Back Matter

Back Matter

Editor(s):
Ian Parry
Published Date:
March 2015
    Share
    • ShareShare
    Show Summary Details

    Index

    Page numbers in italic designate figures and tables.

    • abatements 69, 98, 161, 164

    • accelerated depreciation 143

    • accidents, traffic 215, 222

    • ACES (American Clean Energy Security) Act see American Clean Energy Security Act (ACES)

    • Adjusted Gross Income (AGI) 13

    • administration, carbon tax 38–61, 55, 127; advantages and disadvantages 44–50; and consumers 50–1; exemptions 169–70; fossil fuels 43, 43–4, 50–1; of GHG emissions and revenues 39–41, 40; international considerations and 55–9; land use 51; non-fossil fuels 52–5; policies 41–3

    • Advanced Research Projects Agency-Energy (ARPA-E) 184

    • after-tax income 5, 13, 128

    • AGI (Adjusted Gross Income) 13

    • agricultural management 54

    • air pollution 200–1, 213, 214, 222

    • allowances 34, 165

    • alternative emissions targets 73–7

    • American Clean Energy Security Act (ACES) 25, 34, 63, 67, 100, 114n2, 162, 165–6

    • American Taxpayer Relief Act (ATRA) 14n12, 146

    • appliances 196, 199, 204

    • applied research 181

    • Argentina 242

    • ARPA-E (Advanced Research Projects Agency-Energy) 184

    • Article IV consultations 250

    • ATRA (American Taxpayer Relief Act) 14n12, 146

    • auctions 33–4, 145–6, 188

    • Auerbach, A. J. 3, 6

    • Australia 9, 14n6

    • averaging rules 203

    • aviation fuel emissions 56

    • avoidance of carbon tax 46, 59, 88, 93n1, 145

    • balanced budget 6

    • Baneman, D. 13

    • banking 67, 69

    • Barrage, L. 91

    • Bartlett, B. 14n3

    • baseline emissions 67–8, 72, 79n7

    • basic research 181–4

    • BAU (business as usual) 235–6, 241–2, 251n7

    • BCAs (border carbon adjustments) 168–9, 172–3, 176n21

    • behavior 223–4

    • benchmarks 168–9, 235, 249

    • Bingaman, J. 198

    • Bioenergy Research Centers 184

    • Bipartisan Policy Center’s Debt Reduction Task Force (2010) 14n1

    • Bird, L. 8

    • block allocations 165

    • border carbon adjustments (BCAs) 168–9, 172–3, 176n21

    • border measures 249

    • border tax adjustments (BTAs) 39, 42, 53, 56, 60, 161, 173

    • borrowing 67

    • Bovenberg, L. A. 10

    • British Columbia, Canada 8, 9, 50–1, 61n10

    • Brown, S. P. A. 218

    • Btu tax 165

    • budgets 4–5; deficits 2–3, 13, 35, 86, 192; deficits reductions 89–90, 94n17; research 183

    • bunker fuels 56

    • Bush (G. W.) administration 242

    • business as usual (BAU) 235–6, 241–2, 251n7

    • business-cycle fluctuations 84

    • CAA (Clean Air Act) 191, 193, 201–4, 214, 253

    • CAFE (Corporate Average Fuel Economy) standards, 71, 78, 81, 219–221, 225

    • Camp, D. 142

    • Cancun Agreements 245

    • cap-and-trade 35, 63, 77, 142, 145–6, 155n1, 165, 175n14; administration 201–2, 208n10; domestic programs 247–8; SO2 200–1

    • capital income 110

    • capital owners 149–50

    • capital taxes, cutting revenue on 88, 93–4n14

    • carbon: alternatives 85; imports 58–9; sinks 38–9, 51–2

    • carbon capture and storage (CCS) 39, 51, 61n10

    • carbon dioxide (CO2): from fossil fuel combustion 43, 43–4; fossil fuels, sequestered from 51; non-fossil fuel 52–3

    • carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions 19–20; country-specific 169; from industrial processes 52–3, 160; intensity 20, 36n4, 112, 112–14; international 240–4, 251n8; leakage 53, 57–8, 61n14, 160–4; non-CO2GHG 53; offset provisions 35; price trajectories 67; taxes on 24–5, 36n6

    • carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions reduction 62; alternative targets 74–8, 75–6; and cap-and-trade systems 35, 201–2, 208n10; under carbon tax 21–3, 26n5; comparisons 22, 24; environmental benefits of 202; 50 percent target 67–73; global benefits of 42; goals and pledges 63; regulatory approaches to 64; targets 63, 81, 178

    • Carbone, J. C. 88, 90

    • carbon-for-corporate tax swap 141–3, 147–8, 150, 150–4

    • carbon prices and pricing 69–70, 69–74, 142; benchmarks for 237–8, 251n4; burden of 107; under the Clean Air Act 201–4; emissions 180–1, 240–1; energy 237–9, 251n4; international 237–44, 244–8; levels 125–6, 138n6; for low-income households 122–4; policies 18, 19–27, 180–1, 193–4, 203; taxes 5, 86, 105, 148, 156n9; and technology policies 178–90; volatility in 34, 36–7n18

    • carbon pricing club 57–60, 247

    • carbon taxes (CT) 6–7, 35, 52–5, 135–6; administration 38–61; avoidance 46, 59, 88, 93n11, 145; burden on low-income households 102–4, 120–40; and competitiveness 162–3; and corporate tax reform 141–58; coverage 55; and deficit reduction 9; economic effects of 84–91, 105, 128; efficiency criteria on 8; emission reduction under 21–3; and energy-intensive trade-exposed industries 159–77; and greenhouse gas emissions 39–41; implementing 194–6; incidence 101–4, 106–7; international issues 39, 42, 51; monitoring 51; policies 41–3, 191–210; and price rises 148, 156n9; revenues from 7, 7–10, 14n5, 18, 83, 145–6, 155n5; for transportation policies 211–32; uses for 32–4, 86–9 see also upstream carbon taxes

    • CBO (Congressional Budget Office) 2, 10, 14n11, 89–90, 123, 145–6

    • CBR (common but differentiated responsibilities) 169

    • CCS (carbon capture and storage) 39

    • CES (Clean Energy Standards) 198

    • China 8, 242

    • Clean Air Act (CAA) 191, 193, 201–4, 214, 253

    • Clean Air Interstate Rule 201

    • clean-coal power 186

    • Clean Energy Act 67

    • Clean Energy Standards (CES) 24, 198

    • clean energy technology policies 197–8

    • clean technology investments 63

    • climate change: damage from 85, 152, 179, 217–18; and the economy 91–2, 94n22; and international price agreements 244–6; mitigation 227, 235–7; policies to address 204–5

    • climate mitigation instruments 18–37; alternative policies costs and impacts on 27–34; and carbon pricing policies 19–27; taxes versus trading 34–5

    • climate mitigation metrics 236–7

    • climate mitigation policies 21, 23–7, 24, 29–30, 180, 182–3, 185–6

    • Clinton administration 165

    • CO2 (carbon dioxide) see carbon dioxide (CO2)

    • coal 19–20; emissions policies 200–1; methane from 54; new 81; power 186; processing 44–5; switching away from 23–4; upstream carbon tax on 44–6

    • coal-fired electricity 113–14, 121

    • collaboration 184

    • combustion 45, 48–9

    • common but differentiated responsibilities (CBR) 168–9

    • communication 184

    • compensation schemes for low-income households 18, 33, 120–40; absence of 122–4, 123–4; and government payment increases 125, 125–6; by offsetting costs 125–6, 126–7; options for 127–35, 129, 133; revenue needed for 135–6 see also lower-income households

    • competitiveness 53, 144, 162–3, 168, 170–1

    • congestion 214–15, 222, 228n2

    • congestion pricing 222–3

    • Congress and carbon tax implementation 5, 195–6, 207n3

    • Congressional Budget Office (CBO) 2, 10, 14n11, 89–90, 123, 145–6

    • consumer mistakes 194

    • consumer price index (CPI) 125

    • consumers 9–10, 47–8, 50–1, 97, 105, 220

    • consumption taxes 43, 123, 148, 156n8

    • coordinated fiscal discipline 5

    • Copenhagen Accord 235–7, 242, 245

    • Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) standards 71, 78, 81, 219–21, 225

    • corporate income taxes 161, 170–1, 176n22–4

    • corporate investments expensing 150

    • corporate tax reform 110, 141–58

    • corporations: tax cuts for 9, 87–8, 93–4n14, 110, 142, 152–4; tax rates for 109, 115n11, 129, 146, 155n6, 156n12

    • corrective fuel taxes 216–18, 228n5

    • Cosbey, A. 169

    • cost-effectiveness 174

    • costs: abatement 243–4, 251n9; administrative 131; comparing 29–32, 30–1; distribution 187; economic 29, 36n12; energy sector 29–30, 30, 36n12–17; and fiscal system linkages 30–2; to government 136–7; household 113, 123; for light-duty vehicles 217; of nuclear power 202; societal 7, 188

    • countries’ climate mitigation efforts see international climate mitigation efforts

    • coverage of carbon tax base 45

    • CPI (consumer price index) 125

    • credit trading 197, 219–21

    • cross-country comparisons 234

    • crude oil 44

    • CT (carbon taxes) see carbon taxes (CT)

    • Current Population Survey 132

    • cyclical unemployment 92

    • debt crisis 89, 94n19

    • debt-to-GDP ratio 3–4, 6, 14n1, 89

    • deductions and exclusions 88, 93–4n12

    • deferrals 143, 145

    • deficit reduction 1–6, 9, 89–90, 92, 94n17, 141–2, 152–4, 155n1

    • Dellink, R. 236

    • demand-side effects 84

    • demonstration projects 185–6

    • Denmark 9

    • deployment policies 186–8

    • depreciation rules 145

    • destination-based carbon tax 168

    • developing countries 35, 245

    • development 181

    • diesel fuel 10, 25–7, 216

    • Dinan, T. 7, 10, 110, 142

    • direct deposits 130, 135

    • discount rate 200, 219

    • distortionary taxes 109

    • distributional effects: of carbon-for-corporate tax swap 148–52; described 97–9; policies regarding 195–6; prior to revenue uses 101–7; regional 112–14; and revenue uses 101; tradeoffs 107–12

    • distribution of revenues 9–10

    • DOE (U.S. Department of Energy) 184–5

    • domestic carbon tax 247–8

    • domestic offsets 67

    • domestic tax credits 35

    • double dividend 86

    • downstream deposit/refund mechanisms 54–5

    • downstream taxation 38–41, 39, 50, 164

    • durable goods, energy-efficient 199

    • Durban Platform 247–8

    • earmarking 227

    • earmarking carbon 33

    • Earned Income Tax Credit (EITC) 127, 133–4

    • Echeverri, P. 203

    • economic: activity distortions in 30–2, 36n16; benefits of Earned Income Tax Credit 134; costs 29, 36n12; distortions 30–3, 36n16–17; effects of carbon tax 128, 144, 155n2, 196; efficiency 86, 127; growth 5–6, 91–2; projections 4; welfare 84–5

    • economic incidence see distributional effects

    • Economic Stimulus Act of 2008 130–1

    • efficiency 8

    • efficiency standards 199–200, 204

    • EITC (Earned Income Tax Credit) 127, 133–4

    • EITE (energy-intensive trade-exposed) industries see energy-intensive trade-exposed (EITE) industries

    • electricity: coal-fired 113, 121; consumption 199; demand 20, 23–5; emissions tax 28, 32; grid 44; prices 200, 249; sector 196–7; use 102

    • Elmendorf, D. W. 6

    • embodied emissions 168–9

    • emerging economies 245

    • EMF 24 (Energy Modeling Forum) see Energy Modeling Forum (EMF 24)

    • emission rates 242–3

    • emissions see carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions

    • emissions trading systems (ETS) 18, 22, 34–5, 61n2, 100, 114n2

    • employers 132

    • energy: consumption 7, 113–14; efficiency 25, 199–200; paradox 219–20, 229n7; saving investments 132–3; security 215, 218

    • Energy Frontier Research Centers 184

    • Energy Guide labels 199, 208n9

    • Energy Information Administration 21, 198

    • energy-intensive trade-exposed (EITE) industries 39, 42, 159–77; alternative policy options for 164–71; determining policy treatment policies for 161–4; options comparisons for 171–4

    • Energy Modeling Forum (EMF 24) 62–82; and emissions target scenarios 67–77, 68; modeling teams 66, 66; overview of study design 64–6; policy assumptions 64, 82; scenario matrix 65; technology assumptions 74, 80–1

    • energy prices: impacts 86, 93n9; international 238–40

    • energy-related emissions 19–20, 21–3

    • energy sector costs 29–30, 30, 36n12–17

    • Energy Star 199

    • energy technology policy 178–90; background 179–80; demonstration projects 185–6; deployment 186–8; research and development 180–5

    • Engen, E. M. 6

    • enteric fermentation 53–4

    • environmental effects on economic growth 91

    • Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) 60, 162, 199, 201–4

    • environmental tax credits 111

    • EPA (Environmental Protection Agency) 60, 199, 201–4

    • ETS (emissions trading system) 34–5, 61n2, 100, 114n2

    • European Union (EU) 8, 162, 166

    • excise taxes 46–7

    • exemptions 42, 48, 161, 164–5, 169–70, 175n12, 195

    • expenditures 4 see also costs

    • expiring business tax provisions 146–7, 147 extenders 142

    • externalities: efficiency 8; environmental 178–80; global 205–6; and taxes 151, 216; transportation-related 11, 41, 212–15, 223

    • federal: budget deficits 35, 89–90, 94n17, 192; debt-to-GDP ratio 3–4; income tax rates 126, 144, 155n3; residential energy credits 132–3, 133 feebates 25, 176n17, 187, 221

    • Feenberg, D. 13

    • Feldstein, M. 6, 13

    • Feldstein-Feenberg-MacGuiness proposal 14n13–14 50

    • percent reduction targets 66–73, 80

    • fiscal: cushioning 49, 59, 238–9; deficits 89–90; discipline 5; dividend 32; gap 4; linkage policies 30–2, 31; outlook 2–5, 192; solutions 1–17

    • Fischer, C. 164, 173, 200

    • fixed payments 127

    • flexibility mechanisms 188

    • flow-through enterprises 143

    • foreign firms 143, 145, 164

    • forestry 51–2

    • former Soviet bloc 235

    • fossil fuels: combustion 43–4; emissions 50–1; non-energy use of 51; overconsumption of 193; sequestered CO2 from 51; and state economies 112, 112–14; taxes 7, 38–9

    • fossil-steam power plants 203

    • Fox, A. K. 164, 173

    • fuel: conservation costs 29, 36n14; economy 62, 213; imports 56; standards 25–6, 218–20, 228–9n6; taxes 28–9, 48, 216–18, 224, 228n5t, 231–2

    • fuel-saving technologies 219

    • Fukushima nuclear plant 201

    • Fullerton, D. 107

    • funding: corporate tax reductions 153; gap for infrastructure 224–6; for LIHEAP 135; public spending 90–1; for research 111, 183–4

    • FutureGen Initiative 186

    • G-20 nations 250

    • Gale, W. G. 3, 5, 6

    • gas, upstream carbon tax on 44–5

    • gasoline 8, 10–11, 25–7, 216–18 see also motor fuel

    • GDP (gross domestic product) 2–8, 10–13, 84–6, 93n1–4, 93n6–7

    • General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) 58–9

    • generators, regulations for 203

    • Germany 9

    • GHG (greenhouse gas) see greenhouse gas (GHG)

    • global climate change 253

    • global emissions 42, 173, 245

    • Global Positioning System (GPS) technology 221

    • global warming 41

    • global warming potentials (GWP) 43, 53

    • Goulder, L. H. 10, 85

    • government: borrowing 89; payments 51–2; research 178–9, 182, 184; spending 5, 12, 90–1, 94n20

    • GPS (Global Positioning System) technology 221

    • Grainger, C. A. 109

    • grandfathering 162

    • greenhouse gas (GHG) 179; and carbon tax revenues 39–41, 40; under the Clean Air Act 201–4; controlling 35; emissions 8; and long-term growth 83; non-CO2 53; taxing 39, 43, 55–7; technology policies to reduce 178–90

    • gross domestic product (GDP) 2–8, 10–13, 84–6, 93n1–4, 93n6–7

    • growth and employment 84–91

    • Hafstead, A. C. 85

    • Halperin, D. 155n2

    • Harberger, A. 149

    • harmonized policies and measures 244–5

    • Hassett, K. A. 9, 109, 144

    • health care spending 4

    • HEVs (hybrid electric vehicles) 26–7

    • HFCs (Hydrofluorocarbons) 54, 56

    • high-income households 99; and carbon tax burden 8; and energy saving investments 132–3; and revenue increases 5; tax expenditures of 13

    • highway lobby 227

    • Highway Trust Fund 225–7

    • historic base year 240–1, 251n5

    • household income sources 104, 106, 106–7

    • households energy costs 111–12

    • Houser, T. 237

    • H.R. 2454 see American Clean Energy Security Act (ACES)

    • Hubbard, R. G. 6

    • Huntington, H. G. 218

    • hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) 26–7

    • hybrid subsidies 26–7, 29

    • Hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) 54, 56

    • hypothecation 227

    • IMF (International Monetary Fund) 6, 14n1

    • imports 56, 168–9, 168–70, 176n20

    • incentives: business 145; to buy fuel-efficient vehicles 111, 221; for energy-saving investments 127, 132–3; private sector 179; for renewable technologies 197–8; for research and development 179, 189n2–3; to work 127–8 see also feebates; rebates

    • income and substitution effects 5

    • Income Home Energy Assistance Program (LIHEAP) 135

    • income taxes 86–7; credits 10; expenditures 12; rates 129–30; rebates 127, 130–1

    • indexing transfer payments 125–6

    • India 242

    • inducement prizes 185

    • Industrial Assessment Centers 200

    • industrialized countries 235

    • industrial opposition to upstream taxation 48

    • industrial processes, carbon dioxide emissions from 52–3, 160 influential groups, compensation for 33

    • infrastructure: and fuel taxes 212; funding gap for 224–6, 229n9, 229n11

    • innovation strategy 179–85

    • input/output table 58, 98, 101

    • institutions 194

    • insurance markets 186, 189n7

    • intensity-based emission goal 242

    • interaction effects 13

    • Interagency Working Group on Social Cost of Carbon 225

    • interest rates 6

    • Internal Revenue Service (IRS) 34, 38, 46, 130–1, 134, 167

    • international climate mitigation efforts 233–52; competitiveness 53, 144, 160–1; considerations 55–9; cooperation 206; goals 64; issues 39, 51; offsets 67; policy implications 248–50; price programs 237–44; tax rules 145, 155n4; United States implementation of 244–8

    • International Monetary Fund (IMF) 6, 14n1, 250

    • investment capital, competing for 144

    • investments 90, 203; incentives 144; public sector 185–6, 189n6; tax credits for 197, 207n7

    • IRS see Internal Revenue Service

    • itemized deductions, cap on 13, 14n13–14

    • Japan 201

    • Johnson, S. 14n1

    • Joint Committee on Taxation (JCT) 130, 146

    • Keohane, R. O. 206

    • knowledge generation 179, 181, 186

    • knowledge spillovers 185–6, 197–8, 207–8n8

    • Kolstad, C. D. 109

    • Krosnick, J. A. 206

    • Krupnick, A. 21, 23–7, 31

    • Kwak, J. 14n1

    • Kyoto Annex I 163–4, 172, 175n10

    • Kyoto gases 67, 78n5

    • Kyoto Protocol 235, 236–7, 240, 245

    • labor income, impact of taxes on 30, 149–50

    • landfills 54

    • land use carbon sinks 51–2

    • leakage 53, 57–8, 61n14, 163–4, 168, 173, 249

    • legal matters 58, 162

    • light-duty vehicles (LDV) 81, 214–15, 217, 217

    • LIHEAP (Income Home Energy Assistance Program) 127, 135

    • linking 249–50

    • lobbying 171

    • local pollution 216

    • London 222

    • long-term growth, effects of tax-financed deficit reductions on 5–6

    • loopholes 142, 147

    • lower-income households 99, 109, 115n13; carbon tax burden on 9, 101–2, 102, 120–40, 148, 156n10; policy options for 137; and VAT related rebates 12, 14n10 see also compensation schemes for low-income households

    • Low Income Home Energy Assistance Program (LIHEAP) 127

    • lump-sum rebates and tax transfers 109, 114n6, 141, 151, 151–2

    • MacGuineas, M. 13

    • MacInnis, B. 206

    • McKibbin, W. A. 110, 236

    • macroeconomic vulnerabilities 218

    • manufacturing industries 162, 231–2

    • manure management 54

    • marginal effective tax rates (METRs) 128, 144

    • market-based emissions policy 179

    • market-based trading system 178, 179

    • market failure 219–20

    • Marron, D. 110

    • Mathur, A. 9, 101, 102–3, 109, 144

    • measurement points/taxpayers 44–5

    • measuring emissions 49, 52, 58, 161

    • Medicare 5, 131–2

    • Mercury and Air Toxics Standard (MATS) 201

    • Metcalf, G. E. 8–9, 53–4, 110, 111

    • methane 53–4, 62n12

    • metrics: benchmarks for comparing 235–6; for comparing effort 236–44; for economic activity assessment 84; for manufacturing output levels 167

    • METRs (marginal effective tax rates) 144

    • mileage taxes 211–12, 221–2

    • mitigation effort metrics 234–5

    • mitigation instruments see climate mitigation instruments

    • mobile combustion emissions 54

    • modeling teams 64, 66

    • Morris, A. C. 101, 102–3, 110

    • motivations 196–200

    • motor fuels 10–11, 102, 211–12 see also diesel fuel; gasoline

    • motor vehicle policies 212–24

    • multinationals 143, 145

    • NAICS (North American Industrial Classification System) 162

    • national debt projections 3 National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) 21, 198

    • national saving 5–6

    • National Surface Transportation Infrastructure Finance Commission 225

    • national taxes 41–2, 61n2

    • natural gas 19–20, 44, 52–3

    • negative cost technologies 219

    • NERA Economic Consulting study 88–9, 94n15

    • Netherlands, The 9, 221

    • New Coal policy 81

    • 1983 Social Security Reform 4–5

    • nitrogen oxides (NOx) 201–2

    • nitrous oxide (N2O), 54–5

    • non-CO2 GHG emissions 53

    • nondiscrimination obligations 168

    • non-electricity fuel use, reducing 20

    • non-energy use of fossil fuels 51

    • non-fossil fuel emissions 38–9, 48, 52

    • non-market goods and services 84, 93n1

    • North American Industrial Classification System (NAICS) 162

    • Norway 9

    • NOx Budget Program 201

    • nuclear power 19, 201–2

    • nuclear power, emissions from 200–1

    • Nunns, J. 14n10, 154

    • Obama, B. 142–3, 198

    • Obama administration 202

    • OBR (Output-based rebate) 165–7

    • OECD (Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development) 10, 144, 237

    • Office of Management and Budget (OMB) 143

    • offsets 9–10, 120–40

    • oil import fees 219

    • oil price shocks 218

    • oil shale reserves 215, 218

    • oil taxes 26

    • OMB (Office of Management and Budget) 143

    • options for low-income households 127, 129

    • Oregon 221, 222

    • Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) 10, 144, 237

    • Orzag, P. R. 5

    • out-of-compliance fines 26

    • output-based rebates (OBR) 165–7

    • output levels 163, 165–7, 175n8

    • Palmer, K. L. 198

    • Paltsev, S. 10

    • Parry, I. W. H. 10, 31, 88, 110–11, 199–200

    • passed backwards 85, 104–5

    • passed forward 85, 98, 101, 108, 113, 123

    • pay as you drive insurance 222

    • payroll taxes 10, 87–8, 110–11, 127, 131–2, 138–9n12

    • PCAST (President’s Council on Science and Technology) 183–4

    • per-mile tolls 10, 211, 222

    • personal service corporations 155n2

    • personal taxes 30, 110–11

    • Peterson-Pew Commission on Budget Reform (2011) 14n1

    • petroleum 211, 218

    • petroleum products 44, 46

    • Pittsburgh G-20

    • Leaders’ Agreement 250

    • plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVS) 26–7

    • point of combustion 48–9

    • point of distribution 50

    • points/taxpayers 44–5

    • policies: administration of carbon tax 41–3; alternative 27–34, 28, 164–74, 175; carbon price 18, 19–27, 69–71, 70; for competitive losses 161–71; energy efficiency 200; greenhouse gas 63; implementation 246–7; for Kyoto gases 69, 172; for low-income households 122–38, 129, 138n1; motor vehicle 212–24; national carbon tax 193–4, 207n2; and national circumstances 248; price-based 203; progressive 100; public transport 223–4; regional and regulatory 191–210; regressive 99–100; for revenue use 32–4; second best 172; subnational 204–6; surveillance 249–50; technology 187, 223–4

    • policy: assumptions 64, 82; costs 29–32; tools 100

    • policymakers, key messages for 1, 18, 38–9, 62–3, 83, 97–8, 120–1, 141, 159–60, 178, 191–2, 211–12, 233–4

    • political support 33

    • polluter pays principle 48

    • pollution 86, 91, 200–1, 213, 214

    • Potter, S. 6

    • power sector: and CO2 emissions 19–20, 36n7; policies 23–5, 191–7; tax on emissions 24–5

    • President’s Council on Science and Technology (PCAST) 183–4

    • President’s National Commission on Fiscal Responsibility and Reform (2010) 14n1

    • prices and pricing see carbon prices and pricing

    • private sector incentives 179

    • private sector research and development 180–2

    • processing, fossil fuel 44

    • producer prices 105

    • production tax credit 197, 207n6

    • productivity 91

    • profits 170

    • progressive policies 8–9, 11–12, 20, 97–100, 109, 111, 131

    • public acceptance 41

    • public funding for research 179

    • public good 179

    • public sector investment 185–6

    • public spending 90–1

    • public support for research and development 182–4

    • public transportation 223

    • Quadrennial Energy Review process 184

    • Quadrennial Energy Technology Review 184

    • quantitative emission targets 246–7

    • Quebec, Canada 9

    • rates, emission 242–3

    • Rausch, S. 107, 111, 142

    • R&D see research and development (R&D)

    • R&D tax credit 182

    • rebates 109, 114n6, 161, 221; for EITE industries 162, 166; income tax 127; and output levels 165–7, 172; payroll tax 127; policies 152; VAT related 12, 14n10 see also feebates

    • Rebelo, S. 6

    • recession, effects of 4

    • reduction targets 64, 66

    • refunds, tax 10, 130–1

    • regional incidence 112–14

    • regressive policy 99–100

    • regulations 28, 38, 66, 193, 207n1; emission target and 81; greenhouse gas 202–4; redundant 203, 206

    • Reilly, J. M. 111, 142

    • renewable energy technology policies 20, 197–8

    • renewable generation fuels 23–5, 36n8, 36n9

    • renewable portfolio standard (RPS) 23, 62, 81, 197–8

    • repatriation tax 145

    • research and development (R&D) 179–84; credit 145; defined 181; expenditures 181

    • research and experimentation credit 145

    • retail price increases 97

    • revenues: and capital taxes 88, 93–4n14; from carbon taxes 7, 7–10, 14n5, 39–41, 87, 147, 155n5, 229n14–15; and carbon tax incidence 101–4, 106–12; for corporate reform 147–8, 153, 155–6n7; from corporate taxes 110, 143, 170; earmarking 111; increases 4–5; for low-income households 109, 115n13, 135–6, 139n18; neutrality 150–4, 170; options 11–13; policies 27–9; recycling 109, 114n7; tax reform option effects on 12; from transportation taxes 212, 228n1, 229n15; using 33–4, 122–38, 138n1

    • ring fencing 227

    • risks: environmental 141–2; financial 89, 111, 186, 218; health 214; legal 162; traffic accident 215

    • roads 215, 222–3, 229n8

    • Rogers, L. 110, 142

    • Romer, C. D. 5

    • Romer, D. H. 5

    • Romney, M. 142

    • Rosenberg, J. 10–11, 14n10, 154

    • RPS (renewable portfolio standard) 197–8

    • safety issues 201

    • savings 5, 6, 38

    • sea level rise 91

    • Section 41

    • of the U.S. Internal Revenue Code 182

    • Section 111

    • of the Clean Air Act 203–4

    • shale gas 20–1, 53, 63

    • share of income 97

    • Singapore 222

    • Slemrod, J. 6

    • Small, K. A. 222, 232

    • Smith, H. 8

    • SNAP (Supplemental Nutrition Action Payments) 125, 134–5

    • SO2 (sulfur dioxide) 201–2

    • Social Security 5, 25, 125, 131–2

    • socioeconomic status, measuring 103

    • source performance standards 202

    • spending cuts 4–5

    • SSI (Supplemental Security Income) payments 125

    • standards: emissions 54; fuel economy 25–7, 218–20, 228–9n6; performance 202; portfolio 23, 206

    • Stanford Energy Modeling Forum (EMF 24) see Energy Modeling Forum (EMF 24)

    • “starve the beast” hypothesis 5, 14n3

    • state economies, energy intensity in 112, 112–14

    • statutory corporate tax rate 144

    • Stavins, R. N. 8

    • stimulus payments 130

    • Stockholm 222

    • Stokes, D. E. 183

    • Stokey, N. 6

    • subnational climate policies 204–6

    • subsidies: auctions for 188; energy efficiency 200; for HEVs and PHEVs 27; technology 187; transit fare 211

    • sulfur dioxide (SO2) 201–2

    • Sumner, J. 8

    • supernormal profits 150

    • Supplemental Nutrition Action Payments (SNAP) 125, 134–5

    • Supplemental Security Income (SSI) 125

    • supply-side impacts 84

    • surface mining 54

    • surveillance 249–50

    • sustained deficits 6

    • Sweden 9

    • tariffs 169–70, 236

    • tax: avoidance 46, 59, 88, 93n11, 145; breaks for business 142; burdens 33–4, 122–4, 148–50, 149–50, 156n11; code uncertainty 145; credits 197, 207n6; cuts 5, 6, 86–9, 91–2; deferrals 145; exemptions 43; expenditure reform 12–13, 14n12; fuel 48, 212, 228n1; increases 4–6; preferences 147; reform and deficit reduction 142; returns 130, 138n10

    • taxable profits shifting 144

    • tax credits: for businesses 145, 147; Earned Income 127, 182; environmental 111; for hybrid vehicles 26

    • taxes: changes in 5–6, 14n4; Congress and 195–6; excise 46–7; and fiscal system distortions 30–2; fuel 10–11, 28–9, 216–18, 224, 228n5; in the government’s budgets 34, 36n17; on imports 56; multinational 99–100; national 41–2, 61n2, 144, 155n3; on petroleum products 219; on power emissions 24–5; reduction in 90, 94n18, 110; versus trading 34–5; transportation 221, 226–7

    • tax-financed deficit reductions 5–6, 14n4

    • tax on carbon dioxide see carbon (CO) taxes

    • taxpayers 9, 45, 59–60, 130

    • Tax Policy Center (TPC) 13, 148–52, 154

    • tax-sheltering 30–1

    • tax swaps 109–11, 114, 114n7, 141–3, 147–8, 150–3

    • technologies: assumptions 64, 78n3, 80–1; carbon capture and storage 51; climate innovation 178–85; demonstration projects 185–6; fuel-saving 219; measurement 45–6, 52–3; mitigation 183; monitoring 49; options 62–3; policies 223–4; tax credits for 197, 207n6

    • Title IV of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 201

    • Toder, E. 10–11, 13, 14n10, 110, 154

    • tolls 10, 211, 221–2

    • ton-mile tax 222

    • TPC (Tax Policy Center) 13, 148–52, 154

    • tradable performance standard 167, 176n16

    • trade intensity 162, 175n5

    • tradeoffs 107–12

    • Trade Review Policy Board 250

    • transfer payments 107, 110–11, 125, 125–6

    • transit fare subsidies 211

    • transportation 25–7, 211–32; emissions 19–20; finance 224, 224–8; fuel reduction 20; motor vehicles 212–24; regulatory policies 81; spending for 225; taxes 226–7, 226–8

    • trans-shipment provisions 169

    • uncertainty of greenhouse policies 63

    • undervaluation 200

    • unemployment 91–2, 94n23

    • unemployment, carbon tax effect on 83

    • United Kingdom 221

    • United Nations climate change negotiations 235

    • United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) 42, 168, 240, 246–7

    • United Nations-sponsored climate negotiations 235

    • United States Census Bureau 132

    • United States Department of Energy (DOE) 184–5, 199–200

    • United States Department of Transportation 226

    • United States implementation 244–8

    • United States Supreme Court 202

    • United States Treasury 60

    • University of Ottawa 8

    • upstream carbon taxes 38–9, 44–9, 164

    • use-inspired basic research 183, 183–4

    • value-added tax (VAT) 10–12, 14n11, 50, 56

    • value pricing 222

    • vehicle miles traveled (VMT) 221

    • vehicles and CO2 emissions 20

    • Victor, D. G. 206

    • vulnerable groups, compensation for 33

    • Waxman-Markey bill see American Clean Energy Security Act (ACES)

    • Weisbach, D. 53–4, 62n12

    • Williams, R. C. 31, 88, 91, 110–11

    • windfall profits 100

    • wind power 197, 207n7

    • workers 132

    • World Trade Organization (WTO) 56, 58–9, 250

    • World Trade Organization/General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (WTO/ GATT) legal rules 58–9

    • World Trade Organization Subsidies Code 166–7

    • worst technology producer 168–9

    • WTO/GATT legal rules 58–9

    • zero-rating of exports 56

      You are not logged in and do not have access to this content. Please login or, to subscribe to IMF eLibrary, please click here

      Other Resources Citing This Publication