, 42–43

      • OECD and, 133f, 139–42, 140t

      • in oil exporters, 36–43

      • oil prices and, 36–38

      • patterns of, 133–34, 133f

      • poverty reduction and, xvii

      • in Saudi Arabia, xvi, 54–58

      • sustainable employment and, 48–49

      • sustainable growth from, 8

      • technological innovation and, xvii, 132

      • as top policy agenda, xv

      • in tradable sector, 95

      • women’s empowerment and, xvii

      • worldwide, 135f

      • Zhu on, 171–72

    • Dolton, Peter, 26–27

    • Dow Chemical, 30

    • Dubai, 3, 37, 95, 169–70

    • expatriate labor in, 48

    • Dutch disease, 4n2

      • in Canada, 21

      • in GCC, 12, 14–18, 14n9, 15f, 22–23, 22n15, 33, 167–68

      • learning externality and, 22

      • market failure from, xvi

      • non-oil tradables and, 168

      • in Norway, 16, 21

    • Early childhood education, in GCC, 26–27, 26f

    • Ease of Doing Business Index, 83

    • East Asia, xvi–xvii

    • Economic and Social Commission for Western Asia of the United Nations, 60

    • Economic Development Board (EDB), in Singapore, 65–66, 68

    • Economic Development Institute, of World Bank, 70

    • Economic Development Plan for the Eighties, in Singapore, 68–69

    • Economic Transformation Programme, in Malaysia, 89–90

    • EDB. See Economic Development Board

    • Education

      • in Algeria, 51–52, 54

      • in GCC, 6, 26–27, 26f, 58–59 2

      • in Korea, 159–60, 169

      • in Malaysia, 90, 169

      • in MENA, 59–60

      • productivity growth and, 118

      • in Saemaul Undong, 159–60, 169

      • in Saudi Arabia, 57–58

      • in Singapore, 76, 76f

      • Zhu on, 177

    • Electronics industry

      • in Saudi Arabia, 177

      • in Singapore, 71

    • Employment

      • by expatriate labor, 12, 48, 68, 87, 173–74

      • in Korea, 160t

      • in private sector, 24–25, 27, 53–54, 57–58

      • in public sector, 3, 6, 24

      • sustainable, 48–49, 91

      • unemployment, xiv, 65, 100, 163t

    • Empresa Brasileira de Pesquisa Agropecuária, 147

    • Energy subsidies, in GCC, 24

    • The Entrepreneurial State (Mazzucato), 173

    • Entrepreneurship, xvii, 136, 175–76

    • EPO Worldwide Patent Statistical Database, 135, 136f

    • Equity investment program, in Germany, 142

    • Escape competition effect, 118

    • European Union, 29, 30

    • Expatriate labor, 12, 48, 68, 87, 173–74

    • Export credits, in Korea, 100

    • Export sophistication, 10n8

      • in Denmark, 17

      • in GCC, 10, 10f

      • in Indonesia, 17–18

      • for late-late developers, 47

      • in Latin America, 106

      • in Malaysia, 15, 17, 169

      • manufacturing in, 20n13

      • in MENA, 61

      • in Mexico, 14, 18

      • in Norway, 16–17

    • EXPY, 10n8, 14n9

    • Extractive Industries Transparency Initiative, 58

    • Fally, T., 121

    • FDI. See Foreign direct investment

    • Feenstra, Robert, 14n9

    • Finance sector

      • in GCC, 13–14

      • See also Banks

    • FINEXPO. See Fondo de Exportaciones

    • Fiscal policy, xiv, 6, 23–27

      • for oil rents, 12

    • Fondo de Exportaciones (FINEXPO), 38

    • Foreign direct investment (FDI), 136, 137

      • in Dubai, 169–70

      • in Malaysia, 17, 85

      • in Mexico, 18, 42

      • in Singapore, 68

    • Frankel, J., 122

    • Free trade zones, 18, 169–70

    • Freire, Paulo, 176

    • Frontier innovations, 118, 126

    • Fuentes, R. F., 105

    • Garicano, L., 121

    • GCC. See Gulf Cooperation Council

    • GDP. See Gross domestic product

    • GDP per capita, 21, 104f, 117, 118, 120

      • in GCC, 6–8, 7f

      • in Latin America, 105

    • Gelb, Alan, 41

    • Germany, 96, 123, 142

    • Gini index, 135, 158

    • Global Innovation Index, 83

    • Global Science and Innovation Advisory Council, in Malaysia, 91

    • Good governance, in Korea, 156

    • Good Jobs First, 30

    • Gough, I., 156

    • Government, xiv, xv, 23, 95–96, 139–42, 174–75

      • climate change and, 122–23

      • in GCC, 27–33

      • of Indonesia, 17–18, 41–42

      • in Latin America, 108–10

      • of Norway, 29

      • R&D and, 42–43

      • of Singapore, 29–30, 29n20

      • SMEs and, 32–33

      • See also Saemaul Undong

    • Government Transformation Programme, in Malaysia, 89–90

    • Gredig, R., F., 105

    • Gross domestic product (GDP), xvii, 131–32

      • of Bahrain, 11f

      • growth sources for, 105f

      • of Latin America, 105f

      • of Malaysia, 87

      • relative income and, 8

      • of Singapore, 11f, 66f, 69, 70f, 79t–80t

      • See also GDP per capita

    • Growth decomposition, 9f, 36f

    • Growth model

      • for advanced countries, 131

      • in GCC, 4–8

      • for middle-income countries, 117–28

    • Guaranteed Business Loan Program, of SBA, 141

    • Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC), xiii, 3–43, 3n1, 133f, 134

      • Dutch disease in, 12, 14–18, 14n9, 15f, 22n15

      • early childhood education in, 26–27, 26f

      • education in, 6, 26–27, 26f, 58–59

      • entrepreneurship in, 175–76

      • expatriate labor in, 173–74

      • export sophistication in, 10, 10f

      • GDP per worker in, 6–8, 7f

      • government in, 27–33

      • growth model in, 4–8

      • incentives in, xvi, 12

      • infrastructure in, 21, 22f

      • Korea and, 93, 100

      • life expectancy in, 6, 7f

      • market failures in, 20–23, 167–68

      • non-oil tradables in, 3, 5–6

      • nontradable sector in, 23

      • oil rents in, 47

      • oil reserves in, 47

      • PPP in, 9f

      • productivity growth in, 168

      • relative income in, xv, 6–8

      • schooling years in, 6, 6f, 25, 25f

      • sustainable growth in, 8–14

      • technological innovation in, xvii

      • TFP in, 8, 9f, 11

      • top industries in, 134f

      • value-added sectors in, 27–33

    • Hadeed, 55

    • Al-Haj, Tunku Abdul Rahman Putra, 85

    • El Hajdar, 55

    • Hajj, 60

    • Haltiwanger, J., 121

    • Hasanov, Fuad, 8, 28n18, 47, 94, 95, 98

    • Hausmann, Ricardo, 8, 10n8, 14n9, 20, 37, 106

    • Heavy and Chemical Industrialization Plan, in Korea, 99, 100

    • Heckman, James, 25

    • Henry, Clement M., 37–38

    • Henry, Peter Blair, 21

    • Herfindahl-Hirschman index (HHI), 133–34, 133f, 133n2, 137

    • Hirschman, Albert O., xiii, 96

    • Horizontal diversification, 29–30, 84, 84f, 168

    • Housing and Development Board, of Singapore, 67

    • Hsieh, C.-T., 119

    • Human capital, 9, 32

      • in Algeria, xvi, 51, 168

      • in GCC, 8

      • in Latin America, 106

      • in Malaysia, 40, 85

      • in Saudi Arabia, xvi, 168

      • in Singapore, 76, 76f

      • See also Employment

    • Human development index, 6

    • Human Resources Development Fund, 40

    • Hvidt, Martin, 11–12

    • Hwang, Jason, 8, 10n8, 14n9

    • ICT. See Information and communication technologies

    • Imitative innovations, 118

    • Import substitution strategy, 39–40, 122, 163

    • India, 119–20

    • Indonesia, 8, 21, 41–42

      • export sophistication in, 17–18

      • manufacturing in, 17–18, 56f

      • oil exports in, 5, 15

    • Industrial, Technology, and Trade Policy, in Brazil, 147

    • Industrial deepening, 95–96, 98, 100

    • Industrialization

      • in Algeria, 37–38, 49–54

      • in Brazil, xvii, 145–53

      • in GCC, 13

      • in Korea, xvi–xvii, 93–101, 160–62, 160t, 169

      • in Malaysia, 85

      • in Singapore, 65–77

      • in Venezuela, 38

      • See also Manufacturing

    • Industrial Master Plan, in Malaysia, 87

    • Industrial policy, 123–24

      • in Brazil, 145–47

      • Brazilian Development Bank and, 149–51

      • in China, 122

      • competition and, 125

    • Industry clusters, 32, 41–43

    • Infant mortality, in GCC, 6

    • Information and communication technologies (ICT), 118, 119

    • Infrastructure

      • in GCC, 21, 22f

      • in India, 119

      • in Korea, 161–62

      • in Malaysia, 87

      • in Singapore, 77

    • Innovation. See Technological innovation

    • Intellectual property rights, 118

    • Intergenerational equity, xiv, xv

    • International Country Risk Guide, 21

    • INTSOK foundation, 29

    • Investment, 28n18, 126–27

      • in Korea, 99–100

      • in Latin America, 104

      • in Malaysia, 40, 90

      • in Singapore, 71

      • See also Venture capital

    • Ireland, 32–33

    • Irish Development Agency, 32

    • Islamic finance, 60

    • Jamaica, 21

    • Japan, 93–98, 119, 122, 123, 158

    • Jarreau, Joachim, 8, 14n9

    • Al Jasser, Muhammad, xviii, 171–77

    • Jomo, K. S., 17–18, 20, 40, 41

    • Jurong Island, 72–73

    • Jurong Town Corporation, 31

    • Kammer, Alfred, 171–77

    • Kazushige, Ugaki, 97

    • Klenow, P., 119

    • Klette, T., 120

    • Knowledge spillovers, 123

    • Koch, W., 119

    • Koh, W., 162

    • Korea, xvi–xvii, 27, 36f, 162f

      • banks in, 99

      • Corporation Law in, 96

      • education in, 159–60, 169

      • good governance in, 156

      • Heavy and Chemical Industrialization Plan in, 99, 100

      • import substitution strategy in, 163

      • industrial deepening in, 100

      • industrialization in, 93–101, 160–62, 160t, 169

      • land reform in, xvii, 157–60, 158n2

      • National Investment Fund in, 99–100

      • poverty reduction in, 159–60, 161, 161t

      • unemployment in, 100, 163t

      • U.S. and, 98–99

      • See also Saemaul Undong

    • Kortum, S., 120

    • Krugman, Paul, 27

    • Kuwait, 3, 31, 48

    • Labor-Sponsored Venture Capital Corporations (LSVCCs), 140

    • Lall, Sanjaya, 20

    • Land reform, in Korea, xvii, 157–60, 158n2

    • Larraín, M., 105

    • Late-late developers, 47, 47n1

    • Latin America, xvii, 102–12, 105f

      • government in, 108–10

      • human capital in, 106

      • import substitution strategy in, 122

      • investment in, 104

      • market failures in, 108

      • R&D in, 109–11

      • savings in, 104

      • technological innovation in, 107–11

    • Learning externality, 20–21, 20n14, 22, 27

    • Lee Kuan Yew, 167

    • Lelarge, C., 121

    • Lerner, J., 142

    • Lerner index, 124

    • Liassine, Mohammed, 50

    • Life expectancy, 6, 7f, 172

    • Lin, Justin, 28

    • Loan guarantees, OECD and, 140–41

    • Loan Guarantee Scheme, in United Kingdom, 142

    • Looney, R. E., 12

    • Lopez, J., 119

    • LSVCCs. See Labor-Sponsored Venture Capital Corporations

    • Lucas, Robert E., 8–9, 131

    • Machinery real exports per capita, 15f, 16f

    • Mairesse, J., 119

    • “Making a Miracle” (Lucas), 8–9

    • Maksimovic, V., 121n2

    • Malaysia, 83–91

      • education in, 90, 169

      • export sophistication in, 15, 17, 169

      • FDI in, 17

      • horizontal diversification in, 84, 84f

      • human capital in, 40, 85

      • import substitution strategy in, 39–40

      • International Country Risk Guide for, 21

      • investment in, 40, 90

      • manufacturing in, xvi, 39–40, 56f, 85

      • National Science, Technology, and Innovation Policy in, 90–91

      • oil exports in, 5, 15

      • palm oil in, 86, 169

      • rubber in, 86, 169

      • savings in, 40

      • TFP in, 8

      • value-added industries in, 40

      • vertical diversification in, 29, 84f

    • Manufacturing, 8

      • in Algeria, 51f, 56f

      • in Bahrain, 11

      • in Brazil, 146–47, 146f

      • in export sophistication, 20n13

      • in GCC, 4, 5

      • horizontal diversification in, 29–30

      • in Indonesia, 17–18, 56f

      • in Malaysia, xvi, 39–40, 56f, 85

      • SABIC and, 55

      • in Saudi Arabia, 56f

      • in Singapore, 66–67, 78t, 79t, 169

      • in Tunisia, 56f

    • Marcenaro-Gutierrez, Oscar D., 26–27

    • Market distortions, xiv, xv

    • Market failures, 20n14

      • from Dutch disease, xvi

      • in GCC, 20–23, 167–68

      • in Latin America, 108

    • Matsuyama, Kiminori, 20

    • Mazzucato, Mariana, 173

    • McClelland, David, 59

    • MDGs. See Millennium Development Goals

    • Medical technology, in Singapore, 73–74

    • MENA. See Middle East and North Africa

    • Mexico, 5, 8, 14, 15, 18, 32, 42–43

    • Middle East and North Africa (MENA), xvi, 47–61, 133f

      • banks in, 60, 61t

      • HHI for, 134

      • sustainable employment in, 48–49

      • women’s education in, 59

      • work ethic in, 60

    • Middle-income countries

      • growth model for, 117–28

      • productivity growth in, 117–21

    • Middle-income trap, xvii

    • Migrant labor. See Expatriate labor

    • Millennium Development Declaration, 156

    • Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), 156

    • Miller, Conrad, 21

    • Modernization theory, 93

    • Mohamad, Tun Dr Mahathir, 85

    • Monopolies, 20, 22f, 38, 96, 100, 175

    • Moretti, Enrico, 30

    • Morocco, 51f

    • Multimedia Super Corridor, in Malaysia, 89

    • Mutual Security Act, 99

    • Nabli, Mustapha, 13

    • National Industrial Policy, in Malaysia, 87

    • National Investment Fund, in Korea, 99–100

    • Nationalization, in oil exporters, 36–37

    • National Key Results Areas, in Malaysia, 89–90

    • National Linkage Promotion Program, in Ireland, 32–33

    • National Principles (Rukun Negara), of Malaysia, 90

    • National Science, Technology, and Innovation Policy, in Malaysia, 90–91

    • National Transformation Programme, in Malaysia, 89

    • Netherlands, 142

    • New Economic Policy, in Malaysia, 87

    • New Village Movement. See Saemaul Undong

    • Nigeria, 15

    • Nixon, Richard, 99

    • Nokia, 30

    • Non-oil GDP, in GCC, 11

    • Non-oil tradables, 37

      • Dutch disease and, 168

      • in GCC, xv–xvi, 3, 5–6, 20, 27

    • Nontradable sector, viii, xiii–xiv, 30

      • in GCC, 3, 4–5, 13, 14n9, 23

    • North American Free Trade Agreement, 18, 42

    • Norway, 5, 15, 16–17, 21, 29, 36f

    • Nunn, N., 123, 124

    • Ocampo, Jose Antonio, 20

    • OECD. See Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development

    • Oil exports and exporters, 5f, 35t, 36–43

      • economic indicators of, 34t

      • in GCC, 5

      • SOEs in, 36–37

    • Oil prices

      • collapse of, viii, ix, 17, 37, 41

      • consumption per capita and, 19f

      • decline of, xiv

      • fiscal policy and, 6

      • peak of, 8n4, 36–37

      • rise of, 38

      • volatility of, 47

    • Oil rents, 12, 47, 47n2, 48t

    • Oil reserves, 14n12, 35t

      • in Bahrain, 3

      • in GCC, 47

      • in Oman, 3

      • in Saudi Arabia, 3

    • Oman, 3, 6, 15

    • OPEC. See Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries

    • Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), 119, 132, 133f, 133n1, 139–42, 140t

    • Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC), 41

    • Palm oil, in Malaysia, 86, 169

    • Papageorgiou, Chris, 8

    • Park Chung Hee, 94, 98, 163–64

    • Patents, 75f, 136, 136f

    • The Pedagogy of the Oppressed (Freire), 176

    • Peru, 106

    • Peters, M., 120, 121

    • Petronas, 29, 39

    • Pharmaceuticals, 73–74, 150, 170

    • Pinto, Rodrigo, 25

    • Polytechnic institute, in Mexico, 32, 42

    • Poncet, Sandra, 8, 14n9

    • Portfolio diversification, 48–49, 60

    • Poverty reduction, xvii

      • in Korea, 159–60, 161, 161t

      • MDGs and, 156

    • PPP. See Purchasing power parity

    • Precision engineering industry, in Singapore, 72

    • “The Principle of the Hiding Hand” (Hirschman), xiii

    • Private sector, banks and, 53–54, 53t

    • Private sector employment, 24–25, 27, 53–54, 57–58

    • Productive Development Policy, in Brazil, 147

    • Productivity growth

      • in advanced countries, 118–19

      • in emerging markets, 119–20

      • in GCC, 168

      • in India, 119–20

      • in middle-income countries, 117–21

      • tariffs and, 123

      • vertical targeting for, 122–26

    • Public sector employment, 3, 6, 24

    • Purchasing power parity (PPP), 9f, 9n5, 10f, 19f, 34t, 36f

    • Qatar, 3, 6, 8, 37, 48

    • Quah, D., 132

    • Quality ladder, 9, 11

    • Rajan, R., 121

    • Ramey, G., 131–32

    • Ramey, V. A., 131–32

    • Razak, Tun Abdul, 85

    • R&D. See Research and development

    • Realo Plano (Real Plan), 147, 147n2

    • Redistribution, xiv, xv

    • Relative income, xv, 6–8, 14n9

    • Research and development (R&D), 31, 31f, 118

      • in Brazil, 147

      • in Latin America, 109–11

      • in Mexico, 42–43

      • in Singapore, 69, 73–74, 74f

      • TFP and, 110–11

      • in U.S., 141, 141f

    • Risk-return trade-off channel, 23, 24, 30

    • Rodriguez, Francisco, 37

    • Rodrik, Dani, 8, 10n8, 14n9, 20, 22

    • Romer, D., 122

    • Romero, Javier Martínez, 42

    • Rubber, 86, 169

    • Rukun Negara (National Principles), of Malaysia, 90

    • S2A. See Science to Action

    • SABIC. See Saudi Basic Industries Corporation

    • Sachs, Jeffrey, 156

    • Saemaul Undong (New Village Movement), xvii, 27, 101, 155–65, 159t

      • education in, 159–60, 169

      • land reform in, xvii, 157–60

      • policy implications for, 164–65

      • poverty reduction in, 159–60

      • for social inclusion, 160–62

    • Saudi Advanced Electronics Company, 177

    • Saudi Arabia, xvi, 8, 21, 54–58, 168

      • education in, 57–58

      • electronics industry in, 177

      • life expectancy in, 172

      • manufacturing in, 56f

      • public sector employment in, 3

      • R&D in, 31

      • venture capital in, 175

    • Saudi Basic Industries Corporation (SABIC), 13, 37, 54–58, 172–73

    • Savelyev, Peter, 25

    • Savings

      • in Latin America, 104

      • in Malaysia, 40

    • SBA. See Small Business Administration

    • SBIR. See Small Business Innovation Research Program

    • Scarpetta, S., 121

    • Schooling years, in GCC, 6, 6f, 25, 25f

    • Schumpeter, Joseph, 110, 146, 146n1

    • Schumpeterian paradigm, 117, 118, 120, 123

    • Science Park, in Taiwan, 30

    • Science to Action (S2A), in Malaysia, 91

    • Second Industrial Revolution, in Singapore, 68–69

    • Service sector, 13, 40, 53, 57

    • Singapore, xvi, 10–11, 11f, 12f, 31, 36f, 66f, 75f

      • in 1960s, 65–67

      • in 1970s, 68

      • in 1980s, 68–69

      • in 1990s and 2000s, 69

      • A*STAR in, 74

      • biomedical sciences industry in, 73–74

      • chemicals industry in, 72–73

      • EDB of, 65–66, 68

      • education in, 76, 76f

      • electronics industry in, 71

      • GDP of, 11f, 66f, 69, 70f, 79t–80t

      • government in, 29–30, 29n20

      • human capital in, 76, 76f

      • industrialization in, 65–77

      • manufacturing in, 66–67, 78t, 79t, 169

      • precision engineering industry in, 72

      • R&D in, 73–74, 74f

      • system integrators in, 29–30

      • technological innovation in, 75–77

      • Urban Redevelopment Authority of, 67

      • value-added in, 68–69

    • Singapore Institute of Management, 68

    • Singapore River, 67

    • Small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs), 23, 30, 32–33

    • Small Business Administration (SBA), 141

    • Small Business Innovation Research Program (SBIR), xvii, 30–31, 141–42, 170

    • SMEs. See Small and medium-sized enterprises

    • Société Nationale pour la Recherche, la Production, le Transport, la Transformation, et la Commercialisation des Hydrocarbures (Sonatrach), 52

    • SOEs. See State-owned enterprises

    • Software industry, Brazilian Development Bank and, 151, 151f, 170

    • Solow, R., 117

    • Sonatrach. See Société Nationale pour la Recherche, la Production, le Transport, la Transformation, et la Commercialisation des Hydrocarbures

    • Spatafora, Nicola, 8

    • Special economic zones, 31

    • State monopolies, 38

    • State-owned enterprises (SOEs), 36–37

      • in Brazil, 146

      • in Singapore, 29

      • in Venezuela, 37, 38

    • Stern, N., 20

    • Strategic retreat, in Indonesia, 17, 41–42

    • Subsidies, 30, 124

      • in Germany, 32

      • in Kuwait, 48

      • in nontradable sector, viii

    • Sugarcane industry, 150–51, 170

    • Supreme Council for National Reconstruction, in Korea, 163

    • Sustainable employment, 48–49, 91

    • Sustainable growth, xiv–xv, 4

      • in Brazil, 147, 149–50

      • in GCC, 8–14

      • from industrialization, 160–61

      • in tradable sector, 167

      • tradable sector for, 19

    • System integrators, 29–30, 42–43

    • Taiwan, 30

    • Tariffs, xv, 17, 18, 39, 97, 123, 146

    • Tax breaks, 30, 42, 118, 140

    • Technical Development Credits Scheme, in Netherlands, 142

    • Technological innovation, xvii, 118, 127, 132

      • in Brazil, 148, 148f, 149f, 149t, 170

      • clean, 125–26

      • GDP per capita and, 117

      • in Latin America, 107–11

      • in Malaysia, 90–91

      • by SABIC, 56–57

      • in Singapore, 69, 75–77

      • See also Research and development

    • Total factor productivity (TFP), 110–11, 124

      • in GCC, 8, 9f, 11

      • in Latin America, 103, 104–6

    • Tourism, 13, 60, 85

    • Tradable sector, 31f, 95

      • in GCC, 23

      • investment in, 28n18

      • market failure in, 22

      • relative wage in, 14n9

      • in Singapore, 29

      • for sustainable growth, 19, 167

      • venture capital for, 30–31

    • Trefler, D., 123, 124

    • Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study, 60

    • Tunisia, 51f, 56f

    • Turkey, 36f

    • UAE. See United Arab Emirates

    • Unemployment, xiv, 65, 100, 163t

    • United Arab Emirates (UAE), 3, 6, 13, 15, 24

    • United Nations Industrial Development Organization, 133, 135

    • United Nations Millennium Project, 156

    • United States (U.S.), 6–8, 133f

      • ICT in, 119

      • Korea and, 98–99

      • R&D in, 141, 141f

      • SBA in, 141

      • SBIR in, xvii, 30–31, 141–42, 170

    • Urban Redevelopment Authority, of Singapore, 67

    • U.S. See United States

    • Value-added

      • equation for, 70n2

      • in GCC, 4, 27–33

      • in Malaysia, 40

      • in Singapore, 68–69

      • technological innovation and, 170

    • Van Reenen, J., 120, 121

    • Venezuela, 15, 37, 38

    • Venture capital, viii, xvii, 4, 17, 27, 30–31, 170

      • from Brazilian Development Bank, 152

      • in Canada, 140

      • OECD and, 139

      • in Saudi Arabia, 175

    • Vertical diversification, 29, 84f, 168

    • Vertical greenery, in Singapore, 67

    • Vertical targeting, for productivity growth, 122–26

    • Volatility management, xv

    • Wacziarg, R., 122

    • Wagner, Rodrigo, 37

    • Women

      • education of, in MENA, 59, 59f

      • empowerment of, xvii, 136

    • Woo, Meredith, 170

    • Wood, G., 156

    • Work ethic, 60, 169

    • World Bank, 70, 83, 122, 135, 136f, 137

    • World Development Indicators, 135, 136f, 137

    • World Economic Forum, 57t, 83, 106

    • World Trade Organization, 30, 55–56

    • Young, Alwyn, 27

    • Zahlan, A. B., 57

    • Zaibatsu (conglomerates), 97–98

    • Zhu, Min, 171–77

    • Zingales, L., 121

      You are not logged in and do not have access to this content. Please login or, to subscribe to IMF eLibrary, please click here

      Other Resources Citing This Publication