- Zubair Iqbal, and Mohsin Khan
- Published Date:
- December 1998
© 1998 International Monetary Fund
Production: IMF Graphics Section
Cover design: Massoud Etemadi
Typesetting: Joseph A. Kumar
Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data
Trade reform and regional integration in Africa / editors, Zubair
Iqbal, Mohsin S. Khan.
“Papers presented at the IMF and African Economic Research Consortium seminar on Trade reform and regional integration in Africa, December 1997.”
Includes bibliographical references.
1. Africa, Sub-Saharan—Commercial policy—Congresses. 2. Africa, Sub-Saharan—Economic conditions—Regional disparities—Congresses.
3. Africa, Sub-Saharan—Economic integration—Congresses.
4. Africa, Sub-Saharan—Foreign economic relations—Congresses.
I. Iqbal, Zubair. II. Khan, Mohsin S. III. International Monetary Fund.
IV. African Economic Research Consortium.
HF1611.T734 1998 98-11659
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In recent years, economic performance in most of sub-Saharan Africa has improved. Growth has picked up, resulting in an increase in per capita output in a number of countries, inflation has decelerated markedly, and the fiscal and external deficits have been reduced. In large part, the economic recovery can be attributed to improved macroeconomic and structural policies rather than to favorable external developments, such as terms of trade gains. Indeed, these favorable developments have been achieved at a time when official development assistance has been declining. Key structural reforms have been implemented in many African countries, including curtailing of price controls, dismantling of some inefficient public monopolies, privatization, elimination of nontariff barriers in most countries, and a reduction in import duties in many. At the same time, exchange rates have been largely freed and unified, restrictions on current transactions liberalized, and important progress has been made toward market-determined interest rates in most countries.
The economic situation remains difficult. But sub-Saharan Africa may have reached a turning point. The incipient improvements need to be nursed assiduously if the recent gains are to be translated into sustained growth.
Experience and research demonstrate that trade liberalization is a critical element in a growth strategy. As part of the effort to address trade issues in Africa, the IMF, in collaboration with the African Economic Research Consortium (AERC), conducted a seminar on Trade Reform and Regional Integration in Africa in Washington in early December 1997. The event provided an important opportunity to government officials, academics, and representatives from multilateral and regional agencies to exchange views on the complex issues relating to trade reform and regionalism in Africa. This volume brings together papers presented during the seminar. They cover a range of important issues, including the role of trade liberalization in promoting sustained growth, interdependence of trade and macroeconomic policies, impediments to effective trade reforms, and steps needed to accelerate trade reform in Africa. The role that regional interaction can play in supporting trade reform is also covered extensively.
What emerges from these papers, and the ensuing seminar discussions, is a clear consensus that trade liberalization is essential if African countries are to take advantage of globalization. Combining forces with similarly placed African countries through the formation of appropriate regional trading arrangements can lead to faster liberalization and can reduce vulnerability to external shocks.
First Deputy Managing Director
International Monetary Fund
We are grateful to the following for their advice and support: Michael Mussa, Economic Counselor and Director, Research Department, IMF; Evangelos Calamitsis, Director, African Department, IMF; Pierre Dhonte, Deputy Director, Middle Eastern Department, IMF; and Benno Ndulu, Executive Director, African Economic Research Consortium. Thanks are also due to Alfred F. Imhoff for providing valuable editorial help; to Juanita Roushdy, External Relations Department, for editorial guidance; to Arturo Rios and Rosa Vera-Bunge, IMF Institute, for research assistance; and especially to Susan E. Jones, IMF Institute, for preparing the manuscript speedily and efficiently. We would also like to express our gratitude to many other staff members of the IMF Institute who helped in organizing the joint AERCIMF seminar where papers contained in this volume were presented.
Mohsin S. Khan
List of Abbreviations
Several African regional organizations have abbreviations based on their proper French names; however, the commonly used English translations of the names are given here.AEC
African Economic CommunityAERC
African Economic Research ConsortiumBEAC
Central African Monetary UnionCFA
Communauté francophone d’AfriqueCBI
Central African Economic CommunityCOMESA
Common Market for Eastern and Southern AfricaECA
Economic Commission for AfricaECCAS
Economic Community of Central African StatesECOWAS
Economic Community of West African StatesEFF
Extended Fund FacilityESAF
Enhanced Structural Adjustment FacilityEU
Foreign direct investmentFTA
Free trade areaGATT
General Agreement on Tariffs and TradeIMF
International Monetary FundMFA
North American Free Trade AgreementNTBs
Organization of African UnityOECD
Organization for Economic Cooperation and DevelopmentPTA
Preferential trade areaQRs
Southern African Customs UnionSADC
Southern African Development CommunitySADCC
Southern African Development Coordination ConferenceSAF
Structural Adjustment FacilitySAP
Structural Adjustment ProgramUEMOA
West African Economic and Monetary UnionUDEAC
Central African Economic and Customs UnionUNCTAD
United Nations Conference on Trade and DevelopmentVAT
World Trade Organization
Zubair Iqbal and Mohsin S. Khan
Liam P. Ebrill and Janet G. Stotsky
Zhen Kun Wang and L. Alan Winters
Benno J. Ndulu and Njuguna S. Ndung’u
Charles Chukwuma Soludo
Gary Hufbauer and Barbara Kotschwar
Christian A. François and Arvind Subramanian
Ibrahim A. Elbadawi and Francis M. Mwega
Trudi Hartzenberg and Gavin Maasdorp
Louis A. Kasekende and Charles A. Abuka
Charles D. Jebuni
The following symbols have been used in this book:
… to indicate that data are not available;
– between years or months (e.g., 1995–96 or January-June) to indicate the years or months covered, including the beginning and ending years or months; and
/ between years (e.g., 1996/97) to indicate a fiscal (financial) year.
“Billion” means a thousand million.
Dollars are U.S. dollars.
Minor discrepancies between constituent figures and totals are due to rounding.