Back Matter

Editor(s):
Ian Parry
Published Date:
March 2015
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    Index

    Page numbers in italic designate figures and tables.

    • abatements 69, 98, 161, 164

    • accelerated depreciation 143

    • accidents, traffic 215, 222

    • ACES (American Clean Energy Security) Act see American Clean Energy Security Act (ACES)

    • Adjusted Gross Income (AGI) 13

    • administration, carbon tax 38–61, 55, 127; advantages and disadvantages 44–50; and consumers 50–1; exemptions 169–70; fossil fuels 43, 43–4, 50–1; of GHG emissions and revenues 39–41, 40; international considerations and 55–9; land use 51; non-fossil fuels 52–5; policies 41–3

    • Advanced Research Projects Agency-Energy (ARPA-E) 184

    • after-tax income 5, 13, 128

    • AGI (Adjusted Gross Income) 13

    • agricultural management 54

    • air pollution 200–1, 213, 214, 222

    • allowances 34, 165

    • alternative emissions targets 73–7

    • American Clean Energy Security Act (ACES) 25, 34, 63, 67, 100, 114n2, 162, 165–6

    • American Taxpayer Relief Act (ATRA) 14n12, 146

    • appliances 196, 199, 204

    • applied research 181

    • Argentina 242

    • ARPA-E (Advanced Research Projects Agency-Energy) 184

    • Article IV consultations 250

    • ATRA (American Taxpayer Relief Act) 14n12, 146

    • auctions 33–4, 145–6, 188

    • Auerbach, A. J. 3, 6

    • Australia 9, 14n6

    • averaging rules 203

    • aviation fuel emissions 56

    • avoidance of carbon tax 46, 59, 88, 93n1, 145

    • balanced budget 6

    • Baneman, D. 13

    • banking 67, 69

    • Barrage, L. 91

    • Bartlett, B. 14n3

    • baseline emissions 67–8, 72, 79n7

    • basic research 181–4

    • BAU (business as usual) 235–6, 241–2, 251n7

    • BCAs (border carbon adjustments) 168–9, 172–3, 176n21

    • behavior 223–4

    • benchmarks 168–9, 235, 249

    • Bingaman, J. 198

    • Bioenergy Research Centers 184

    • Bipartisan Policy Center’s Debt Reduction Task Force (2010) 14n1

    • Bird, L. 8

    • block allocations 165

    • border carbon adjustments (BCAs) 168–9, 172–3, 176n21

    • border measures 249

    • border tax adjustments (BTAs) 39, 42, 53, 56, 60, 161, 173

    • borrowing 67

    • Bovenberg, L. A. 10

    • British Columbia, Canada 8, 9, 50–1, 61n10

    • Brown, S. P. A. 218

    • Btu tax 165

    • budgets 4–5; deficits 2–3, 13, 35, 86, 192; deficits reductions 89–90, 94n17; research 183

    • bunker fuels 56

    • Bush (G. W.) administration 242

    • business as usual (BAU) 235–6, 241–2, 251n7

    • business-cycle fluctuations 84

    • CAA (Clean Air Act) 191, 193, 201–4, 214, 253

    • CAFE (Corporate Average Fuel Economy) standards, 71, 78, 81, 219–221, 225

    • Camp, D. 142

    • Cancun Agreements 245

    • cap-and-trade 35, 63, 77, 142, 145–6, 155n1, 165, 175n14; administration 201–2, 208n10; domestic programs 247–8; SO2 200–1

    • capital income 110

    • capital owners 149–50

    • capital taxes, cutting revenue on 88, 93–4n14

    • carbon: alternatives 85; imports 58–9; sinks 38–9, 51–2

    • carbon capture and storage (CCS) 39, 51, 61n10

    • carbon dioxide (CO2): from fossil fuel combustion 43, 43–4; fossil fuels, sequestered from 51; non-fossil fuel 52–3

    • carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions 19–20; country-specific 169; from industrial processes 52–3, 160; intensity 20, 36n4, 112, 112–14; international 240–4, 251n8; leakage 53, 57–8, 61n14, 160–4; non-CO2GHG 53; offset provisions 35; price trajectories 67; taxes on 24–5, 36n6

    • carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions reduction 62; alternative targets 74–8, 75–6; and cap-and-trade systems 35, 201–2, 208n10; under carbon tax 21–3, 26n5; comparisons 22, 24; environmental benefits of 202; 50 percent target 67–73; global benefits of 42; goals and pledges 63; regulatory approaches to 64; targets 63, 81, 178

    • Carbone, J. C. 88, 90

    • carbon-for-corporate tax swap 141–3, 147–8, 150, 150–4

    • carbon prices and pricing 69–70, 69–74, 142; benchmarks for 237–8, 251n4; burden of 107; under the Clean Air Act 201–4; emissions 180–1, 240–1; energy 237–9, 251n4; international 237–44, 244–8; levels 125–6, 138n6; for low-income households 122–4; policies 18, 19–27, 180–1, 193–4, 203; taxes 5, 86, 105, 148, 156n9; and technology policies 178–90; volatility in 34, 36–7n18

    • carbon pricing club 57–60, 247

    • carbon taxes (CT) 6–7, 35, 52–5, 135–6; administration 38–61; avoidance 46, 59, 88, 93n11, 145; burden on low-income households 102–4, 120–40; and competitiveness 162–3; and corporate tax reform 141–58; coverage 55; and deficit reduction 9; economic effects of 84–91, 105, 128; efficiency criteria on 8; emission reduction under 21–3; and energy-intensive trade-exposed industries 159–77; and greenhouse gas emissions 39–41; implementing 194–6; incidence 101–4, 106–7; international issues 39, 42, 51; monitoring 51; policies 41–3, 191–210; and price rises 148, 156n9; revenues from 7, 7–10, 14n5, 18, 83, 145–6, 155n5; for transportation policies 211–32; uses for 32–4, 86–9 see also upstream carbon taxes

    • CBO (Congressional Budget Office) 2, 10, 14n11, 89–90, 123, 145–6

    • CBR (common but differentiated responsibilities) 169

    • CCS (carbon capture and storage) 39

    • CES (Clean Energy Standards) 198

    • China 8, 242

    • Clean Air Act (CAA) 191, 193, 201–4, 214, 253

    • Clean Air Interstate Rule 201

    • clean-coal power 186

    • Clean Energy Act 67

    • Clean Energy Standards (CES) 24, 198

    • clean energy technology policies 197–8

    • clean technology investments 63

    • climate change: damage from 85, 152, 179, 217–18; and the economy 91–2, 94n22; and international price agreements 244–6; mitigation 227, 235–7; policies to address 204–5

    • climate mitigation instruments 18–37; alternative policies costs and impacts on 27–34; and carbon pricing policies 19–27; taxes versus trading 34–5

    • climate mitigation metrics 236–7

    • climate mitigation policies 21, 23–7, 24, 29–30, 180, 182–3, 185–6

    • Clinton administration 165

    • CO2 (carbon dioxide) see carbon dioxide (CO2)

    • coal 19–20; emissions policies 200–1; methane from 54; new 81; power 186; processing 44–5; switching away from 23–4; upstream carbon tax on 44–6

    • coal-fired electricity 113–14, 121

    • collaboration 184

    • combustion 45, 48–9

    • common but differentiated responsibilities (CBR) 168–9

    • communication 184

    • compensation schemes for low-income households 18, 33, 120–40; absence of 122–4, 123–4; and government payment increases 125, 125–6; by offsetting costs 125–6, 126–7; options for 127–35, 129, 133; revenue needed for 135–6 see also lower-income households

    • competitiveness 53, 144, 162–3, 168, 170–1

    • congestion 214–15, 222, 228n2

    • congestion pricing 222–3

    • Congress and carbon tax implementation 5, 195–6, 207n3

    • Congressional Budget Office (CBO) 2, 10, 14n11, 89–90, 123, 145–6

    • consumer mistakes 194

    • consumer price index (CPI) 125

    • consumers 9–10, 47–8, 50–1, 97, 105, 220

    • consumption taxes 43, 123, 148, 156n8

    • coordinated fiscal discipline 5

    • Copenhagen Accord 235–7, 242, 245

    • Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) standards 71, 78, 81, 219–21, 225

    • corporate income taxes 161, 170–1, 176n22–4

    • corporate investments expensing 150

    • corporate tax reform 110, 141–58

    • corporations: tax cuts for 9, 87–8, 93–4n14, 110, 142, 152–4; tax rates for 109, 115n11, 129, 146, 155n6, 156n12

    • corrective fuel taxes 216–18, 228n5

    • Cosbey, A. 169

    • cost-effectiveness 174

    • costs: abatement 243–4, 251n9; administrative 131; comparing 29–32, 30–1; distribution 187; economic 29, 36n12; energy sector 29–30, 30, 36n12–17; and fiscal system linkages 30–2; to government 136–7; household 113, 123; for light-duty vehicles 217; of nuclear power 202; societal 7, 188

    • countries’ climate mitigation efforts see international climate mitigation efforts

    • coverage of carbon tax base 45

    • CPI (consumer price index) 125

    • credit trading 197, 219–21

    • cross-country comparisons 234

    • crude oil 44

    • CT (carbon taxes) see carbon taxes (CT)

    • Current Population Survey 132

    • cyclical unemployment 92

    • debt crisis 89, 94n19

    • debt-to-GDP ratio 3–4, 6, 14n1, 89

    • deductions and exclusions 88, 93–4n12

    • deferrals 143, 145

    • deficit reduction 1–6, 9, 89–90, 92, 94n17, 141–2, 152–4, 155n1

    • Dellink, R. 236

    • demand-side effects 84

    • demonstration projects 185–6

    • Denmark 9

    • deployment policies 186–8

    • depreciation rules 145

    • destination-based carbon tax 168

    • developing countries 35, 245

    • development 181

    • diesel fuel 10, 25–7, 216

    • Dinan, T. 7, 10, 110, 142

    • direct deposits 130, 135

    • discount rate 200, 219

    • distortionary taxes 109

    • distributional effects: of carbon-for-corporate tax swap 148–52; described 97–9; policies regarding 195–6; prior to revenue uses 101–7; regional 112–14; and revenue uses 101; tradeoffs 107–12

    • distribution of revenues 9–10

    • DOE (U.S. Department of Energy) 184–5

    • domestic carbon tax 247–8

    • domestic offsets 67

    • domestic tax credits 35

    • double dividend 86

    • downstream deposit/refund mechanisms 54–5

    • downstream taxation 38–41, 39, 50, 164

    • durable goods, energy-efficient 199

    • Durban Platform 247–8

    • earmarking 227

    • earmarking carbon 33

    • Earned Income Tax Credit (EITC) 127, 133–4

    • Echeverri, P. 203

    • economic: activity distortions in 30–2, 36n16; benefits of Earned Income Tax Credit 134; costs 29, 36n12; distortions 30–3, 36n16–17; effects of carbon tax 128, 144, 155n2, 196; efficiency 86, 127; growth 5–6, 91–2; projections 4; welfare 84–5

    • economic incidence see distributional effects

    • Economic Stimulus Act of 2008 130–1

    • efficiency 8

    • efficiency standards 199–200, 204

    • EITC (Earned Income Tax Credit) 127, 133–4

    • EITE (energy-intensive trade-exposed) industries see energy-intensive trade-exposed (EITE) industries

    • electricity: coal-fired 113, 121; consumption 199; demand 20, 23–5; emissions tax 28, 32; grid 44; prices 200, 249; sector 196–7; use 102

    • Elmendorf, D. W. 6

    • embodied emissions 168–9

    • emerging economies 245

    • EMF 24 (Energy Modeling Forum) see Energy Modeling Forum (EMF 24)

    • emission rates 242–3

    • emissions see carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions

    • emissions trading systems (ETS) 18, 22, 34–5, 61n2, 100, 114n2

    • employers 132

    • energy: consumption 7, 113–14; efficiency 25, 199–200; paradox 219–20, 229n7; saving investments 132–3; security 215, 218

    • Energy Frontier Research Centers 184

    • Energy Guide labels 199, 208n9

    • Energy Information Administration 21, 198

    • energy-intensive trade-exposed (EITE) industries 39, 42, 159–77; alternative policy options for 164–71; determining policy treatment policies for 161–4; options comparisons for 171–4

    • Energy Modeling Forum (EMF 24) 62–82; and emissions target scenarios 67–77, 68; modeling teams 66, 66; overview of study design 64–6; policy assumptions 64, 82; scenario matrix 65; technology assumptions 74, 80–1

    • energy prices: impacts 86, 93n9; international 238–40

    • energy-related emissions 19–20, 21–3

    • energy sector costs 29–30, 30, 36n12–17

    • Energy Star 199

    • energy technology policy 178–90; background 179–80; demonstration projects 185–6; deployment 186–8; research and development 180–5

    • Engen, E. M. 6

    • enteric fermentation 53–4

    • environmental effects on economic growth 91

    • Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) 60, 162, 199, 201–4

    • environmental tax credits 111

    • EPA (Environmental Protection Agency) 60, 199, 201–4

    • ETS (emissions trading system) 34–5, 61n2, 100, 114n2

    • European Union (EU) 8, 162, 166

    • excise taxes 46–7

    • exemptions 42, 48, 161, 164–5, 169–70, 175n12, 195

    • expenditures 4 see also costs

    • expiring business tax provisions 146–7, 147 extenders 142

    • externalities: efficiency 8; environmental 178–80; global 205–6; and taxes 151, 216; transportation-related 11, 41, 212–15, 223

    • federal: budget deficits 35, 89–90, 94n17, 192; debt-to-GDP ratio 3–4; income tax rates 126, 144, 155n3; residential energy credits 132–3, 133 feebates 25, 176n17, 187, 221

    • Feenberg, D. 13

    • Feldstein, M. 6, 13

    • Feldstein-Feenberg-MacGuiness proposal 14n13–14 50

    • percent reduction targets 66–73, 80

    • fiscal: cushioning 49, 59, 238–9; deficits 89–90; discipline 5; dividend 32; gap 4; linkage policies 30–2, 31; outlook 2–5, 192; solutions 1–17

    • Fischer, C. 164, 173, 200

    • fixed payments 127

    • flexibility mechanisms 188

    • flow-through enterprises 143

    • foreign firms 143, 145, 164

    • forestry 51–2

    • former Soviet bloc 235

    • fossil fuels: combustion 43–4; emissions 50–1; non-energy use of 51; overconsumption of 193; sequestered CO2 from 51; and state economies 112, 112–14; taxes 7, 38–9

    • fossil-steam power plants 203

    • Fox, A. K. 164, 173

    • fuel: conservation costs 29, 36n14; economy 62, 213; imports 56; standards 25–6, 218–20, 228–9n6; taxes 28–9, 48, 216–18, 224, 228n5t, 231–2

    • fuel-saving technologies 219

    • Fukushima nuclear plant 201

    • Fullerton, D. 107

    • funding: corporate tax reductions 153; gap for infrastructure 224–6; for LIHEAP 135; public spending 90–1; for research 111, 183–4

    • FutureGen Initiative 186

    • G-20 nations 250

    • Gale, W. G. 3, 5, 6

    • gas, upstream carbon tax on 44–5

    • gasoline 8, 10–11, 25–7, 216–18 see also motor fuel

    • GDP (gross domestic product) 2–8, 10–13, 84–6, 93n1–4, 93n6–7

    • General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) 58–9

    • generators, regulations for 203

    • Germany 9

    • GHG (greenhouse gas) see greenhouse gas (GHG)

    • global climate change 253

    • global emissions 42, 173, 245

    • Global Positioning System (GPS) technology 221

    • global warming 41

    • global warming potentials (GWP) 43, 53

    • Goulder, L. H. 10, 85

    • government: borrowing 89; payments 51–2; research 178–9, 182, 184; spending 5, 12, 90–1, 94n20

    • GPS (Global Positioning System) technology 221

    • Grainger, C. A. 109

    • grandfathering 162

    • greenhouse gas (GHG) 179; and carbon tax revenues 39–41, 40; under the Clean Air Act 201–4; controlling 35; emissions 8; and long-term growth 83; non-CO2 53; taxing 39, 43, 55–7; technology policies to reduce 178–90

    • gross domestic product (GDP) 2–8, 10–13, 84–6, 93n1–4, 93n6–7

    • growth and employment 84–91

    • Hafstead, A. C. 85

    • Halperin, D. 155n2

    • Harberger, A. 149

    • harmonized policies and measures 244–5

    • Hassett, K. A. 9, 109, 144

    • health care spending 4

    • HEVs (hybrid electric vehicles) 26–7

    • HFCs (Hydrofluorocarbons) 54, 56

    • high-income households 99; and carbon tax burden 8; and energy saving investments 132–3; and revenue increases 5; tax expenditures of 13

    • highway lobby 227

    • Highway Trust Fund 225–7

    • historic base year 240–1, 251n5

    • household income sources 104, 106, 106–7

    • households energy costs 111–12

    • Houser, T. 237

    • H.R. 2454 see American Clean Energy Security Act (ACES)

    • Hubbard, R. G. 6

    • Huntington, H. G. 218

    • hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) 26–7

    • hybrid subsidies 26–7, 29

    • Hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) 54, 56

    • hypothecation 227

    • IMF (International Monetary Fund) 6, 14n1

    • imports 56, 168–9, 168–70, 176n20

    • incentives: business 145; to buy fuel-efficient vehicles 111, 221; for energy-saving investments 127, 132–3; private sector 179; for renewable technologies 197–8; for research and development 179, 189n2–3; to work 127–8 see also feebates; rebates

    • income and substitution effects 5

    • Income Home Energy Assistance Program (LIHEAP) 135

    • income taxes 86–7; credits 10; expenditures 12; rates 129–30; rebates 127, 130–1

    • indexing transfer payments 125–6

    • India 242

    • inducement prizes 185

    • Industrial Assessment Centers 200

    • industrialized countries 235

    • industrial opposition to upstream taxation 48

    • industrial processes, carbon dioxide emissions from 52–3, 160 influential groups, compensation for 33

    • infrastructure: and fuel taxes 212; funding gap for 224–6, 229n9, 229n11

    • innovation strategy 179–85

    • input/output table 58, 98, 101

    • institutions 194

    • insurance markets 186, 189n7

    • intensity-based emission goal 242

    • interaction effects 13

    • Interagency Working Group on Social Cost of Carbon 225

    • interest rates 6

    • Internal Revenue Service (IRS) 34, 38, 46, 130–1, 134, 167

    • international climate mitigation efforts 233–52; competitiveness 53, 144, 160–1; considerations 55–9; cooperation 206; goals 64; issues 39, 51; offsets 67; policy implications 248–50; price programs 237–44; tax rules 145, 155n4; United States implementation of 244–8

    • International Monetary Fund (IMF) 6, 14n1, 250

    • investment capital, competing for 144

    • investments 90, 203; incentives 144; public sector 185–6, 189n6; tax credits for 197, 207n7

    • IRS see Internal Revenue Service

    • itemized deductions, cap on 13, 14n13–14

    • Japan 201

    • Johnson, S. 14n1

    • Joint Committee on Taxation (JCT) 130, 146

    • Keohane, R. O. 206

    • knowledge generation 179, 181, 186

    • knowledge spillovers 185–6, 197–8, 207–8n8

    • Kolstad, C. D. 109

    • Krosnick, J. A. 206

    • Krupnick, A. 21, 23–7, 31

    • Kwak, J. 14n1

    • Kyoto Annex I 163–4, 172, 175n10

    • Kyoto gases 67, 78n5

    • Kyoto Protocol 235, 236–7, 240, 245

    • labor income, impact of taxes on 30, 149–50

    • landfills 54

    • land use carbon sinks 51–2

    • leakage 53, 57–8, 61n14, 163–4, 168, 173, 249

    • legal matters 58, 162

    • light-duty vehicles (LDV) 81, 214–15, 217, 217

    • LIHEAP (Income Home Energy Assistance Program) 127, 135

    • linking 249–50

    • lobbying 171

    • local pollution 216

    • London 222

    • long-term growth, effects of tax-financed deficit reductions on 5–6

    • loopholes 142, 147

    • lower-income households 99, 109, 115n13; carbon tax burden on 9, 101–2, 102, 120–40, 148, 156n10; policy options for 137; and VAT related rebates 12, 14n10 see also compensation schemes for low-income households

    • Low Income Home Energy Assistance Program (LIHEAP) 127

    • lump-sum rebates and tax transfers 109, 114n6, 141, 151, 151–2

    • MacGuineas, M. 13

    • MacInnis, B. 206

    • McKibbin, W. A. 110, 236

    • macroeconomic vulnerabilities 218

    • manufacturing industries 162, 231–2

    • manure management 54

    • marginal effective tax rates (METRs) 128, 144

    • market-based emissions policy 179

    • market-based trading system 178, 179

    • market failure 219–20

    • Marron, D. 110

    • Mathur, A. 9, 101, 102–3, 109, 144

    • measurement points/taxpayers 44–5

    • measuring emissions 49, 52, 58, 161

    • Medicare 5, 131–2

    • Mercury and Air Toxics Standard (MATS) 201

    • Metcalf, G. E. 8–9, 53–4, 110, 111

    • methane 53–4, 62n12

    • metrics: benchmarks for comparing 235–6; for comparing effort 236–44; for economic activity assessment 84; for manufacturing output levels 167

    • METRs (marginal effective tax rates) 144

    • mileage taxes 211–12, 221–2

    • mitigation effort metrics 234–5

    • mitigation instruments see climate mitigation instruments

    • mobile combustion emissions 54

    • modeling teams 64, 66

    • Morris, A. C. 101, 102–3, 110

    • motivations 196–200

    • motor fuels 10–11, 102, 211–12 see also diesel fuel; gasoline

    • motor vehicle policies 212–24

    • multinationals 143, 145

    • NAICS (North American Industrial Classification System) 162

    • national debt projections 3 National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) 21, 198

    • national saving 5–6

    • National Surface Transportation Infrastructure Finance Commission 225

    • national taxes 41–2, 61n2

    • natural gas 19–20, 44, 52–3

    • negative cost technologies 219

    • NERA Economic Consulting study 88–9, 94n15

    • Netherlands, The 9, 221

    • New Coal policy 81

    • 1983 Social Security Reform 4–5

    • nitrogen oxides (NOx) 201–2

    • nitrous oxide (N2O), 54–5

    • non-CO2 GHG emissions 53

    • nondiscrimination obligations 168

    • non-electricity fuel use, reducing 20

    • non-energy use of fossil fuels 51

    • non-fossil fuel emissions 38–9, 48, 52

    • non-market goods and services 84, 93n1

    • North American Industrial Classification System (NAICS) 162

    • Norway 9

    • NOx Budget Program 201

    • nuclear power 19, 201–2

    • nuclear power, emissions from 200–1

    • Nunns, J. 14n10, 154

    • Obama, B. 142–3, 198

    • Obama administration 202

    • OBR (Output-based rebate) 165–7

    • OECD (Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development) 10, 144, 237

    • Office of Management and Budget (OMB) 143

    • offsets 9–10, 120–40

    • oil import fees 219

    • oil price shocks 218

    • oil shale reserves 215, 218

    • oil taxes 26

    • OMB (Office of Management and Budget) 143

    • options for low-income households 127, 129

    • Oregon 221, 222

    • Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) 10, 144, 237

    • Orzag, P. R. 5

    • out-of-compliance fines 26

    • output-based rebates (OBR) 165–7

    • output levels 163, 165–7, 175n8

    • Palmer, K. L. 198

    • Paltsev, S. 10

    • Parry, I. W. H. 10, 31, 88, 110–11, 199–200

    • passed backwards 85, 104–5

    • passed forward 85, 98, 101, 108, 113, 123

    • pay as you drive insurance 222

    • payroll taxes 10, 87–8, 110–11, 127, 131–2, 138–9n12

    • PCAST (President’s Council on Science and Technology) 183–4

    • per-mile tolls 10, 211, 222

    • personal service corporations 155n2

    • personal taxes 30, 110–11

    • Peterson-Pew Commission on Budget Reform (2011) 14n1

    • petroleum 211, 218

    • petroleum products 44, 46

    • Pittsburgh G-20

    • Leaders’ Agreement 250

    • plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVS) 26–7

    • point of combustion 48–9

    • point of distribution 50

    • points/taxpayers 44–5

    • policies: administration of carbon tax 41–3; alternative 27–34, 28, 164–74, 175; carbon price 18, 19–27, 69–71, 70; for competitive losses 161–71; energy efficiency 200; greenhouse gas 63; implementation 246–7; for Kyoto gases 69, 172; for low-income households 122–38, 129, 138n1; motor vehicle 212–24; national carbon tax 193–4, 207n2; and national circumstances 248; price-based 203; progressive 100; public transport 223–4; regional and regulatory 191–210; regressive 99–100; for revenue use 32–4; second best 172; subnational 204–6; surveillance 249–50; technology 187, 223–4

    • policy: assumptions 64, 82; costs 29–32; tools 100

    • policymakers, key messages for 1, 18, 38–9, 62–3, 83, 97–8, 120–1, 141, 159–60, 178, 191–2, 211–12, 233–4

    • political support 33

    • polluter pays principle 48

    • pollution 86, 91, 200–1, 213, 214

    • Potter, S. 6

    • power sector: and CO2 emissions 19–20, 36n7; policies 23–5, 191–7; tax on emissions 24–5

    • President’s Council on Science and Technology (PCAST) 183–4

    • President’s National Commission on Fiscal Responsibility and Reform (2010) 14n1

    • prices and pricing see carbon prices and pricing

    • private sector incentives 179

    • private sector research and development 180–2

    • processing, fossil fuel 44

    • producer prices 105

    • production tax credit 197, 207n6

    • productivity 91

    • profits 170

    • progressive policies 8–9, 11–12, 20, 97–100, 109, 111, 131

    • public acceptance 41

    • public funding for research 179

    • public good 179

    • public sector investment 185–6

    • public spending 90–1

    • public support for research and development 182–4

    • public transportation 223

    • Quadrennial Energy Review process 184

    • Quadrennial Energy Technology Review 184

    • quantitative emission targets 246–7

    • Quebec, Canada 9

    • rates, emission 242–3

    • Rausch, S. 107, 111, 142

    • R&D see research and development (R&D)

    • R&D tax credit 182

    • rebates 109, 114n6, 161, 221; for EITE industries 162, 166; income tax 127; and output levels 165–7, 172; payroll tax 127; policies 152; VAT related 12, 14n10 see also feebates

    • Rebelo, S. 6

    • recession, effects of 4

    • reduction targets 64, 66

    • refunds, tax 10, 130–1

    • regional incidence 112–14

    • regressive policy 99–100

    • regulations 28, 38, 66, 193, 207n1; emission target and 81; greenhouse gas 202–4; redundant 203, 206

    • Reilly, J. M. 111, 142

    • renewable energy technology policies 20, 197–8

    • renewable generation fuels 23–5, 36n8, 36n9

    • renewable portfolio standard (RPS) 23, 62, 81, 197–8

    • repatriation tax 145

    • research and development (R&D) 179–84; credit 145; defined 181; expenditures 181

    • research and experimentation credit 145

    • retail price increases 97

    • revenues: and capital taxes 88, 93–4n14; from carbon taxes 7, 7–10, 14n5, 39–41, 87, 147, 155n5, 229n14–15; and carbon tax incidence 101–4, 106–12; for corporate reform 147–8, 153, 155–6n7; from corporate taxes 110, 143, 170; earmarking 111; increases 4–5; for low-income households 109, 115n13, 135–6, 139n18; neutrality 150–4, 170; options 11–13; policies 27–9; recycling 109, 114n7; tax reform option effects on 12; from transportation taxes 212, 228n1, 229n15; using 33–4, 122–38, 138n1

    • ring fencing 227

    • risks: environmental 141–2; financial 89, 111, 186, 218; health 214; legal 162; traffic accident 215

    • roads 215, 222–3, 229n8

    • Rogers, L. 110, 142

    • Romer, C. D. 5

    • Romer, D. H. 5

    • Romney, M. 142

    • Rosenberg, J. 10–11, 14n10, 154

    • RPS (renewable portfolio standard) 197–8

    • safety issues 201

    • savings 5, 6, 38

    • sea level rise 91

    • Section 41

    • of the U.S. Internal Revenue Code 182

    • Section 111

    • of the Clean Air Act 203–4

    • shale gas 20–1, 53, 63

    • share of income 97

    • Singapore 222

    • Slemrod, J. 6

    • Small, K. A. 222, 232

    • Smith, H. 8

    • SNAP (Supplemental Nutrition Action Payments) 125, 134–5

    • SO2 (sulfur dioxide) 201–2

    • Social Security 5, 25, 125, 131–2

    • socioeconomic status, measuring 103

    • source performance standards 202

    • spending cuts 4–5

    • SSI (Supplemental Security Income) payments 125

    • standards: emissions 54; fuel economy 25–7, 218–20, 228–9n6; performance 202; portfolio 23, 206

    • Stanford Energy Modeling Forum (EMF 24) see Energy Modeling Forum (EMF 24)

    • “starve the beast” hypothesis 5, 14n3

    • state economies, energy intensity in 112, 112–14

    • statutory corporate tax rate 144

    • Stavins, R. N. 8

    • stimulus payments 130

    • Stockholm 222

    • Stokes, D. E. 183

    • Stokey, N. 6

    • subnational climate policies 204–6

    • subsidies: auctions for 188; energy efficiency 200; for HEVs and PHEVs 27; technology 187; transit fare 211

    • sulfur dioxide (SO2) 201–2

    • Sumner, J. 8

    • supernormal profits 150

    • Supplemental Nutrition Action Payments (SNAP) 125, 134–5

    • Supplemental Security Income (SSI) 125

    • supply-side impacts 84

    • surface mining 54

    • surveillance 249–50

    • sustained deficits 6

    • Sweden 9

    • tariffs 169–70, 236

    • tax: avoidance 46, 59, 88, 93n11, 145; breaks for business 142; burdens 33–4, 122–4, 148–50, 149–50, 156n11; code uncertainty 145; credits 197, 207n6; cuts 5, 6, 86–9, 91–2; deferrals 145; exemptions 43; expenditure reform 12–13, 14n12; fuel 48, 212, 228n1; increases 4–6; preferences 147; reform and deficit reduction 142; returns 130, 138n10

    • taxable profits shifting 144

    • tax credits: for businesses 145, 147; Earned Income 127, 182; environmental 111; for hybrid vehicles 26

    • taxes: changes in 5–6, 14n4; Congress and 195–6; excise 46–7; and fiscal system distortions 30–2; fuel 10–11, 28–9, 216–18, 224, 228n5; in the government’s budgets 34, 36n17; on imports 56; multinational 99–100; national 41–2, 61n2, 144, 155n3; on petroleum products 219; on power emissions 24–5; reduction in 90, 94n18, 110; versus trading 34–5; transportation 221, 226–7

    • tax-financed deficit reductions 5–6, 14n4

    • tax on carbon dioxide see carbon (CO) taxes

    • taxpayers 9, 45, 59–60, 130

    • Tax Policy Center (TPC) 13, 148–52, 154

    • tax-sheltering 30–1

    • tax swaps 109–11, 114, 114n7, 141–3, 147–8, 150–3

    • technologies: assumptions 64, 78n3, 80–1; carbon capture and storage 51; climate innovation 178–85; demonstration projects 185–6; fuel-saving 219; measurement 45–6, 52–3; mitigation 183; monitoring 49; options 62–3; policies 223–4; tax credits for 197, 207n6

    • Title IV of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 201

    • Toder, E. 10–11, 13, 14n10, 110, 154

    • tolls 10, 211, 221–2

    • ton-mile tax 222

    • TPC (Tax Policy Center) 13, 148–52, 154

    • tradable performance standard 167, 176n16

    • trade intensity 162, 175n5

    • tradeoffs 107–12

    • Trade Review Policy Board 250

    • transfer payments 107, 110–11, 125, 125–6

    • transit fare subsidies 211

    • transportation 25–7, 211–32; emissions 19–20; finance 224, 224–8; fuel reduction 20; motor vehicles 212–24; regulatory policies 81; spending for 225; taxes 226–7, 226–8

    • trans-shipment provisions 169

    • uncertainty of greenhouse policies 63

    • undervaluation 200

    • unemployment 91–2, 94n23

    • unemployment, carbon tax effect on 83

    • United Kingdom 221

    • United Nations climate change negotiations 235

    • United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) 42, 168, 240, 246–7

    • United Nations-sponsored climate negotiations 235

    • United States Census Bureau 132

    • United States Department of Energy (DOE) 184–5, 199–200

    • United States Department of Transportation 226

    • United States implementation 244–8

    • United States Supreme Court 202

    • United States Treasury 60

    • University of Ottawa 8

    • upstream carbon taxes 38–9, 44–9, 164

    • use-inspired basic research 183, 183–4

    • value-added tax (VAT) 10–12, 14n11, 50, 56

    • value pricing 222

    • vehicle miles traveled (VMT) 221

    • vehicles and CO2 emissions 20

    • Victor, D. G. 206

    • vulnerable groups, compensation for 33

    • Waxman-Markey bill see American Clean Energy Security Act (ACES)

    • Weisbach, D. 53–4, 62n12

    • Williams, R. C. 31, 88, 91, 110–11

    • windfall profits 100

    • wind power 197, 207n7

    • workers 132

    • World Trade Organization (WTO) 56, 58–9, 250

    • World Trade Organization/General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (WTO/ GATT) legal rules 58–9

    • World Trade Organization Subsidies Code 166–7

    • worst technology producer 168–9

    • WTO/GATT legal rules 58–9

    • zero-rating of exports 56

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