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Author(s):
Norman Humphreys
Published Date:
June 2000
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    Statistical Appendix

    Table 1. Selected Financial Indicators during the Financial Year Ended April 30

    Table 2. Members’ Quotas and Voting Power

    Table 3. Stand-by and Other Arrangements Approved in the Financial Years Ended April 30, 1953-1998

    Table 4. Arrangements Under the Enhanced Structural Adjustment Facility in Effect during the Financial Year Ended April 30, 1998

    Table 5. Extended Arrangements in Effect in the Financial Year Ended April 30, 1998

    Table 1.Selected Financial Indicators during the Financial Year Ended April 30(Millions of SDRs)
    19941995199619971998
    Disbursements
    Total5,90311,17812,3035,64419,924
    Purchases by facility (GRA)1
    Total5,24110,59210,8264,93918,981
    Stand-bys21,0527,5879,1271,83616,127
    EFF7461,5951,5542,8202,824
    CCFF7182879282
    STF2,7251,123136
    SAF/ESAF loans6625871,477705973
    SDA resources6819185
    ESAF Trust resources5945681,292705973
    Repurchases and Repayments
    Repurchases4,3433,9846,6986,6683,789
    SAF/ESAF & Trust
    Fund repayments166247402528596
    Outstanding IMF Credit
    Total29,88936,83742,04040,48856,026
    Of which:
    GRA25,53332,14036,26834,53949,701
    SDA1,8351,6511,5451,220922
    Administered accounts
    Trust Fund105102959090
    ESAF Trust32,4162,9444,1324,6395,314
    Change in outstanding credit (%)
    52314-4-438
    Number of indebted countries
    9399979594

    Excludes reserve tranche purchases.

    Includes first credit tranche drawings.

    Includes Saudi Fund for Development associated loans.

    Source: Annual Report of the Executive Board, 1998.
    Table 2.Members’ Quotas and Voting Power Under Eleventh Review of Quotas, January 1999
    QuotaVotes
    MemberMillion SDRsPercent
    Afghanistan, Islamic State of161.90.076
    Albania48.70.023
    Algeria914.40.431
    Angola286.30.135
    Antigua and Barbuda13.50.006
    Argentina2,117.10.998
    Armenia92.00.043
    Australia3,236.41.526
    Austria1,872.30.883
    Azerbaijan160.90.076
    Bahamas, The130.30.061
    Bahrain135.00.064
    Bangladesh533.30.252
    Barbados67.50.032
    Belarus386.40.182
    Belgium4,605.22.172
    Belize18.80.009
    Benin61.90.029
    Bhutan6.30.003
    Bolivia171.50.081
    Bosnia and Herzegovina169.10.080
    Botswana63.00.030
    Brazil3,036.11.432
    Brunei Darussalam215.20.101
    Bulgaria640.20.302
    Burkina Faso60.20.028
    Burundi77.00.036
    Cambodia87.50.041
    Cameroon185.70.088
    Canada6,639.23.004
    Cape Verde9.60.005
    Central African Republic55.70.026
    Chad56.00.026
    Chile856.10.404
    China4,687.22.211
    Colombia774.00.365
    Comoros8.90.004
    Congo, Dem. Rep. of533.00.251
    Congo, Republic of84.60.040
    Costa Rica164.10.077
    Côte d’Ivoire325.20.153
    Croatia365.10.172
    Cyprus139.60.066
    Czech Republic819.30.386
    Denmark1,642.80.775
    Djibouti15.90.007
    Dominica8.20.004
    Dominican Republic218.90.103
    Ecuador302.30.143
    Egypt943.70.445
    El Salvador171.30.081
    Equatorial Guinea32.60.015
    Eritrea15.90.007
    Estonia65.20.031
    Ethiopia133.70.063
    Fiji70.30.033
    Finland1,263.80.596
    France10,738.55.065
    Gabon154.30.073
    Gambia, The31.10.015
    Georgia150.30.071
    Germany13,008.26.135
    Ghana369.00.174
    Greece823.00.388
    Grenada11.70.006
    Guatemala210.20.099
    Guinea107.10.051
    Guinea-Bissau14.20.007
    Guyana90.90.043
    Haiti81.90.039
    Honduras129.50.061
    Hungary1,038.40.490
    Iceland117.60.055
    India4,158.21.961
    Indonesia2,079.30.981
    Iran, Islamic Republic of1,497.20.706
    Iraq1,188.40.560
    Ireland838.40.395
    Israel928.20.438
    Italy7,055.53.328
    Jamaica273.50.129
    Japan13,312.86.279
    Jordan170.50.088
    Kazakhstan365.70.172
    Kenya271.40.128
    Kiribati5.60.003
    Korea1,633.60.770
    Kuwait1,381.10.651
    Kyrgyz Republic88.80.042
    Lao People’s Democratic Republic52.90.025
    Latvia126.80.060
    Lebanon203.00.096
    Lesotho34.90.016
    Liberia129.20.061
    Libya1,123.70.530
    Lithuania144.20.068
    Luxembourg279.10.132
    Macedonia, FYR68.90.032
    Madagascar122.20.058
    Malawi69.40.033
    Malaysia1,486.60.701
    Maldives8.20.004
    Mali93.3
    Malta102.00.048
    Marshall Islands3.50.002
    Mauritania64.40.030
    Mauritius101.60.048
    Mexico2,585.81.220
    Micronesia, Federal States of5.10.002
    Moldova123.20.058
    Mongolia51.10.024
    Morocco588.20.277
    Mozambique113.60.054
    Myanmar258.40.122
    Namibia136.50.064
    Nepal71.30.034
    Netherlands, The5,162.42.435
    New Zealand894.60.422
    Nicaragua130.00.061
    Niger65.80.031
    Nigeria1,753.20.827
    Norway1,671.70.788
    Oman194.00.091
    Pakistan1,033.70.488
    Palau, Republic of3.10.003
    Panama206.60.097
    Papua New Guniea131.60.062
    Paraguay99.90.047
    Peru638.40.301
    Philippines879.90.415
    Poland1,369.00.592
    Portugal867.40.409
    Qatar263.80.124
    Romania1,030.20.486
    Russia5,945.42.804
    Rwanda80.10.038
    Samoa11.60.005
    San Marino17.00.008
    São Tomé and Principe7.40.003
    Saudi Arabia6,985.53.295
    Senegal161.80.076
    Seychelles8.80.004
    Sierra Leone103.70.049
    Singapore862.50.407
    Slovak Republic357.50.169
    Slovenia231.70.109
    Solomon Islands10.40.005
    Somalia81.70.039
    South Africa1,868.50.881
    Spain3,048.91.438
    Sri Lanka413.40.195
    St. Kitts and Nevis8.90.004
    St. Lucia15.30.007
    St. Vincent and the Grenadines8.30.004
    Sudan315.10.149
    Suriname92.10.043
    Swaziland50.70.024
    Sweden2,395.51.130
    Switzerland3,458.51.631
    Syrian Arab Republic293.60.138
    Tajikistan87.00.041
    Tanzania198.90.094
    Thailand1,081.90.510
    Togo73.40.035
    Tonga6.90.003
    Trinidad and Tobago335.60.158
    Tunisia286.50.135
    Turkey964.00.455
    Turkmenistan75.20.035
    Uganda180.50.085
    Ukraine1,372.00.647
    United Arab Emirates611.70.288
    United Kingdom10,738.55.065
    United States37,193.317.521
    Uruguay306.50.145
    Uzbekistan275.60.130
    Vanuatu17.00.008
    Venezuela2,659.11.254
    Vietnam329.10.155
    Yemen, Republic of243.50.115
    Yugoslavia, Fed. Rep of467.70.221
    Zambia489.10.231
    Zimbabwe353.40.167
    Total212,029.0100.00
    Note: No increase in quotas can take effect before the date on which the Fund determines that members having not less than 85 percent of the total quotas on December 23, 1997, have consented to the increase in their quotas. A member’s quota cannot be increased until it has consented to the increase and paid the subscription.Source: Annual Report of the Executive Board
    Table 3.Stand-by and Other Arrangements Approved in the Financial Years Ended April 30, 1953-1998
    Number of ArrangementsSDRs
    Stand-bysEFFSAFESAFTotalMillions
    1953-5720201,368
    1958-6265654,558
    1963-671081087,016
    1968-721101106,090
    1973-77735788,931
    1978193185,877
    1979155202,643
    1980227293,803
    198122153710,795
    198223123516,206
    19833093925,035
    19843053518,569
    19852733011,675
    1986242264,907
    198723110345,391
    198818225454,540
    1989142237466,608
    199019417115113,911
    199114512144514,652
    19922278165319,203
    19931564204515,279
    1994166322478,428
    19951991275623,385
    19962171285727,918
    19971411356017,996
    19981413336045,069
    Total765573865925329,853
    Source: Annual Report of the Executive Board.
    Table 4.Arrangements Under the Enhanced Structural Adjustment Facility in Effect during the Financial Year Ended April 30, 1998(Amounts in Millions of SDRs)
    Arrangemment DatesAmounts ApprovedUndrawn Balances
    MemberEffective dateExpiration dateThrough 4/30/98As of 4/30/98
    Armenia2/14/962/13/9910134
    Azerbaijan2/20/962/19/999438
    Benin8/28/9612/19/992718
    Bolivia12/19/948/27/99101
    Burkina Faso6/14/969/9/984020
    Cambodia5/6/946/13/99126
    Cameroon8/20/978/19/00162108
    Chad9/1/958/31/985017
    Congo, Rep. of6/28/966/27/996956
    Côte d’Ivoire3/11/946/13/97333
    Cote d’Ivoire3/17/983/16/01286202
    Ethiopia10/11/9610/10/998874
    Georgia2/28/962/27/9916756
    Georgia2/28/962/27/9916756
    Ghana6/30/956/29/9916469
    Guinea1/13/971/12/007135
    Guinea-Bissau1/18/957/24/9810
    Guyana1/13/974/17/9854
    Haiti10/18/9610/17/999176
    Honduras7/24/9211/26/9947
    Kenya4/26/964/25/99150125
    Kyrgz Republic7/20/943/31/9888
    Lao PDR6/4/935/7/9735
    Macedonia4/11/974/10/005536
    Madagascar11/27/9611/26/998115
    Malawi10/18/9510/17/984615
    Mali4/10/963/17/016221
    Mauritania1/25/956/11/9943
    Mongolia7/30/9710/19/003328
    Mozambique6/21/961/12/987625
    Nicaragua6/24/946/23/97120
    Nicaragua3/18/983/17/0110184
    Niger6/12/966/11/995819
    Pakistan10/20/9710/19/00682455
    Senegal8/29/941/12/98131
    Senegal4/20/984/19/0110789
    Sierra Leone3/28/945/4/981025
    Tanzania11/8/0611/7/9916274
    Togo9/16/946/29/986511
    Uganda9/6/9411/17/9712
    Uganda11/10/9711/9/0010060
    Vietnam11/11/9411/10/97362
    Yeman10/29/9710/28/00265221
    Zambia12/6/9512/5/9870240
    Total4,0482,165
    Source: Annual Report of the Executive Board, 1998.
    Table 5.Extended Arrangements in Effect in the Financial Year Ended April 30, 1998(Amounts Expressed in Million SDRs)
    MemberEffective DateExpiration DateUndrawn Balance
    Algeria5/22/955/21/9884
    Argentina12/4/982/3/012,080
    Azerbaijan12/20/9612/19/9926
    Croatia3/12/973/11/00324
    Gabon11/8/9511/7/9850
    Jordan22/9/962/8/9947
    Kazakhstan 17/17/967/16/99309
    Lithuania10/24/9419/23/97
    Moldova5/20/965/19/9998
    Pakistan10/20/9710/19/00398
    Panama12/10/9712/9/00110
    Peru37/1/963/31/99140
    Philippines 46/24/943/31/98
    Russia3/26/963/25/993,065
    Yemen10/29/9710/28/0097
    Total6,828

    The authorities indicated their intention not to draw under the arrangement.

    Original amount of SDR 201 million increased by SDR 37 million.

    Original amount of SDR 248 million increased by SDR 52 million for debt and debt service reduction.

    Extended from June 23, 1997, December 31, 1997, and January 31, 1998. Increased by SDR 317 million.

    Source: Annual Report of the Executive Board, 1998.
    Bibliography

    Contents

    Publications Issued by the Fund

    Reports and Documents

    Books

    Periodicals

    Statistical Publications

    World Economic and Financial Surveys

    Occasional Papers Series

    Pamphlets (series)

    Booklets

    Papers on Policy Analysis and Assessment

    Working Papers, 1997

    Staff Country Reports

    General Bibliography

    General

    Background of the Bretton Woods System

    Establishing the Bretton Woods System

    Macroeconomic and Structural Adjustment and Fund Conditionality

    Exchange Rate Systems and Markets

    International Currencies, Liquidity, and the SDR

    International Trade and Payments

    International Debt Problems

    Reform of the International Monetary System

    The following bibliography lists selective publications on the history and evolution of the International Monetary Fund. The Fund itself periodically published, from 1951 through 1985, comprehensive bibliographies in various issues of its quarterly economic journal, Staff Papers. Many of these bibliographies were compiled by Anne C. M. Salda, who on her retirement from the Joint Fund-Bank Library compiled an extensive and annotated bibliography, International Monetary Fund, which references publications on the Fund since its inception (see under General Bibliography).

    The first section of this bibliography lists publications issued by the Fund. The second section concentrates on citing substantive material published outside the Fund dealing with its work and related matters. No attempt has been made to cover the many serious and interesting articles that have appeared in newspapers and news magazines.

    The Fund’s public web site was opened in September 1996 at the address http://www.imf.org. From the the home-page menu, hyperlinks lead to various submenus, including a catalogue of publications. A number of publications are also available in full text on the web site.

    The Fund issues annually a catalog of available publications.

    Publications Issued by the Fund

    Reports and Documents

      Agreement Between the United Nations and the International Monetary Fund, 1956.

      Annual Report of the Executive Board, 1946to date. Published also in French, German, and Spanish.

      Annual Report on Exchange Arrangements and Exchange Restrictions, 1979to date.

      Annual Report on Exchange Restrictions, 1950 to 1978.

      Articles of Agreement of the International Monetary Fund, Original Articles in 1946; as modified by the first amendment to the Articles, 1968; as modified by the second amendment to the Articles, 1978; and as modified by the third amendment to the Articles, 1992. Also in Arabic, French, Russian, and Spanish.

      By-Laws, Rules and Regulations, issued periodically since1947.

      Establishment of a Facility Based on Special Drawing Rights in the International Monetary Fund and Modifications in the Rules and Practices of the Fund: A Report by the Executive Directors to the Board of Governors Proposing Amendment of the Articles of Agreement, 1968.

      International Monetary Reform: Documents of the Committee of Twenty, 1974.

      Proposed Third Amendment of the Articles of Agreement: A Report to the Board of Governors of the International Monetary Fund Containing the Managing Director’s Proposal on the Allocation of Special Drawing Rights for the First Basic Period, 1969. Also in French and Spanish.

      Schedule of Par Values, irregular, 1946 to 1971.

      Selected Decisions of the International Monetary Fund and Selected Documents, irregular, 1st issue 1962, 23rd issue, 1998.

      Summary Proceedings of the … Annual Meetings of the Board of Governors, 1946to date.

    Books

      Adjustment and Financing in the Developing World: The Role of the International Monetary Fund, papers presented at a seminar sponsored by the IMF and the Overseas Development Institute, London, England, edited byTonyKillick, (ed)1982.

      Adjustment, Conditionality, and International Financing, papers presented at a seminar in Viña del Mar, Chile, sponsored by the Central Bank of Chile, the Frederico Santa Maria University, and the IMF, edited byJoaquínMuns, (ed)1983.

      Adjustment Policies and Development Strategies in the Arab World, papers presented at a seminar in Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates, at a seminar sponsored by the Arab Monetary Fund and the IMF, edited bySaidEl-Naggar, (ed)1987.

      Africa and the International Monetary Fund, papers presented at a symposium sponsored by the Association of African Central Banks and the IMF, edited byG. K.Helleiner, (ed)1987.

      Analytical Issues in Debt, by Jacob A.Frenkel, Michael P.Dooley, and PeterWickham, (ed)1989.

      Approaches to Exchange Rate Policy, papers presented at a seminar on exchange rate policy in developing and transitional economies held by the IMF Institute, edited byRichardBarth and Chorng-HueyWong, (ed)1994.

      Balance of Payments Adjustment, 1945 to 1986: The IMF Experience, by MargaretGarritsen de Vries, (ed)1987.

      Balance of Payments Compilation Guide, a companion document to the fifth edition of the Balance of Payments Manual, 1995.

      Balance of Payments Manual, the fifth edition of this manual, revised and updated, 1993.

      Balance of Payments Textbook, a companion document to the Balance of Payments Manual, 1996.

      Bank Soundness and Macroeconomic Policy, by Carl-JohanLindgren, GillianGarcia, and Matthew I.Saal, (ed)1996.

      Banking Crises: Cases and Issues, edited byV.Sundarajan and Thomas J. T.Baliño, (ed)1991.

      Beyond Adjustment: The Asian Experience, edited byPaulStreeten, (ed)1988.

      Building Sound Finance in Emerging Market Economies, edited byGerardCaprio, DavidFolkerts-Landau, and Timothy D.Lane, (ed)1994.

      Central and Eastern Europe: Roads to Growth, papers presented at a seminar moderated by GeorgeWinckler, (ed)organized by the IMF and the Austrian National Bank, 1992.

      Central Banking Technical Assistance to Countries in Transition, proceedings of a joint meeting of central banking technical assistance held in St. Petersburg, Russia, in 1994, edited byJ. B.Zulu, Ian S.McCarthy, SusanAlmuiña, and GabrielSensenbrenner, (ed)1994.

      Central Bank Reform in Transition Economies, contains the background papers prepared for the second coordinating meeting of 23 participating central banks of the Baltic States and the Commonwealth of Independent States, edited byV.Sundarajan, Arne B.Petersen, and GabrielSensenbrenner, (ed)1997.

      Choosing an Exchange Rate Regime: The Challenge for Smaller Industrial Countries, edited byVictorArgy and Paul deGrauwe, (ed)1990.

      Coordinated Portfolio Investment Survey Guide, a guide for balance of payments compilers in conducting an internationally coordinated survey of security holdings conducted under the auspices of the IMF, 1996.

      Coordinating Public Debt and Monetary Management: Institutional and Operational Arrangements, edited byV.Sundarajan, PeterDattels, and HansBlommestein, (ed)1997.

      Coordinating Stabilization and Structural Reform, papers presented in an IMF Institute seminar covering four case studies—China, Poland, Argentina, and The Gambia, edited byRichard C.Barth, Alan R.Roe, and Chorng-HueyWong, (ed)1994.

      Current Legal Issues Affecting Central Banks, Vols. I, II, III, and IV, papers presented at four biennial seminars sponsored by the IMF for central banks, edited byRobert C.Effros, (ed)1992, 1994, 1995, and 1997.

      Deepening Structural Reform in Africa: Lessons from East Asia, the proceedings of a seminar involving policymakers and senior government officials from Africa and East Asia and senior staff of international organizations, edited byLauraWallace, (ed)1997.

      Debt Stocks, Debt Flows and the Balance of Payments, prepared jointly by the BIS, IMF, OECD, and World Bank, 1994.

      Economic Adjustment: Policies and Problems, the proceedings of a seminar held in Wellington, New Zealand, concentrating on economic adjustment problems in the South Pacific, edited bySir FrankHolmes, (ed)1987.

      Economic Policy Coordination, the proceedings of a seminar held in Hamburg, Germany, moderated byWilfredGuth, (ed)1988.

      Emerging Financial Centers: Legal and Institutional Framework, edited byRobert C.Effros, (ed)1982.

      Economic Adjustment: Policies and Problems, papers presented at a seminar sponsored by the IMF in Wellington, New Zealand, edited bySir FrankHolmes, (ed)1987.

      Economic Policy Coordination, papers presented at a seminar sponsored by the IMF in Hamburg, Germany, 1988.

      Effective Government Accounting, by A.Premchand, (ed)1995.

      EMU and the International Monetary System, the proceedings of a seminar held in Washington, sponsored by the IMF and the Fondation Camille Gutt, 1997.

      Evolving Role of Central Banks, papers presented at a seminar sponsored by the IMF at the Fund’s headquarters, edited byPatrickDownes and RezaVaez-Zadeh, (ed)1991.

      External Debt: Definition, Statistical Coverage and Methodology, a comparative description of statistics collected by the BIS, IMF, OECD, and the World Bank, 1998.

      External Debt Management, papers presented at a seminar sponsored by the IMF, Washington, D.C., edited byHassanaliMehran, (ed)1985.

      External Debt, Savings, and Growth in Latin America, papers presented at a seminar sponsored by the Instituto Torcuato di Tella and the IMF in Don Torcuato, Argentina, edited byAna MaríaMartirena-Mantel, (ed)1987.

      Fifty Years After Bretton Woods: The Future of the IMF and the World Bank, the proceedings of a conference held in Madrid, Spain, sponsored by the IMF and the World Bank to commemorate the fiftieth anniversary of the two institutions, edited byJames M.Boughton and K. SarwarLateef, (ed)1994.

      Financial Policies and Capital Markets in Arab Countries, the proceedings of a seminar held in Abu Dhabi, edited bySaidEl-Naggar, (ed)1994.

      Financial Programming and Policy: The Case of Hungary, edited byKaren A.Swiderski, (ed)1992.

      Fiscal Federalism in Theory and Practice, a series of papers on a number of countries examining the relationships among central, state, and local governments in respect to their spending and revenue-raising responsibilities, edited byTeresaTer-Minassian, (ed)1997.

      Fiscal Policies in Economies in Transition, edited byVitoTanzi, (ed)1992.

      Fiscal Policy, Economic Adjustment, and Financial Markets, papers presented at a seminar sponsored by the Centre for Financial and Monetary Economics, Università Luigi Bocconi, in Milan, Italy, and the IMF, edited byMarioMonti, (ed)1989.

      Fiscal Policy in Open Developing Economies, papers presented at the 44th Congress of the International Institute of Public Finance, edited byVitoTanzi, (ed)1990.

      Fiscal Policy, Stabilization, and Growth in Developing Countries, edited byMario I.Blejer and Ke-youngChu, (ed)1992.

      Foreign and Inter-Trade Policies of Arab Countries, papers presented at a seminar sponsored by the IMF in Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates, edited bySaidEl-Naggar, (ed)1992.

      Framework for Monetary Stability: Policy Issues and Country Experience, edited byTomás J. T.Baliño and CarloCottarelli, (ed)1994.

      The Functioning of the International Monetary System, Vols. I and II, a series of 30 analytical papers on the system as it functioned in 1987-91, edited byJacob A.Frenkel and MorrisGoldstein, (ed)1996.

      The Future of the SDR in Light of Changes in the International Monetary System, the proceedings of a seminar held at the IMF, edited byMichaelMussa, JamesBoughton, and PeterIsard, (ed)1996.

      Government Financial Management: Issues and Country Studies, edited byA.Premchand, (ed)1990.

      Growth-Oriented Adjustment Programs, papers presented at a symposium sponsored by the IMF and the World Bank in Washington, D.C., edited byVittorioCorbo, MorrisGoldstein, and MohsinKhan, (ed)1987.

      How to Measure the Fiscal Deficit: Analytical and Methodological Issues, edited byMario I.Blejer and AdrienneCheasty, (ed)1992.

      IMF Glossary, English-French-Arabic, by the IMF Bureau of Language Services, 1996.

      IMF Glossary, English-French-Spanish, by the IMF Bureau of Language Services, 1997.

      IMF Glossary, English-French-Russian by the IMF Bureau of Language Services, 1998.

      The IMF’s Statistical Systems in Context of Revision of the United Nations’ “A System of National Accounts,”edited byVicenteGalbis, (ed)1991.

      Improving Tax Administration in Developing Countries, edited byRichard M.Bird and MilkaCasanegra de Jantscher, (ed)1992.

      Inflation and Growth in China, the proceedings of a conference, edited byManuelGuitián and RobertMundell, (ed)1996.

      Interest Rate Liberalization and Money Market Development, a series of papers presented at a seminar held in Beijing, China, sponsored by the IMF and the People’s Bank of China, edited byHassanaliMehran, BernardLaurens, and MarcQuintyn, (ed)1995.

      International Financial Policy: Essays in Honor ofJacques J.Polak, (ed)papers presented at a conference sponsored by the Netherlands Bank and the IMF in Washington, D.C., edited byJacob A.Frenkel and MorrisGoldstein, (ed)1991.

      International Monetary Cooperation Since Bretton Woods, a comprehensive history written by Harold James and published jointly by the IMF and Oxford University Press, 1996.

      The International Monetary Fund, 1945-1965: Twenty Years of International Monetary Cooperation. Vol. I, Chronicle, by J. KeithHorsefield; (ed)Vol. II, Analysis, by Margaret G.de Vries and J. KeithHorsefield with the collaboration of JosephGold, Mary H.Gumbart, GertrudeLovasy, and Emil G.Spitzer (ed); and Vol. III, Documents, edited byJ. KeithHorsefield, (ed)1969.

      The International Monetary Fund, 1966-1971: The System Under Stress. Vol. I, Narrative, by Margaret Garritsende Vries; (ed)Vol II, Documents, edited byMargaret Garritsende Vries, (ed)1976.

      The International Monetary Fund, 1972-1978: Cooperation on Trial. Vols. I and II, Narrative and Analysis, by Margaret Garritsende Vries (ed); and Vol. III, Documents, edited byMargaret Garritsende Vries, (ed)1985.

      International Reserves: Needs and Availability, papers presented by a number of scholars and Fund staff members at a seminar convened at the Fund’s headquarters, 1970.

      Legal and Institutional Aspects of the International Monetary System: Selected Essays, Vols. I and II, by JosephGold, (ed)1984.

      Legal Effects of Fluctuating Exchange Rates, by JosephGold, (ed)1990.

      Macroeconomic Accounting and Analysis in Transition Economies, by AbdessatarOuanes and SubhashThakur, (ed)1997.

      Macroeconomic Adjustment: Policy Instruments and Issues, edited byJeffrey M.Davis, (ed)1992.

      Macroeconomic Issues Facing ASEAN Countries, papers prepared for the ASEAN conference held in Jakarta, edited byJohnHicklin, DavidRobinson, and AnoopSingh, (ed)1997.

      Macroeconomic Models for Adjustment in Developing Countries, edited byMohsin S.Khan, Peter J.Montiel, and Nadeem U.Haque, (ed)1991.

      Macroeconomic Policies in an Interdependent World, edited byRalphBryant, DavidCurrie, Jacob A.Frenkel, PaulMasson, and RichardPortes, (ed)1989.

      Macroeconomics and the Environment, the proceedings of a seminar held at the IMF at which experts from academic and research institutions, nongovernmental organizations, and staff from the IMF and World Bank shared their views on macroeconomic policies and the environment, edited byVed P.Gandhi, (ed)1996.

      Manual on Government Finance Statistics, 1986.

      The Monetary Approach to the Balance of Payments, edited byRudolf R.Rhomberg, (ed)1977.

      Optimum Currency Areas: New Analytical and Policy Developments, a revisit to Robert Mundell’s pioneering theory of optimum currency areas, with an update by Robert Mundell himself, edited byMario I.Blejer, Jacob A.Frankel, LeonardLeiderman, and AssafRazin, (ed)1997.

      The Payment System: Design, Management and Supervision, 12 papers by central bank experts from around the world, edited byBruce J.Summers, (ed)1994.

      Payment System, Monetary Policy, and the Role of the Central Bank, by Otomunde E. G.Johnson, Richard K.Abrams, Jean-MarcDestresse, TonyLybek, NicholasRoberts, and MarkSwinburne, (ed)1997.

      Policies for African Development: From the 1980s to the 1990s, a collection of papers presented at a seminar in Gaborone, Botswana, edited byI. G.Patel, (ed)1992.

      Policies for Growth: The Latin American Experience, papers presented at a seminar in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, moderated byAndréLara Resende, (ed)1995.

      Privatization and Structural Adjustment in the Arab Countries, papers presented at a seminar sponsored by the IMF in Washington, D.C., edited bySaidEl-Naggar, (ed)1989.

      Public Expenditure Handbook: A Guide to Public Policy Issues in Developing Countries, edited byKe-youngChu and RichardHemming, (ed)1991.

      Public Expenditure Management, by A.Premchand, (ed)1993.

      Reforming China’s Public Finances, the proceedings of a conference held in Shanghai, China, with supplemental papers, edited byEhtishamAhmad, GaoQiang, and VitoTanzi, (ed)1995.

      Report on the Measurement of International Capital Flows and Background Papers, 1992.

      Report on the World Current Account Discrepancy, by the IMF and other international organizations, 1987.

      The Social Effects of Economic Adjustment on Arab Countries, papers presented in a seminar sponsored by the Arab Fund for Economic and Social Development, the Arab Monetary Fund, the IMF, and the World Bank, edited byTaher H.Kanaan, (ed)1997.

      Strategies for Structural Adjustment: The Experience of Southeast Asia, papers presented at a seminar sponsored by the IMF in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, moderated byUngku A.Aziz, (ed)1990.

      Structural Adjustment and Macroeconomic Policy Issues, papers presented at a conference in Lahore, Pakistan, moderated byV. A.Jafarey, (ed)1992.

      Supply-Side Tax Policy: Its Relevance to Developing Countries, by Ved P.Gandhi, Liam P.Ebrill, George A.Mackenzie, LuisMañas-Anton, Jitendra R.Modi, SomchaiRichupan, FernandoSanchez-Ugarte, and ParthasarathiShome, (ed)1987.

      System of National Accounts, prepared by the Joint Commission of the European Communities, IMF, OECD, UN, and World Bank, 1993.

      Systemic Bank Restructuring and Macroeconomic Policy, sets out cross-country restructuring experiences, edited byWilliam E.Alexander, Jeffrey M.Davis, Liam P.Ebrill, and Carl-JohanLindgren, (ed)1997.

      Tax Law Design and Drafting, Vol. I and II, edited byVictorThuronyi, (ed)1996.

      Tax Policy Handbook, edited byParthasarathiShome, (ed)1995.

      Trade Policy Issues, papers presented in a seminar sponsored by the IMF, edited byChorng-HueyWong, (ed)1997.

      Transition to Market Studies in Fiscal Reform, edited byVitoTanzi, (ed)1993.

      The Uruguay Round and the Arab Countries, papers presented at a seminar sponsored by the IMF, the Arab Fund for Economic and Social Development, the Arab Monetary Fund, and the World Bank, edited bySaidEl-Naggar, (ed)1996.

      Value-Added Tax: International Practice and Problems, by Alan A.Tait, (ed)1988.

    Periodicals

      Finance & Development, jointly published by the Fund and the World Bank up to June 1998, when the IMF became the sole publisher. The magazine contains articles in nontechnical language explaining the financial and development issues. Published quarterly, 1964to date. In Arabic, Chinese, English, French, German, Portuguese, Spanish, and Russian (free).

      IMF Economic Reviews, a triennial collection of PINs issued in the preceding trimester.

      IMF Survey, maintains a running record of the Fund’s policies, decisions, and activities, as well as country and world economic developments. Issued twice a month, 1972to date. Also in French and Spanish.

      Staff Papers, quarterly, 1950 to date.. The following are selected articles:

      “Analysis of Proposals for Using Objective Indicators as a Guide to Exchange Rate Changes,” by Trevor G.Underwood,Vol. 20 (Mar. 1973), pp. 100117.

      “The Appropriate Use of Monetary and Fiscal Policy for Internal and External Stability,” by Robert A.Mundell,Vol. 9 (Mar. 1962), pp. 7079.

      “Are Exchange Rates Excessively Volatile? And What Does “Excessively Volatile” Mean, Anyway?” by LeonardoBartolini and Gordon M.Bodnar,Vol. 43 (Mar. 1996), pp. 72-96.

      “Balance of Payments Adjustment Among Developed Countries,” by Anne RomanisBraun,Vol. 12 (Mar. 1965), pp. 1734.

      “Competitive Depreciation,” by WalterGardner and S. C.Tsiang,Vol. 2 (1951-52), pp. 399406.

      “Conditionality: Past, Present, Future,” by ManuelGuitían,Vol. 42 (Dec. 1995), pp. 792835.

      “Consumption. Income, and International Capital Market Integration,” by TamimBayoumi and RonaldMacDonald,Vol. 42 (Sept. 1995), pp. 55276.

      “Currency Unions, Economic Fluctuations, and Adjustment,” by TamimBayoumi and EswarPrasad,Vol. 44 (Mar. 1997), pp. 36-58.

      “Corruption Around the World: Causes, Consequences, Scope, and Cures,” by VitoTanzi,Vol. 45 (Dec. 1998), pp. 559-4.

      “The Determinants of Banking Crises in Developing Contraries,” by AsliDemirgüç-Kunt and EnricaDetragiache,Vol. 45 (Mar. 1998), pp. 81109.

      “Devaluation Versus Import Restriction as an Instrument for Improving Foreign Trade Balance,” by Sidney S.Alexander,Vol. 1 (1950–51), pp. 37996.

      “Developments in the International Payments System,” by J. MarcusFleming,Vol. 10 (Nov. 1963), pp. 46184.

      “Domestic Financial Policies Under Fixed and Floating Exchange Rates,” by J. MarcusFleming,Vol. 9 (Nov. 1962), pp. 36980.

      “Effectiveness of Exchange Rate Policy for Trade Account Adjustment,” by AlfredSteinherr,Vol. 28 (Mar. 1981), pp. 199224.

      “Effects of a Devaluation on a Trade Balance,” by Sydney S.Alexander,Vol. 2 (Apr. 1952), pp. 26378.

      “Effects of Various Types of Reserve Creation on Fund Liquidity,” by J. MarcusFleming,Vol. 12 (July1965), pp. 16388.

      “The Exchange Rate Regime: An Analysis and a Possible Scheme,” by FredHirsch,Vol. 19 (July1972), pp. 25985.

      “Exchange Rates, Inflation, and Vicious Circles,” by John F. O.Bilton,Vol. 27 (Dec. 1980), pp. 679711.

      “Fifty Years of Exchange Policy and Research at the International Monetary Fund,” by Jacques V.Polak,Vol. 42 (Dec. 1995), pp.73461.

      “Fiscal Policy and Long-Run Growth,” by VitoTanzi and Howell H.Zee,Vol. 44, (June1997), pp. 179209.

      “Fixed and Flexible Exchange Rates: A Renewal of the Debate,” by JacquesArtus and John H.Young,Vol. 26 (Dec. 1979), pp. 65498.

      “Fluctuating Exchange Rates in Countries with Relatively Stable Economies: Some European Experiences After World War I,” by S. C.Tsiang,Vol. 7 (Oct. 1959), pp. 24473.

      “From Centrally-Planned to Market Economies: The Road from CPE to PCPE,” by Guillermo A.Calvo and Jacob A.Frenkel,Vol. 38. (June1991), pp. 26899.

      “The Fund and International Liquidity,” by J. MarcusFleming,Vol. 11 (July1964), pp. 177215.

      “Fund Members’ Adherence to the Par Value Regime: Empirical Evidence,” by Margaret G.de Vries,Vol. 13 (1966), pp. 50432.

      “Government Spending, Taxes, and Economic Growth” by PaulCashin,Vol. 42 (June1995), pp. 23769.

      “The Historical Development of the Principle of Surveillance” by HaroldJames,Vol. 42 (Dec. 1995), pp. 76291.

      “Improving the Demand for Money Function in Moderate Inflation,” by William H.White,Vol. 25 (Sept. 1978), pp. 564607.

      “Indexation of Wages and Salaries in Developed Economies,” by Anne RomanisBraun,Vol. 23 (Mar. 1976), pp. 22671.

      “An Indicator of Effective Exchange Rates,” by FredHirsch and IlseHiggins,Vol. 17 (Nov. 1970), pp. 45384.

      “Indices of Effective Exchange Rates,” by Rudolf R.Rhomberg,Vol. 23 (Mar. 1976), pp. 88112.

      “Interest Rate Differences, Forward Exchange Mechanism, Scope for Short-Term Capital Movements,” by William H.White,Vol. 10 (Nov. 1963), pp. 485503.

      “International Monetary Fund: A Selected Bibliography,” by MartinLoftus and Anne C. M.Salda,Vol. 1 (1951)–Vol. 25 (Dec. 1985), various issues.

      “Liberalization and the Behavior of Output During Transition from Plan to Market,” by ErnestoHernández-Catá,Vol. 44 (Dec. 1997), pp. 405-29.

      “The Macroeconomic Impact of Privatization,” by G.A.Mackenzie,Vol. 45 (June1998), pp. 363400.

      “The Management of International Liquidity,” by Oscar L.Altman,Vol. 13 (July1966), pp. 21647.

      “Monetary Analysis of Income Formation and Payments Problems,” by Jacques J.Polak,Vol. 6 (Nov. 1957), pp. 150.

      “The Monetary Approach to the Exchange Rate: Some Empirical Evidence,” by John F. O.Bilson,Vol. 25 (Mar. 1978), pp. 4875.

      “A Multilateral Exchange Rate Model,” by JacquesArtus and Rudolf R.Rhomberg,Vol. 20 (Nov. 1973), pp. 591611.

      “Official Intervention in the Forward Exchange Market: A Simplified Analysis,” by J. MarcusFleming and Robert A.Mundell,Vol. 11 (Mar. 1964), pp. 19.

      “Openness, Human Development, and Fiscal Policies: Effects of Economic Growth and Speed of Adjustment” by DelanoVillanueva,41 (March1994), pp. 129.

      “The Peace Dividend: Military Spending Cuts and Economic Growth,” by MalcolmKnight, NormanLoayza, and DelanoVillanueva,Vol. 43 (Mar. 1996), pp. 137.

      “The Present System of Reserve Creation in the Fund,” by HannanEzekiel,Vol. 13 (Nov. 1966), pp. 398420.

      “The Productivity Bias in Purchasing Power Parity: An Econometric Investigation,” by Lawrence H.Officer,Vol. 23 (Nov. 1976), pp. 54575.

      “Professor Triffin on International Liquidity and the Role of the Fund,” by Oscar L.Altman,Vol. 8 (May1961), pp. 15192.

      “The Purchasing-Power-Parity Theory of Exchange Rates: A Review Article,” by Lawrence H.Officer,Vol. 23 (Mar. 1976), pp. 160.

      “Restraining Yourself: The Implications of Fiscal Rules for Economic Stabilization,” by TamimBayoumi and BarryEichengreen,Vol. 42 (Mar. 1995), pp. 3248.

      “A Revised Version of the Multilateral Exchange Rate Model,” by JacquesArtus and Anne KennyMcQuirk,Vol. 28 (June1981), pp. 275309.

      “The Role of Incomes Policy in Industrial Countries Since World War II,” by Anne RomanisBraun,Vol. 22 (Mar. 1975), pp. 16.

      “The Role of the International Monetary Fund in Promoting Price Stability,” by WalterGardner,Vol. 7 (Apr. 1960), pp. 31926.

      “The SDR as a Basket of Currencies,” by Jacques J.Polak,Vol. 26 (Dec. 1979), pp. 62753.

      “The SDR: Some Problems and Possibilities,” by J. MarcusFleming,Vol. 18 (Mar. 1971), pp. 2547.

      “SDRs and the Working of the Gold Exchange Standard,” by FredHirsch,Vol. 18 (July1971), pp. 22153.

      “Separate Exchange Markets for Current and Capital Transactions,” by AnthonyLanyi,Vol. 22 (Nov. 1975), pp. 71449.

      “Some Economic Aspects of Multiple Exchange Rates,” by Edward M.Bernstein,Vol. 1 (1950-51), pp. 22437.

      “Special Drawing Rights: Renaming the Infant Asset,” by JosephGold,Vol. 23 (July1976), pp. 295311.

      “Stabilization Programs in Developing Countries: A Formal Framework,” by Mohsin S.Khan and Malcolm D.Knight,Vol. 28 (Mar. 1981), pp. 153.

      “Strategic Factors in Balance of Payments Adjustment,” by Edward M.Bernstein,Vol. 5 (Aug. 1956), pp. 20549.

      “A Survey of Literature on Controls Over International Capital Transactions.” by MichaelDooley,Vol. 43 (Dec. 1996), pp. 63987.

      “The Vicious Circle Hypothesis,” by John F. O.Bilson,Vol. 26 (Mar. 1979), pp. 137.

      “Warning: Inflation May Be Harmful to Your Growth,” by AtishGhosh and StevenPhilips,Vol. 45 (Dec. 1998), pp. 672715.

      “Why is China Growing So Fast?” by Zului F.Hu and Mohsin S.Khan,Vol. 44 (Mar. 1997), pp. 10331.

    Statistical Publications

    (All four statistical publications are available on tape.)

      Balance of Payments Statistics Yearbook, 1948to date.

      Direction of Trade Statistics, quarterly and yearbook issues, 1986to date.

      Government Finance Statistics Yearbook, 1977to date.

      International Financial Statistics, monthly and yearbook issues, 1948to date.

    World Economic and Financial Surveys

      Developments in International Exchange and Payments Systems, by a staff team, 1991.

      Developments in International Exchange and Trade Systems, by a staff team, 1989.

      International Capital Markets: Developments and Prospects, annually, 1981to date. Issues from 1981-85 were issued in theOccasional Papers series.

      Issues and Developments in International Trade Policy, by a staff team headed by Margaret Kelly and Anne Kenny McQuirk, 1992.

      Issues in International Exchange and Payments, by an IMF staff team, issued in1989, 1992, and 1995.

      Multilateral Official Debt Rescheduling: Recent Experience, by a staff team, 1987, 1988, and 1990.

      Officially Supported Export Credits: Development and Prospects, by a staff team, 1986, 1988, 1989, 1990, and 1995.

      Primary Commodity Markets, staff studies, annually from1986 through 1990.

      Private Market Financing for Developing Countries, staff study, 1991, 1992, 1993, and 1995.

      Staff Studies for the World Economic Outlook.Supporting material for the analysis and scenarios depicted inWorld Economic Outlook.

      World Economic Outlook: A Survey by the Staff of the IMF, from1980to date, biannually. Also in French, Spanish, and Arabic.

    Occasional Papers (series)

      International Capital Markets: Recent Developments and Short-Term Prospects, by a staff team headed byR. C.Williams,1980. No. 1.

      External Indebtedness of Developing Countries, by a staff team headed byBahrainNowzad and RichardWilliams,1981. No. 3.

      The Multilateral System of Payments: Keynes, Convertibility, and the International Monetary Fund’s Articles of Agreement, by JosephGold,1981. No. 6.

      International Comparisons of Government Expenditure, by Alan A.Tait and Peter S.Heller,1982. No. 10.

      Effects of Slowdown in Industrial Countries on Growth in Non-Oil Developing Countries, by MorrisGoldstein and Mohsin S.Khan,1982. No. 12.

      Currency Convertibility in the Economic Community of West African States, by John B.McLenaghan, Saleh M.Nsouli, and Klaus-WalterRiechel,1982. No. 13.

      Developments in International Trade Policy, by S. J.Anjaria, Z.Iqbal, N.Kirmani, and L. L.Perez,1982. No. 16.

      Aspects of the International Banking Safety Net, by G. G.Johnson, with Richard K.Abrams,1983. No. 17.

      Alternatives to the Central Bank in the Developing World, by CharlesCollyns,1983. No. 20.

      Interest Rate Policies in Developing Countries, a study by the Research Department, 1983. No. 22.

      Recent Multilateral Debt Restructuring with Official and Bank Creditors, by a staff team headed byE.Brau and R. C.Williams, with P. M.Keller and M.Nowak,1983. No. 25.

      The Fund, Commercial Banks, and Member Countries, by PaulMentré,1984. No. 26.

      Exchange Rate Volatility and World Trade, a study by the Research Department, 1984. No. 28.

      Issues in the Assessment of the Exchange Rates of Industrial Countries, a study by the Research Department, 1984. No. 29.

      The Exchange Rate System—Lessons of the Past and Options for the Future, a study by the Research Department, 1984. No. 30.

      Foreign Private Investment in Developing Countries, a study by the Research Department, 1985. No. 33.

      Adjustment Programs in Africa: The Recent Experience, by Justin B.Zulu and Saleh M.Nsouli,1985. No. 34.

      The West African Monetary Union: An Analytical Review, by Rattan J.Bhatia,1985. No. 35.

      Formulation of Exchange Rate Policies in Adjustment Programs, by a staff team headed byG. G.Johnson,1985. No. 36.

      Export Credit Cover Policies and Payment Difficulties, by Eduard H.Brau and ChampenPuckahtikom,1985. No. 37.

      A Case of Successful Adjustment: Korea’s Experience During 1980–84, by Bijan B.Aghevli and JorgeMárquez-Ruarte,1985. No. 39.

      Recent Developments in External Debt Restructuring, by K. BurkeDillon, C. MaxwellWatson, G. RussellKincaid, and ChampenPuckahtikom,1985. No. 40.

      Fund-Supported Adjustment Programs and Economic Growth, by Mohsin S.Khan and Malcolm D.Knight,1985. No. 41.

      Global Effects of Fund-Supported Adjustment Programs, by MorrisGoldstein,1986. No. 42.

      A Review of the Fiscal Impulse Measure, by Peter S.Heller, Richard D.Haas, and Ahsan H.Mansur,1986. No. 44.

      Switzerland’s Role as an International Financial Center, by Benedicte VibeChristensen,1986. No. 45.

      Fund-Supported Programs, Fiscal Policy, and Income Distribution, a study by the Fiscal Affairs Department, 1986. No. 46.

      Strengthening the International Monetary System: Exchange Rates, Surveillance, and Objective Indicators, by AndrewCrockett and MorrisGoldstein,1987. No. 50.

      The Role of the SDR in the International Monetary System, by the Research and Treasurer’s Departments, 1987. No. 51.

      Floating Exchange Rates in Developing Countries: Experience with Auction and Interbank Markets, by Peter J.Quirk, Benedicte VibeChristensen, Kyung-MoHuh, and ToshihikoSasaki,1987. No. 53.

      Protection and Liberalization: A Review of Analytical Issues, by MaxCorden,1987. No. 54.

      Theoretical Aspects of the Design of Fund-Supported Adjustment Programs, a study by the Research Department, 1987. No. 55.

      Privatization and Public Enterprises, by RichardHemming and Ali M.Mansoor,1988. No. 56.

      The Implications of Fund-Supported Adjustment Programs for Poverty: Experiences in Selected Countries, by Peter S.Heller, A. LansBovenberg, ThanosCatsambas, Ke-youngChu, and ParthasarathiShome,1988. No. 58.

      Policies for Developing Forward Foreign Exchange Markets, by Peter J.Quirk, GrahamHacche, ViktorSchoofs, and LotharWeniger,1988. No. 60.

      Policy Coordination in the European Monetary System, by ManuelGuitián, MaximoRusso, and GiuseppeTullio,1988. No. 61.

      Common Agricultural Policy of the European Community: Principles and Consequences, by the European Department, 1988. No. 62.

      Managing Financial Risks in Indebted Developing Countries, by Donald J.Mathieson, DavidFolkerts-Landau, TimothyLane, and IqbalZaidi,1989. No. 65.

      The European Monetary System in the Context of the Integration of European Financial Markets, by DavidFolkerts-Landau and DonaldMathieson,1989. No. 66.

      The Role of National Saving in the World Economy: Recent Trends and Prospects, by Bijan B.Aghevli, James M.Boughton, Peter J.Montiel, DelanoVillanueva, and GeoffreyWoglom,1990. No. 67.

      Debt Reduction and Economic Activity, by Michael P.Dooley, DavidFolkerts-Landau, Richard D.Haas, Steven A.Symansky, and Ralph W.Tryon,1990. No. 68.

      International Comparisons of Government Expenditure Revisited: The Developing Countries, by Peter S.Heller and JackDrummond,1990. No. 69.

      The Conduct of Monetary Policy in the Major Industrial Countries: Instruments and Operating Procedures, by Dallas S.Batten, Michael P.Blackwell, In-SuKim, Simon E.Nocera, and YuzuruOzeki,1990. No. 70.

      MULTIMOD Mark II: A Revised and Extended Model, by PaulMasson, StevenSymansky, and GuyMeredith,1990. No. 71.

      The Czech and Slovak Federal Republic: An Economy in Transition, by JimPrustand an IMF staff team, 1990. No. 72.

      German Unification: Economic Issues, byLeslieLipschitz and DonoghMcDonald,1991. No. 75.

      China: Economic Reform and Macroeconomic Management, by MarioBlejer, DavidBurton, StevenDunaway, and GyorgySzapary,1991. No. 76.

      The Determinants and Systemic Consequences of International Capital Flows, by MorrisGoldstein, Donald J.Mathieson, DavidFolkerts-Landau, TimothyLane, J. SaulLizondo, and LilianaRojas-Suarez,1991. No. 77.

      Exchange Rate Policy in Developing Countries: Some Analytical Issues, by BijanAghevli, MohsinKhan, and Peter J.Montiel,1991. No. 78.

      Domestic Public Debt of Externally Indebted Countries, by Pablo E.Guidotti and Manmohan S.Kumar,1991. No. 80.

      Currency Convertibility and the Transformation of Centrally Planned Economies, by Joshua E.Greene and PeterIsard,1991. No. 81.

      Characteristics of a Successful Exchange Rate System, by Jacob A.Frenkel, MorrisGoldstein, and Paul R.Masson,1991. No. 82.

      Value-Added Tax: Administrative and Policy issues, edited byAlan A.Tait, (ed)1991. No. 88.

      The Internationalization of Currencies: An Appraisal of the Japanese Yen, by George S.Tavlas and YuzuruOzeki,1991. No. 90.

      Economic Policies for a New South Africa, edited byDesmondLachman and KennethBercuson, (ed)1991. No. 91.

      Regional Trade Arrangements, by Augusto de laTorre and Margaret R.Kelly,1991. No. 93.

      Tax Harmonization in the European Community: Policy Issues and Analysis, by GeorgeKopits.1992. No. 94.

      The Fiscal Dimensions of Adjustment in Low-Income Countries, by KarimNashashibi, SanjeeGupta, ClaireLiuksila, HenriLorie, and WalterMahler,1992. No. 95.

      Policy Issues in the Evolving International Monetary System, by MorrisGoldstein, PeterIsard, Paul R.Masson, and Mark P.Taylor,1992. No. 96.

      Rules and Discretion in International Economic Policy, by ManuelGuitián,1992. No. 97.

      Financial Sector Reforms and Exchange Arrangements in Eastern Europe, by Guillermo A.Calvo, Manmohan S.Kumar, EduardoBorensztein, and Paul R.Masson,1993. No. 102.

      The Structure and Operation of the World Gold Market, by GaryO’Callaghan,1993. No. 105.

      Economic Adjustment in Low-Income Countries: Experience Under the Enhanced Structural Adjustment Facility, by SusanSchadler, FranekRozwadowski, SiddarthTiwari, and David O.Robinson,1993. No. 106.

      Recent Experiences with Surges in Capital Inflows, by SusanSchadler, MariaCarkovic, AdamBennett, and RobertKahn,1993. No. 108.

      Limiting Central Bank Credit to the Government: Theory and Practice, by CarloCottarelli,1993. No. 110.

      The Russian Federation in Transition: External Developments, by Benedicte VibeChristensen,1994. No. 111.

      The Behavior of Non-Oil Commodity Prices, by EduardoBorensztein, MohsinKhan, Carneb M.Reinhart, and PeterWickham,1994. No. 112.

      Exchange Rates and Economic Fundamentals: A Framework for Analysis, by Peter B.Clark, LeonardoBartolini, TamimBayoumi, and StevenSymansky,1994. No. 115.

      Improving the International Monetary System: Constraints and Possibilities, by MichaelMussa, MorrisGoldstein, Peter B.Clark, Donald J.Mathieson, and TamimBayoumi,1994. No. 116.

      Uganda: Adjustment with Growth, 1987-94, by Robert L.Sharer, Hema R.De Zoysa, and Calvin A.McDonald,1995. No. 121.

      Capital Flows in the APEC Region, by Mohsin S.Khan and Carmen M.Reinhart, (ed)eds., 1995. No. 122.

      Saving Behavior and the Asset Price “Bubble” in Japan: Analytical Studies, by UlrichBaumgartner and GuyMeredith, (ed)eds., 1995. No. 124.

      The Adoption of Indirect Instruments of Monetary Policy, by a staff team headed byWilliam E.Alexander, Tómas J. T.Baliño, and CharlesEcoch,1995. No. 126.

      Road Maps of the Transition: The Baltics, the Czech Republic, Hungary, and Russia, by BiswajitBanerjee, VincentKoen, ThomasKrueger, Mark S.Lutz, MichaelMarrese, and Tapio O.Saavalainen,1995, No. 127.

      IMF Conditionality: Experience Under Stand-by and Extended Arrangements, Part I: Key Issues and Findings, by SusanSchadler, AdamBennett, MariaCarkovic, LouisDicks-Mireaux, MauroMecagni, James H. J.Morsink, and Miguel A.Savastano,1995. No. 128.

      IMF Conditionality: Experience Under Stand-By and Extended Arrangements, Part II: Background Papers, by SusanSchadler, (ed)ed., AdamBennett, MariaCarkovic, LouisDicks-Mireaux, MauroMecagni, James H. J.Morsink, and Miguel A.Savastano, (ed)1995. No. 129.

      Capital Account Convertibility: Review of Experience and Implications for IMF Policies, by staff teams headed byPeter J.Quirk and OwenEvans,1995. No. 131.

      Financial Fragilities in Latin America: The 1980s and 1990s, by LilianaRojas-Suárez and Steven R.Weisbrod,1995. No. 132.

      Policy Experiences and Issues in the Baltics, Russia, and Other Countries of the Former Soviet Union, by Daniel A.Citrin and Ashok K.Lahiri, (ed)eds., 1995. No. 133.

      India: Economic Reform and Growth, by AjaiChopra, CharlesCollyns, RichardHemming, KarenParker, with WoosikChu and OliverFratzscher,1995. No. 134.

      Aftermath of the CFA Franc Devaluation, by Jean A. P.Clément, with JohannesMueller, StéphaneCossé, and Jean LeDem,1996. No. 138.

      Reinvigorating Growth in Developing Countries: Lessons from Adjustment Policies in Eight Economies, by DavidGoldsbrough, SharminiCoorey, LouisDicks-Mireaux, BalazsHorvath, KalpanaKochhar, MauroMecagni, ErikOfferdal, and JianpingZhou,1996. No. 139.

      Monetary and Exchange System Reforms in China: An Experiment in Gradualism, HassanaliMehran, MarcQuintyn, TomNordman, BernardLaurens,1996. No. 141.

      Adjustment for Growth: The African Experience, by MichaelHadjimichael, MichaelNowak, RobertSharer, and AmorTahari,1996. No. 143.

      Exchange Rate Movements and Their Impact on Trade and Investment in the APEC Region, by TakatoshiIto, PeterIsard, StevenSymansky, and TamimBayoumi,1996. No. 145.

      Thailand: The Road to Sustained Growth, by KalpanaKochhar, LouisDicks-Mireaux, BalazsHorvath, MauroMecagni, ErikOfferdal, and JiampingZhou,1996. No. 146.

      The Composition of Fiscal Adjustment and Growth: Lessons from Fiscal Reforms in Eight Economies, by G. A.Mackenzie, David W. H.Orsmond, and Philip R.Gerson,1997. No. 149.

      Currency Board Arrangements: Issues and Experiences, by D.Mihalke,1997. No. 151.

      Hong Kong, China: Growth, Structural Change, and Economic Stability During the Transition, by JohnDodsworth and DubravkoMihaljek,1997. No. 152.

      Credibility Without Rules, by CarloCottarelli and C.Giannini,1997. No. 154.

      The ESAF at Ten Years: Economic Adjustment and Reform in Low-Income Countries, by the staff of the IMF, 1997. No. 156.

      Central Bank Reforms in the Baltics, Russia, and the Other Countries of the Former Soviet Union, by a staff team headed byMalcomKnight,1997. No. 157.

      Transparency in Government Operations, by GeorgeKopitz and JonCraig,1997. No. 158.

      Fiscal Reforms in Low-Income Countries, by an IMF staff team headed byGeorgeAbed,1998. No. 160.

      Fiscal Policy Rules, by G.Kopits and S.Symansky,No. 162.

      MULTIMOD Mark III: The Core Dynamic and Steady State Model, by DavidLaxton, PeterIsard,et al., 1998. No. 164.

      Hedge Funds and Financial Market Dynamics, by B.Eichengreen and D.Mathieson,1998. No 166.

      Capital Account Liberalization: Theoretical and Practical Aspects, by a staff team led byBarryEichengreen and MichaelMussa, with GiovanniDell’Ariccia, EnricaDetragiache, Glan MariaMilesi-Ferretti, and AndrewTweedie,No. 172.

    Pamphlet Series

    This series covers, in depth, various aspects of the Fund, its functions, policies, and legal concepts (free). The following is an incomplete listing.

      Introduction to the Fund, by J. KeithHorsefield,1964.

      The International Monetary Fund: Its Form and Function, by J. MarcusFleming,1964.

      The International Monetary Fund and Private Business Transactions: Some Legal Effects of the Articles of Agreement, by JosephGold,1965.

      The International Monetary Fund and International Law: An Introduction, by JosephGold,1965.

      Maintenance of the Gold Value of the Fund’s Assets, byJosephGold,1971.

      The Fund and Non-Member States; Some Legal Effects, by JosephGold,1971.

      Balance of Payments: Its Meaning and Uses, by PoulHøst-Madsen,1967.

      Balance of Payments Concepts and Definitions, 1969.

      The Reform of the Fund, by JosephGold,1969.

      Special Drawing Rights: Character and Use, by JosephGold,1970.

      The Fund’s Concepts of Convertibility, by JosephGold,1971.

      Some Reflections on the Nature of Special Drawing Rights, by J. J.Polak,1971.

      Valuation and Rate of Interest of the SDR, by Jacques J.Polak,1974.

      Floating Currencies, Gold, and SDRs: Some Recent Legal Developments, by JosephGold,1976.

      Voting Majorities in the Fund: Effects of the Second Amendment to the Articles, by JosephGold,1977.

      International Capital Movements Under the Law of the International Monetary Fund, by JosephGold,1977.

      Floating Currencies, SDRs, and Gold: Further Legal Developments, by JosephGold,1977.

      Use, Conversion, and Exchange of Currency Under the Second Amendment of the Fund’s Articles, by JosephGold,1978.

      The Second Amendment of the Fund’s Articles of Agreement, by JosephGold,1978.

      SDRs, Gold, and Currencies: Third Survey of New Legal Developments, by JosephGold,1979.

      Financial Assistance by the International Monetary Fund: Law and Practice, by JosephGold,1980.

      SDR, by J. J.Polak,1979.

      Conditionality, by JosephGold,1979.

      The Rule of Law in the International Monetary Fund, by JosephGold,1980.

      SDRs, Currencies, and Gold: Fourth Survey of New Legal Developments, by JosephGold,1980.

      The Legal Character of the Fund’s Stand-By Arrangements and Why It Matters, by JosephGold,1980.

      SDRs, Currencies, and Gold: Fifth Survey of New Legal Developments, by JosephGold,1981.

      The International Monetary Fund: Its Evolution, Organization, and Activities, by the staff, 1984.

      Fund Conditionality: Evolution of Principles and Practices, by ManuelGuitián,1981.

      Order in International Finance, the Promotion of IMF Stand-By Arrangements, and the Drafting of Private Loan Agreements, by JosephGold,1982.

      SDRs, Currencies, and Gold: Sixth Survey of New Legal Developments, by JosephGold,1983.

      SDRs, Currencies, and Gold: Seventh Survey of New Legal Developments, by JosephGold,1987.

      Financial Organization and Operations of the IMF, by the Treasurer’s Department, 1991.

      The Unique Nature of the Responsibilities of the International Monetary Fund, by ManuelGuitián,1992.

      Social Dimensions of the IMF’s Policy Dialogue, by the staff of the IMF, 1995.

      Unproductive Public Expenditures: A Pragmatic Approach to Policy Analysis, by the Fiscal Affairs Department, 1995.

      Guidelines for Fiscal Adjustment, by the Fiscal Affairs Department, 1995.

      The Role of the IMF: Financing and Its Interactions with Adjustment and Surveillance, by PaulMasson and MichaelMussa,1995.

      Debt Relief for Low-Income Countries: The HIPC Initiative, by Anthony R.Boote and KamauThugge,1997.

      The IMF and the Poor, by the Fiscal Affairs Department, 1998.

    Booklets

    This new series, which was launched in 1996, is designed to make available to a readership of nonspecialists some of the economic research being carried out in the Fund. The papers are written in nontechnical language.

      Growth in East Asia: What We Can and What We Cannot Infer, by MichaelSarel,1996.

      Does the Exchange Rate Regime Matter for Inflation and Growth, by Atish R.Ghosh, Ann-MarieGulde, Jonathan D.Ostry, and HolgerWolf,1996.

      Confronting Budget Deficits, by RozlynColeman,prepared from a working paper byPaul R.Masson and MichaelMussa,1996.

      Fiscal Reforms That Work, by C. JohnMcDermott and Robert F.Wescott,1996.

      Transformation to Open Market Operations: Developing Economies and Emerging Markets, by Stephen H.Axilrod,1996.

      Why Worry About Corruption? by PaoloMauro,1997.

      Sterilizing Capital Flows, by Jang-YungLee,1997.

      Why Is China Growing So Fast? by ZuliuHu and Moshin S.Khan,1997.

      Protecting Bank Deposits, by Gillian G.Garcia,1997.

      Deindustrialization—Its Causes and Implications, by RobertRowthorn and RamanaRamaswamy,1997.

      Does Globalization Lower Wages and Export Jobs? by Matthew J.Slaughter and PhillipSwagel,1997.

      Roads to Nowhere: How Corruption in Public Investment Hurts Growth, by VitoTanzi and HamidDavoodi,1998.

      Fixed or Flexible: Getting the Exchange Right in the 1990s, by FrancescpCaramazza and JahangirAziz,1998.

      Lessons from Systemic Bank Reconstructing, by ClaudiaDziobek and CeylaPazarbasioglu,1998.

      Inflation Targeting as a Framework for Monetary Policy, by GuyDebelle, PaulMasson, MiguelSavastano, and SuniSharma,1998.

    Papers on Policy Analysis and Assessment

    Beginning in January 1999, this series was renamed Policy Discussion Papers (PDP). The series comprises staff studies in the area of policy design and research. They are aimed primarily at operational staff involved in mission work and economists elsewhere interested in policy issues. The following is a selective listing.

      Japan’s Corporate Groups and Imports, by Daniel A.Citrin,1992, PPAA/92/2

      The Operation of the Estonian Currency Board, by Adam G. G.Bennmett,1992. PPAA/92/3

      Real Exchange Rate Targeting in Developing Countries, by Peter J.Montiel and Jonathan D.Ostry,1993. PPAA/93/2

      Adjusting to Development: The IMF and the Poor, by JamesBoughton,1993. PPAA/93/4

      A Cautionary Note on the Use of Exchange Rate Indicators, by PeterWickham,1993. PPAA/93/5

      The Strategy of Reform in the Previously Centrally Planned Economies of Eastern Europe: Lessons and Challenges, by EduardoBorensztein,1993, PPAA/93/6

      The Capital Inflows Problem: Concepts and Issues, by Guillermo A.Calvo, LeonardoLeiderman, and CarmenReinhart,1993. PPAA/93/10

      Options for Monetary and Exchange Arrangements in Transition Economies, by DelanoVillanueva,1993. PPAA/93/12

      Aspects of the Design of Financial Programs with the Adoption of Indirect Monetary Controls, by BarryJohnston,1993. PPAA/93/16

      The Taxation of High Income Earners, by ParthasarathiShome,1993. PPAA/93/19

      International Capital Transactions: Should They Be Restricted? by Norman S.Fieleke,1993. PPAA/93/20

      On the Political Sustainability of Economic Reform, by Carlos M.Asilis and Gian MariaMilesi-Ferretti,1994. PPAA/94/3

      The New Protectionism in Industrial Countries: Beyond the Uruguay Round, by Douglas A.Irwin,1994. PPAA/94/5

      Asset Prices, Monetary Policy, and the Business Cycle, by Garry J.Schinasi,1994. PPAA/94/6

      Emerging Equity Market: Growth, Benefits, and Policy Concerns, by Robert A.Feldman and Mammohan S.Kumar,1994. PPAA/94/7

      Establishing Monetary Control in Financial Systems With Insolvent Institutions, by DonaldMathieson and Richard D.Haas,1994. PPAA/94/10

      Use of Central Bank Credit Auctions in Economies in Transition, by Matthew I.Saal and Lorena M.Zamalloa,1994. PPAA/94/11

      Macroeconomic Management with Informal Financial Markets, by Pierre-RichardAgénor and Nadeem U.Haque,1994. PPAA/94/12

      Currency Arrangements in the Countries of the Former Ruble Area and Conditions for Sound Monetary Policy, by Thomas A.Wolf,1994. PPAA/94/15

      Currency Board: Issues and Experiences, by Adam G. G.Bennett,1994. PPAA/94/18

      Structural Policies in Developing Countries, by EduardoBorensztein,1994. PPAA/94/19

      Russia and the IMF: The Political Economy of Macro-Stabilization, ErnestoHernández-Catá1994. PPAA/94/20

      The IMF and the Latin American Debt Crisis: Seven Common Criticisms, by James M.Boughton,1994. PPAA/94/23

      The Speed of Financial Sector Reform: Risks and Strategies, by R. BarryJohnston,1994. PPAA/94/26

      Social Safety Nets for Economic Transition: Options and Recent Experiences, by the Expenditure Policy Division Staff, 1995. PPAA/95/3

      Non-G-10 Countries and the Basle Capital Rules: How Tough a Challenge Is It to Join the Basle Club? by ClaudiaDziobek, OlivierFrécaut, and MariaNieto,1995. PPAA/95/5

      Discretion with Rules? Lessons from the Currency Board Arrangement in Lithuania, by WayneCamard,1996. PPAA/96/1

      Borrowing by Subnational Governments; Issues and Selected International Experiences, by TeresaTer-Minassian,1996. PPAA/96/4

      Social Protection in Transition Countries: Emerging Issues, by KeyoungChu and SanjeevGupta,1996. PPAA/96/5

      Fiscal Dimensions of EMU, by Paul R.Masdson,1996. PPAA/96/7

      The Definition of Reserve Money: Does It Matter for Financial Programs? by KalpanaKochhar,1996. PPAA/96/10

      Conditionality as an Instrument of Borrower Credibility, by PierreDhonte,1997. PPAA/97/2

      The Macroeconomic Impact of Privatization, by G. A.Mackenzie,1997. PPAA/97/9

      Making a Currency Board Operation, by CharlesEnoch and Anne-MarieGulde,1997. PPAA/97/10

      Bank Soundness and Currency Board Arrangements Issues and Experience, by VeerathaiSantiprabhob,1997. PPAA/97/11

      Transparency in Central Bank Operations in the Foreign Exchange Markets, by CharlesEnoch,1998. PPAA/98/2

      The Payment System and Monetary Policy, by Omotunde E. G.Jouhnson,1998. PPAA/98/4

      Sequencing Capital Account Liberalization and Financial Sector Reform, by R. BarryHohnston,1998. PPAA/98/8

      Systemic Banking Distress: The Need for aan Enhanced Monetary Survey, by OlivierFrécaut and EricSidgwick,1998. PPAA/98/9

    Working Papers, 1997

    This series is designed to make Fund staff research available to a wide audience. The series began in 1991, about 180 working papers are released each year. In many cases the papers are subject to ongoing work and revision. Many will eventually be published by the Fund as articles in one of the Fund’s serial publications. The series is available on a subscription basis.

    Staff Country Reports

    The IMF releases Staff Country Reports on about 150 member countries each year. The reports contain comprehensive background material on economic developments as part of the annual consultations that the IMF conducts with most member countries.

    General Bibliography

    General

      Bank for International Settlements. Annual Reports. Basle, Switzerland, 1931to date.

      Harrod, R. F.The Life of John Maynard Keynes, Harcourt, Brace (Princeton and London, 1951).

      Howell, Kristin.“The Role of the Bank for International Settlements in Central Bank Cooperation,”Journal of European Economic History, Vol. 22, No. 2 (Fall1993).

      Jacobsson, Erin E.A Life for Sound Money: Per Jacobsson; His Biography, Clarendon Press (Oxford, 1979).

      Keynes, John Maynard.The Collected Writings of John Maynard Keynes, Vols. 24, 25, and 26, ed. by DonaldMoggridge, (ed)Macmillan (London and New York, 1982).

      Odell, John S.U.S. International Monetary Policy: Markets, Power, and Ideas as Sources of Change, Princeton University Press (Princeton, New Jersey, 1982).

      Rees, David.Harry Dexter White: A Study in Paradox, Coward, McCann and Geoghenan (New York, 1973).

      Salda, Anne C. M.International Monetary Fund: A Selected Bibliography, International Organizations Series, Vol. 4, Transaction Publishers (New Brunswick, New Jersey, 1992).

      Skidelski, Robert.John Maynard Keynes: The Economist as Saviour, Macmillan (London, 1992).

    Background of the Bretton Woods System

      BernankeBen, and HaroldJames.“The Gold Standard, Deflation, and Financial Crisis in the Great Depression: An International Comparison,” in Financial Markets and Financial Crises, ed. by R. GlennHubbard, (ed)University of Chicago Press (Chicago, 1991).

      Bernstein, Edward M.“The Adequacy of United States Gold Reserves,”American Economic Review (Papers and Proceedings of the Seventy-Third Annual Meeting of the American Economic Association), Vol. 51 (1961), pp 439-46.

      Bloomfield, Arthur I.Monetary Policy Under the Gold Standard: 1880-1914, Federal Reserve Bank of New York (New York, 1959).

      Brown, William Adams, Jr.The International Gold Standard Reinterpreted 1914-1934, National Bureau of Economic Research (New York, 1940).

      Cassel, Gustav.The Downfall of the Gold Standard, Clarendon Press (Oxford1936).

      Clarke, Stephen V. O.The Reconstruction of the International Monetary System: The Attempts of 1922 and 1933, Princeton Studies in International FinanceNo. 33, Princeton University Press (Princeton, 1973).

      Clarke, Stephen V. O.Exchange-Rate Stabilization in the Mid—1930s: Negotiating the Tripartite Agreement, Princeton Studies in International FinanceNo. 41, Princeton University Press (Princeton, 1977).

      Clavin, Patricia.“The World Economic Conference 1933: The Failure of British Internationalism,”Journal of European Economic History, Vol. 20, No. 3 (Winter, 1991).

      Cooper, Richard N.Gold Standard: Historical Fact and Future Prospects, Brookings Papers on Economic Activity (Washington, D.C., 1982).

      De Cecco, Marcello.The Internatiional Gold Standard: Money and Empire, St, Martin’s Press (New York, 1984).

      Eichengreen, Barry J.“The Gold Standard and the Great Depression,” NBER Reporter, National Bureau of Economic Research (Spring1991).

      Eichengreen, Barry J.Golden Fetters: The Gold Standard and the Great Depression, 1919-1939, Oxford University Press (New York, 1992).

      Eichengreen, Barry J., and JefferySachs.“Exchange Rates and Economic Recovery in the 1930s,”Journal of Economic History, Vol. 45 (1985).

      Palyi, Melchior.The Twilight of Gold 1914–1936: Myths and Realities, Henry Regnery (Chicago, 1972).

      Schubert, Aurel.The Credit-Anstalt Crisis of 1931, Cambridge University Press (Cambridge, England, 1991).

    Establishing the Bretton Woods System

      Argy, Victor.The Postwar International Money Crisis: An Analysis, Allen & Unwin (London, 1981).

      Black, Stanley W.A Levite Among the Priests: Edward M. Bernstein and the Origins of the Bretton Woods System, Westview Press (Boulder, Colorado, 1991).

      Bordo, Michael D.“The Bretton Woods System: A Historical Overview,” in A Retrospective on the Bretton Woods System: Lessons for International Monetary Reform, ed. by Michael D.Bordo and BarryEichengreen, (ed)University of Chicago Press (Chicago, 1993).

      Bordo, Michael D. and BarryEichengreen, (ed)eds. A Retrospective on the Bretton Woods System: Lesson for International Monetary Reform, University of Chicago Press (Chicago, 1993).

      Bordo, Michael D., DominiqueSimard, and EugeneWhite,“France and the Bretton Woods International Monetary System, 1960 to 1968,”NBER Working Paper No. 4642, National Bureau of Economic Research (Cambridge, Massachusetts, 1994).

      Dormael, Armand van.Bretton Woods: Birth of a Monetary Order, Holmes and Meier (New York, 1978).

      Ebke, Werner F., (ed)et al., eds. Festschrift in Honor of Sir Joseph Gold, Verlag Recht und Wirtschaft (Heidelberg, Germany, 1990).

      Feis, Herbert.“Restoring Trade After the War,” Foreign Affairs (New York), Vol. 20 (1941-42).

      Gardner, Richard N.Sterling-Dollar Diplomacy, Columbia University Press (New York, 1969).

      Mikesell, Raymond F.“Negotiating at Bretton Woods, 1944,” in Negotiating with the Russians, ed, byRaymondDennett and Joseph E.Johnson, (ed)World Peace Foundation (Boston, 1951), pp. 101-16.

      Mikesell, Raymond F.The Bretton Woods Debates: A Memoir, Essays in International Finance No. 192, Princeton University Press (Princeton, New Jersey, 1994).

      Mossé, Robert.Le système monétaire de Bretton Woods et les grands problèmes de l’après guerre, Recueil Sirey (Paris, 1948).

      Officer, Lawrence H.“Are International Monetary Fund Quotas Unfavorable to Less-Developed Countries? A Normative Historical Analysis,” Journal of international Money and Finance, Vol. 10, No. 2 (June1991).

      Robertson, Dennis H.“The Post-War Monetary Plans,”The Economic Journal (London), Vol. 53 (1943), pp 352-60.

      Robertson, Dennis H.Utility and All That, Allen and Unwin (London, 1952).

      Robinson, Joan.“The International Currency Plans,”The Economic Journal (London), Vol. 53 (1943), pp. 161-75.

      Southard, Frank.The Evolution of the International Monetary Fund, Essays in International Finance, No. 135, Princeton University Press (Princeton, New Jersey, 1979).

      United Nations Monetary and Financial Conference, Bretton Woods, New Hampshire, 1944. Proceedings and Documents, 2 vols., U.S. Government Printing Office (Washington, D.C., 1944).

      [U.S.] Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System. Bretton Woods Agreements: A Bibliography, April 1943-December 1945 (Washington, D.C., 1946).

      [U.S.] Department of State. Proceedings and Documents of United Nations Monetary and Financial Conference, Bretton Woods, New Hampshire, July 1-22, 1944 (Washington, D.C., 1948).

      [U.S.] Treasury Department. Questions and Answers on the International Monetary Fund (Washington, D.C., June1944).

      Van Dormael, Armand.Bretton Woods: Birth of a Monetary System, Holmes and Meier (New York, 1978).

      Viner, Jacob.“Two Plans for International Monetary Stabilization,”Yale Review (New Haven), Vol. 33 (1943-44).

      White, Harry D.“Post-War Currency Stabilization,”The American Economic Review, Vol. 33 (1943), Supplement.

      Williams, John. H. Postwar Monetary Plans and Other Essays, Wilkins (New York, 1947).

      Young, John Parke.“Developing Plans for an International Monetary Fund and a World Bank,”Department of State Bulletin (Washington, D.C.), Vol. 23 (1950).

    Macroeconomic and Structural Adjustment and Fund Conditionality

      Acheson, A. L. K., J. F.Chant, and M. F. J.Prachowny, (ed)eds. Bretton Woods Revisited: Evaluations of the International Monetary Fund and the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development, University of Toronto Press (Toronto, 1972).

      Aliber, Robert Z.The International Money Game, Basic Books (New York, 1987).

      Bangura, Yusuf. (ed)“IMF/World Bank Conditionality and Nigeria’s Structural Adjustment Programme,” in The IMF and the World Bank in Africa: Conditionality, Impact and Alternatives, ed. by Kjell J.Havnevik,Scandinavian Institute of African Studies (Uppsala, 1987).

      Bangura, Yusuf. (ed)“Crisis and Adjustment: The Experience of Nigerian Workers,” in The IMF, the World Bank and African Debt, Vol. 2, The Social and Political Impact, ed. by BadeOnimode, (ed)Institute for African Alternatives and Zed Books (London, 1989).

      Bazdresch, Carlos, and SantiagoLevy.“Populism and Economic Policy in Mexico 1970-1982,” in Macroecomics of Populism in Latin America, ed. by RudigerDornbusch and SebastianEdwards, (ed)University of Chicago Press (Chicago, 1991).

      Bergsten, C. Fred.International Adjustment and Financing: The Lessons from 1985–1991, Institute for International Economics (Washington, D.C., 1991).

      Bourguignon, François, and CristianMorrison.Adjustment and Equity in Developing Countries: A New Approach, Organization of Economic Cooperation and Development (Paris, 1992).

      Bruno, Michael.“Stabilization and the Macroeconomics of Transition: How Different Is Eastern Europe?”Economics of Transition, Vol. 1 (1993).

      Callaghy, Thomas M.“Lost Between State and Market: The Politics of Economic Adjustment in Ghana, Zambia, and Nigeria,” in Economic Crisis and Policy Choice: The Politics of Adjustment in the Third World, ed. by JoanNelson, (ed)Princeton University Press (Princeton, New Jersey, 1990).

      Campbell, Horace.Tanzania and the IMF: The Dynamics of Liberalization, Westview (Boulder, Colorado, 1992).

      Campbell, K., and JohnLoxley, (ed)eds. Structural Adjustment in Africa, St. Martin’s Press (New York, 1989).

      Campos, Roberto de Oliveiro.“Inflation and Balanced Growth,” in Economic Development in Latin America: Proceedings of a Conference Held by the International Economic Association, ed. by Howard S.Ellis, (ed)St. Martin’s Press (New York, 1961).

      Cline, William R., and SidneyWeintraub, (ed)eds. Economic Stabilization in Developing Countries, Brookings Institution (Washington, 1981).

      Cornia, Andrea, RichardJolly, and FrancisStewart, (ed)eds. Adjustment with a Human Face, 2 vols., Oxford University Press (Oxford, 1987).

      Cotés Conde, Roberto.“Growth and Stagnation in Argentina,” in Towards a Development Strategy for Latin America: Pathways from Hirschman’s Thought, ed. by SimónTeitel, (ed)Inter-American Bank (Washington, 1992).

      David, Wilfrid L.The IMF Policy Paradigm: The Macroeconomics of Stabilization, Structural Adjustment and Economic Development, Praeger (New York, 1985).

      De Vries, Rimmer.“The Limited Role of the IMF,”World Financial Markets, Morgan Guarantee Trust Company, Apr. 1982.

      Dell, Sidney.“The Question of Cross-Conditionality,”World Development, Vol. 16, No. 5 (May1988).

      Dell, Sidney.On Being Grandmotherly: The Evolution of IMF Conditionality, Essays in International Finance, No. 144, Princeton University Press (Princeton, New Jersey, 1981).

      Dell, Sidney.“Balance of Payments Adjustment in the 1980s,”World Development, Vol. 14, No. 8, (Aug. 1986), pp 873-1105.

      Dell, Sidney, and RogerLawrence.The Balance of Payments Adjustment Process in Developing Countries, Pergamon Press (New York, 1980).

      Dornbusch, Rudiger.Structural Adjustment in Latin America, Woodrow Wilson Center (Washington, 1991).

      Edwards, Sebastian.“The International Monetary Fund and the Developing Countries: A Critical Evaluation,”Carnegie-Rochester Conference Series on Public Policy, Vol. 31 (Fall1989), pp. 7-68.

      Feinberg, Richard E.“The Changing Relationship Between the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund,”International Organization, Vol. 42, No. 3 (Summer1988), pp. 545-60.

      Finch, David.The Record and the Prospect, Essays in International Finance, No. 175, Princeton University Press (Princeton, New Jersey, 1989).

      Finch, David.“Let the IMF be the IMF,”The International Economy, Jan./Feb, 1988.

      Frenkel, Jeffrey A., and Harry G.Johnson, (ed)eds. The Monetary Approach to the Balance of Payments, Allen and Unwin (London, 1976).

      Goode, Richard B.Economic Assistance to Developing Countries Through the IMF, Brookings Institution (Washington, D.C., 1985).

      Gwin, Catherine.“Financing India’s Adjustment: The Role of the Fund,” in IMF Conditionality, ed. by JohnWilliamson, (ed)Institute for International Economics (Washington, D.C., 1983).

      Haggard, Stephan, Richard N.Cooper, and Chung-in-Moon.“Policy Reform in Korea,” in Political and Economic Interactions in Economic Policy Reform: Evidence from Eight Countries, ed. by Robert H.Bates and Anne O.Krueger, BasilBlackwell (ed) (Oxford, 1993).

      Hawkins, Jeffrey J.“Understanding the Failure of IMF Reform: The Zambian Case,”World Development, Vol. 19, No. 7 (July1991).

      Herbst, Jeffrey.“The Structural Adjustment of Politics in Africa,”World Development, Vol. 18, No. 7 (July1990).

      Johnson, Harry G.“Economic Policies for Less Developed Countries,” in International Monetary Reform, Brookings Institution (Washington, D.C., 1967), pp. 212-36.

      Kenen, Peter B.Financing, Adjustment and the International Monetary Fund, Brookings Institution, (Washington, D.C., 1986).

      Killick, Tony.“Kenya, the IMF, and the Unsuccessful Quest for Stabilization.” In IMF, Conditionality, ed. by JohnWiliamson, (ed)Institute for International Economics (Washington, D.C., 1983).

      Killick, Tony. (ed)ed. The Quest for Economic Stabilization: The IMF and the Third World, St. Martin’s Press (Washington, D.C., 1984).

      Krueger, Anne O.Liberalization Attempts and Consequences, Ballinger for National Bureau of Economic Research (New York, 1978).

      Krueger, Anne O.Political Economy of Policy Reform in Developing Countries, MIT Press (Cambridge, Massachusetts, 1993).

      Lancaster, Carol.African Economic Reform: The External Dimension, Institute for International Economics (Washington, D.C., 1991).

      Leith, J. Clark, and Michael F.Lofchie.“The Political Economy of Structural Adjustment in Ghana,” in Political and Economic Interactions in Economic Policy Reform: Evidence from Eight Countries, ed. by Robert H.Bates and Anne O.Krueger, BasilBlackwell (ed) (Oxford, 1993).

      Levitt, Kari,“Stabilisation and Structural Adjustment: Rhetoric and Reality,”Caribbean Affairs, Vol. 3, No. 1 (Jan./Mar. 1990).

      Loxley, John.“Structural Adjustment in Africa: Reflections on Ghana and Zambia,”Review of African Political Economy, No. 47 (Spring1990).

      Manzetti, Luigi.The International Monetary Fund and Economic Stabilization: The Argentine Case, Praeger (New York, 1991).

      Matin, K. M.“Structural Adjustment Under the Extended Fund Facility: The Case of Bangladesh,” World Development, Vol. 16, No. 6 (June1990).

      Mikesell, Raymand F.“Appraising IMF Conditionality: “Too Loose, Too Tight, or Just Right,” in IMF Conditionality, ed. by JohnWilliamson, (ed)Institute for International Economics (Washington, D.C., 1983).

      Moore, Will H., and James R.Scarritt.“IMF Conditionality and Policy Characteristics in Black Africa: An Exploratory Analysis,”Africa Today, Vol, 37 (4th quarter, 1990).

      Myers, Robert J., (ed)ed. “The Political Morality of the International Monetary Fund,”Ethics and Foreign Policy, Vol. 3, Transaction Books (New Brunswick, New Jersey, 1987).

      Ncube, P.D., M.Sakala, and M.Ndulo.“The International Monetary Fund and the Zambian Economy: A Case,” in The IMF and the World Bank in Africa: Conditionality, Impact and Alternatives, ed. by Kjell J.Havnevik, (ed)Scandinavian Institute of African Studies (Uppsala, 1987).

      Nelson, Joan M.,and contributors. Fragile Conditions: The Politics of Economic Adjustment, Transaction Books (New Brunswick, New Jersey, 1989).

      Nelson, Joan M., (ed)ed. Economic Crisis and Policy Choice: The Politics of Adjustment in Developing Countries, Princeton University Press (Princeton, New Jersey, 1990).

      Obstfeld, Maurice, and KennethRogoffs.Foundations of International Macroecomics, MIT Press (Cambridge, Massachusetts, 1996).

      Pauly, Lewis W.Who Elected the Bunkers? Surveillance and Control in the World Economy, Cornell University Press (Ithaca, New York, 1997).

      Plumptre, A. F. W.Three Decades of Decision: Canada and the World Monetary System, 1944-75, McClelland and Stewart (Toronto, 1977).

      Pöhl, Karl Otto.“You Can’t Robotize Policymaking,”The International Economy, Oct./Nov. 1987.

      Polak, Jacques J.The Changing Nature of IMF Conditionality, Essays in International Finance, No. 184, Princeton University Press (Princeton, New Jersey, 1991).

      Sachs, Jeffrey D.“The Current Account and Macroeconomic Adjustment in the 1970s,”Brookings Papers on Economic Activity, Brookings Institution (Washington, D.C., 1981).

      Seddon, David.“The Politics of Adjustment: Egypt and the IMF, 1987-1990,”Review of African Political Economy, No. 47 (Spring, 1990).

      Sidell, Scott R.The IMF and Third-World Political Instability: Is There a Connection?St. Martin’s Press (New York, 1988).

      Spraos, John.IMF Conditionality: Ineffectual, Inefficient, Mistargeted, Essays in International Finance, No. 166, Princeton University Press (Princeton, New Jersey, 1986).

      Taylor, Lance.Varieties of Stabilization Experience: Towards Sensible Macroeconomics in the Third World, prepared for the World Institute for Development Economic Research of the United Nations University, Clarendon Press (Oxford, 1988).

      Thirwell, A. P.Growth and Development, with Special Reference to Developing Economies, Macmillan (Basingstoke, Hampshire, England, 1989).

      Williamson, John.“On Judging the Success of IMF Policy Advice,” in IMF Conditionality, ed. by Williamson, (ed)Institute for International Economics (Washington, D.C., 1984).

      Williamson, John. (ed)ed. IMF Conditionality, Institute for International Economics (Washington, D.C., 1983).

      Wohlmuth, Karl, (ed)ed. Structural Adjustment in the World Economy and East-West-South Economic Cooperation, Institute for World Economics and International Management, University of Bremen (Bremen, Germany, 1989).

      Wulf, Jürgen.“Zambia Under the IMF Regime,”African Affairs, Vol. 87 (Oct. 1988).

    Exchange Rate Systems and Markets

      Approaches to Greater Flexibility of Exchange Rates: The Bürgenstock Papers, arranged byC. FredBergsten, George N.Halm, FritzMachlup, and Robert V.Roosa, and (ed)edited byGeorge N.Halm, (ed)Princeton University Press (Princeton, New Jersey, 1970).

      Artus, Jacques R., and Andrew D.Crockett.Floating Exchange Rates and the Need for Surveillance, Essays in International Finance, No. 127, Princeton University Press (Princeton, New Jersey, 1978).

      Balassa, Bela.‘The Purchasing-Power Parity Doctrine: A Reappraisal,”Journal of Political Economy, Vol. 72 (Dec. 1964).

      Balassa, Bela, and JohnWilliamson,Adjusting to Success: Balance of Payments Policy in the East Asian NICs, Institute for International Economics (Washington, D.C., 1987).

      Branson, William H., Jacob A.Frenkel, and MorrisGoldstein, (ed)eds. International Policy Coordination and Exchange Rate Fluctuations, University of Chicago Press (Chicago, 1990).

      Bürgenstock Papers. See Approaches to Greater Flexibility of Exchange Rates.

      Catte, Pietro Giampaulo Gali, and SalvatoreRebecchini.“Concerted Interventions and the Dollar: An Analysis of Daily Data,” in The International Monetary System, ed, byPeterKenen, (ed)Cambridge University Press (Cambridge, 1994).

      Cooper, Richard N.,et al. The International Monetary System Under Flexible Exchange Rates, Global, Regional, and National: Essays in Honor of Robert Triffin, Ballinger (Cambridge, Massachusetts, 1982).

      Council on [U.S.] Foreign Relations. Smithsonian Agreement and Its Aftermath: Several Views, The Council (New York, 1972).

      De Grauwe, Paul, HansDewachter, and MarcEmbrechts.Exchange Rate Theory: Chaotic Models of Foreign Exchange Markets, Basil Blackwell (Oxford, 1993).

      Destler, I. M., and C. RandallHenningDollar Politics: Exchange Rate Policymaking in the United States, Institute for International Economics (Washington, D.C., 1989).

      Dominguez, Kathryn, and Jeffrey A.Frankel,Does Foreign Exchange Intervention Work?Institute for International Economics (Washington, D.C., 1993).

      Edwards, Sebastian.Real Exchange Rates, Devaluation and Adjustment: Exchange Rate Policy in Developing Countries, MIT Press (Cambridge, Massachusetts, 1989).

      Funabashi, Yoichi.Managing the Dollar: From the Plaza to the Louvre, 2nd ed. Institute for International Economics (Washington, D.C., 1989).

      Kenen, Peter B.EMU After Maastricht, Group of Thirty (Washington, D.C., 1992). Managing Exchange Rates, Routledge (London, 1988).

      Kenen, Peter B.“The Coordination of Macroeconomic Policies.” in International Policy Coordination and Exchange Rate Fluctuations, ed. by WilliamBranson, Jacob A.Frenkel, and MorrisGoldstein, (ed)University of Chicago Press (Chicago, 1990).

      League of Nations. International Currency Experience: Lessons of the Inter-War Period. League of Nations (Geneva, 1944).

      League of Nations. Report on Exchange Control, League of Nations (Geneva, 1938).

      Mikesell, Raymond F.Foreign Exchange in the Post-War World, 20th Century (New York, 1954).

      Pauls, B. Dianne.“U.S. Exchange Rate Policy: Bretton Woods to Present,”Federal Reserve Bulletin, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System, Vol. 76, No. 11 (November1990).

      Ungerer, Horst.A Concise History of European Monetary Integration: From EPU to EMU, Quorum Books (Westport, Connecticut, 1997).

      Williamson, John.The Crawling Peg, Essays in Internatiional Finance, No. 50, Princeton University Press (Princeton, New Jersey, 1965).

      Williamson, John.Currency Convertibility in Eastern Europe, Institute for International Economics (Washington, D.C., 1991).

      Williamson, John.. The Exchange Rate System, Institute for International Economics (Washington, D.C., 1983; 2nd ed. 1985).

      Williamson, John, and Marcus H.Miller.Targets and Iindicators: A Blueprint for International Coordination of Economic Policy, Institute for International Economics (Washington, D.C., 1987).

    International Currencies, Liquidity, and the SDR

      Balogh, Thomas.The Dollar Crisis: Causes and Cure, A Report to the Fabian Society, Basil Blackwell (Oxford, 1949).

      Bell, Geoffrey.The Euro-Dollar Market and the International Financial System, Wiley (New York, 1973).

      Bergsten, C. Fred.The Dilemmas of the Dollar: The Economics and Politics of United States International Monetary Policy, New York University Press (New York, 1975).

      Bernstein, Edward M.“The Dollar Is the Problem of the International Monetary System,”Quarterly Review and Investment Survey, Model, Roland & Co. (New York, Second Quarter, 1971).

      Bernstein, Edward M.“Further Evolution of the International Monetary System,”Moorgate and Wall Street (London, Summer1965).

      Bernstein, Edward M.“A Practical Program for International Monetary Reserves,”Quarterly Review and Investment Survey, Model, Roland & Co. (New York, Fourth Quarter, 1963).

      Bernstein, Edward M.“Statement: The Problem of International Monetary Reserves,” in International Payments Imbalances and Need for Strengthening International Financial Arrangements, U.S. Congress, Joint Economic Committee, Hearings Before the Subcommittee on International Exchange and Payments, 87th Cong., 1st sess., May 16-June 21, 1961 (Washington, 1961).

      Bernstein, Edward M.“The U.S. Balance of Payments and International Liquidity” (June 18, 1965), “Changes in the International Monetary System” (Oct. 27, 1964), “Two Reports on International Liquidity” (Aug. 19, 1964), and “The Underdeveloped Countries and Monetary Reserves” (Mar. 24, 1965), in Guidelines for International Monetary Reform, U.S. Congress, Joint Economic Committee, Hearings Before the Subcommittee on International Exchange and Payments, 89th Cong., 1st sess., Part 2, Supplement (Washington, D.C., 1965).

      Bolton, Sir George.“Background and Emergence of the Eurodollar Market,” in The Eurodollar, ed. by Herbert V, Prochnow, RandMcNally (ed) (Chicago, 1970).

      Cairncross, Alec, and BarryEichengreen.Sterling in Decline: The Devaluations of 1931, 1949, and 1976, Basil Blackwell (Oxford, 1983).

      Chrystal, K. Alec.International Money and the Future of the SDR, Essays in International Finance, No. 128, Princeton University Press (Princeton, New Jersey, 1978).

      Coats, Warren L.“Enhancing the Attractiveness of the SDR,”World Development, Vol. 18, No. 7 (July1990).

      Despres, Emile, CharlesKindleberger, and Walter S.Salant.“The Dollar and World Liquidity: A Minority View,”Economist, Feb. 11, 1966.

      Feaveryear, Sir Albert. (ed)The Pound Sterling: A History of English Money, 2nded. Oxford University Press (Oxford, 1963).

      Goodhart, Charles A. E.“Monetary Policy in the United Kingdom,” in Monetary Policy in Twelve Industrial Countries, ed. KarelHolbik, (ed)Federal Reserve Bank of Boston (Boston1973).

      Haberler, Gottfried.“How Important Is Control over International Reserves?” (1977) in Selected Essays of Gottfried Haberler, ed. by Anthony Y. C.Koo, (ed)MIT Press (Cambridge, Massachusetts, 1985).

      Harrod, R. F.Reforming the World’s Money, Macmillan (London, 1965).

      Hirsch, Fred.The Pound Sterling: A Polemic, Victor Gallancz (London, 1965).

      Hoffmeyer, Erik.Dollar Shortage and the Structure of U.S. Foreign Trade, Ejnar Munksguard (Copenhagen, 1958).

      Kindelberger, Charles P.The Dollar Shortage, MIT Press (Cambridge, Massachusetts, 1950).

      Kindelberger, Charles P.“The Price of Gold and the N-1 Problem,” in Kindleberger, International Money: A Collection of Essays, Allen and Unwin (London, 1981).

      Kindelberger, Charles P. (ed)“International Monetary Stabilization,” in Postwar Economic Problems, ed. by S. E. Harris, McGraw-Hill (New York, 1943).

      Park, Y. S.The Link Between Special Drawing Rights and Development Finance, Essays in International Finance, No. 100, Princeton University Press (Princeton, New Jersey, 1973).

      Patel, I. G.The Link Between the Creation of International Liquidity and the Provision of Development Finance, United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (Geneva, 1967).

      Polk, Judd.Sterling: Its Meaning in World Finance, Harper (New York, 1956).

      Strange, Susan.Sterling and British Policy: A Political Study of an International Currency in Decline, Oxford University Press (Oxford, 1971).

      Swoboda, Alexander K.The Euro-Dollar Market: An Interpretation, Essays in International Finance, No. 64, Princeton University Press (Princeton, New Jersey, 1968).

      Tavlas, George S.On the International Use of Currencies: The Case of the Deutschemark, Essays in International Finance No. 181, Princeton University Press (Princeton, New Jersey, 1991).

      Triffin, Robert.Gold and the Dollar Crisis: The Future of Convertibility, Yale University Press (New Haven, Connecticut, 1960).

      Triffin, Robert.Gold and the Dollar Crisis: Yesterday and Tomorrow, Essays in International Finance, No. 132, Princeton University Press (Princeton, New Jersey, 1961).

      Triffin, Robert.“The Return to Convertibility: 1926-1931 and 1958- ? or, Convertibility and the Morning After,”Quarterly Review, Banca Nazionale del Lavoro (Rome), Mar. 1959.

      Triffin, Robert.“Tomorrow’s Convertibility: Aims and Means of International Monetary Policy,”Quarterly Review, Banca Nazionale del Lavoro (Rome), June1959.

      Triffin, Robert.The World Money Maze: National Currencies in International Payments, Yale University Press (New Haven, Connecticut, and London, 1966).

      Walters, Alan.Sterling in Danger: The Economic Consequences of Pegged Exchange Rates, Fontana (London, 1990).

      Williams, David.‘The Evolution of the Sterling System,” in Essays in Money and Banking in Honour of R.S. Sayers, ed. by C. R.Whittlesay and J. S. G.Wilson, (ed)Clarendon Press (Oxford, 1968).

      Williamson, John.A New SDR Allocation, Institute for International Economics (Washington, D.C., 1984).

    International Trade and Payments

      Bacha, Edmar Lisboa, and Carlos F.Díaz-Alejandro,‘Tropical Reflections on the History and Theory of International Financial Markets,” in For Good or Evil: Economic Theory and North-South Negotiations, ed. Gerald K.Helleiner, (ed)University Press of Toronto, (Toronto, 1982).

      Bergsten, C. Fred.America in the World Economy: A Strategy for the 1990s. Institute for International Economics (Washington, D.C., 1988).

      Bergsten, C. Fred.“Economic Imbalances and World Politics,”Foreign Affairs, Vol. 65, No. 4 (Spring1987)

      Bhagwati, Jagdish N.“Export Market Disruption, Compensation and GATT Reform,” in The New International Economic Order: The North-South Debate, ed. by Bhagwati, (ed)MIT Press (Cambridge, Massachusetts, 1977).

      Bhagwati, Jagdish N.Anatomy and Consequence of Exchange Control Regimes, Ballinger for National Bureau for Economic Research (New York, 1978).

      Bruno, Michael.“Inflation and Growth in Recent History and Policy: Applications of an Integrated Approach,” in Understanding Interdependence: The Macroeconomics of the Open Economy, ed. by PeterKenen, (ed)Princeton University Press (Princeton, 1995).

      Bryant, Ralph C.,International Financial Intermediation, Brookings Institution (Washington, D.C., 1987).

      Bryant, Ralph C. (ed)et al., eds. Macroeconomic Policies in an Interdepedent World, Brookings Institution (Washington, D.C., 1989).

      Coombs, Charles A.The Arena of International Finance, Wiley (New York, 1976).

      Cooper, Richard N.et al. Can Nations Agree? Issues in International Economic Cooperation, Brookings Institution (Washington, D.C, 1989).

      Crockett, Andrew.International Money: Issues and Analysis, Nelson (ed) (Sunbury-on-Thames, Surrey, England, 1977).

      Crockett, Andrew.“Strengthening International Economic Cooperation: The Role of Indicators in Multilateral Surveillance,” in the The Quest for National and Global Economic Stabillity, ed. by WietzeEizenga, E. FransLimburg, and Jacques J.Polak, (ed)Kluwer (Dordrecht, 1988).

      Day, C. C. L.“The World’s Payments System,” in International Payments Imbalances and Need for Strengthening International Financial Arrangements, U.S. Congress, Joint Economic Committee, Hearings Before the Subcommittee on International Exchange and Payments, 87th Cong., 1st sess., May 16-June 21, 1961 (Washington, D.C., 1961).

      Diaz-Alejandro, Carlos.“Some Economic Lessons of the Early 1980s,” in Power, Passion, and Purpose: Prospects for North South Negotiations, ed. by Jagdish N.Bhagwati and JohnRuggie, (ed)MIT Press (Cambridge, Massachusetts, 1984).

      Dobson, Wendy.Economic Policy Coordination: Requiem or Prologue?Institute for International Economics (Washington, D.C., 1991).

      Dornbusch, Rudiger.“Discussion,” in Federal Reserve Bank of Boston, Key Issues in International Banking, Federal Reserve Bank of Boston (Boston1977).

      Ellis, Howard S.Bilateralism and the Future of International Trade, Essays in International Finance, No. 5, Princeton University Press (Princeton, New Jersey, 1945).

      Feldstein, Martin, (ed)ed. International Economic Cooperation, Chicago University Press (Chicago, 1988).

      Fellner, William,et al. Maintaining and Restoring Balance in International Payments, Princeton University Press (Princeton, New Jersey, 1966).

      Fleming, J. Marcus.Essays in International Economics, Allen and Unwin (London, 1971).

      Frankel, Jeffrey A., and Kathrine C.Rockett.“International Macroeconomic Policy Coordination When Policymakers Do Not Agree on the True Model,”American Economic Review, Vol. 78 (June1988).

      Ghai, Dharam, (ed)ed. The IMF and the South: The Social Impact of Crisis and Adjustment, Zed Books (London, 1991).

      Gilbert, Milton.Quest for World Monetary Order: The Gold-Dollar System and Its Aftermath, Wiley (New York, 1980).

      Gwin, Catherine, and Richard E.Feinberg, (ed)eds. Pulling Together: The International Monetary Fund in a Multipolar World, Transaction Books (New Brunswick, New Jersey, 1989).

      Hewitt, Adrian P.“Stabex and Commodity Export Compensation Schemes: Prospects for Globalization,”World Development, Vol. 15, No. 5 (May1987).

      Hoffmeyer, Erik.The International Monetary System: As Essay in Interpretation, North Holland (Amsterdam, 1992).

      Jacobson, Harold Karan, and MichelOksenberg.China’s Participation in the IMF, the World Bank and GATT: Toward a Global Economic Order, University of Michigan Press (Ann Arbor, Michigan, 1990).

      Johnson, Harry G.Money, Balance of Payments Theory, and the international Monetary Problem, Essays in International Finance, No. 124, Princeton University Press (Princeton, New Jersey, 1977).

      Karns, Margaret P., and Karen A.Mingst, (ed)eds. The United States and Multilateral Institutions: Patterns of Changing Instrumentality and Influence, Unwin Hyman (Boston, Massachusetts, 1990).

      Kenen, Peter B.“Capital Controls, the EMS and EMU,”Economic Journal, Vol. 105 (Jan., 1995).

      Kindelberger, Charles P.International Money: A Collection of Essays, Allen & Unwin (London and Boston, Massachusetts, 1981).

      Lim, David.Export Instability and Compensatory Financing, Routledge (New York, 1991).

      Meade, J. E.“International Economics,” in the Collected Papers of James Meade, Vol. IV, ed. by SusanHowson, (ed)Allen & Unwin (London, 1988).

      Meier, Gerald M.Problems of a World Monetary Order, Oxford University Press (New York, 1982).

      Mossé, Robert.Les Problèmes monétaires internationaux, Payot (Paris, 1967).

      Mundell, Robert A., and Alexander K.Swoboda, (ed)eds., Monetary Problems of the International Economy, University of Chicago Press (Chicago, 1969).

      Mundell, Robert.“A Theory of Optimal Currency Areas,”American Economic Review, Vol. 51 (Sep. 1961).

      Patterson, Gardner.Discrimination in International Trade: The Policy Issues, 1945-1965, Princeton University Press (Princeton, New Jersey, 1966).

      Penrose, Edith.“The Development of Crisis,” in The Oil Crisis, ed. by RaymondVernon, W. W.Norton (ed) (New York, 1976).

      Polak, Jacques J.Financial Policies and Development, Development Centre of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (Paris, 1989).

      Polk, Judd, and GardnerPatterson.“The Emerging Pattern of Bilateralism,”Quarterly Journal of Economics, Vol. 62 (1947-48).

      Fried, Edward R., and Philip H.Trezise.The Third World Debt: The Next Phase, Brookings Institution (Washington, D.C., 1989).

      Scammell, William McConnell.The Stability of the International Monetary System, Macmillan (Basingstoke, Hampshire, England, 1987).

      Shonfield, Andrew, (ed)ed. International Economic Relations of the Western World, 1959–1971, 2 vols., Oxford University Press for the Royal Institute of International Affairs (London and New York, 1976).

      Soloman, Robert.The International Monetary System, 1945-1981, Harper & Row (New York. 1982).

      U.S. Commission on International Trade and Investment Policy, United States International Economic Policy in an Interdependent World: Report to the President (Washington, D.C., 1971).

      U.S. Congress, Joint Economic Committee. “Action Now to Strengthen the U.S. Dollar,”Report of the Subcommittee on International Exchange and Payments, 92d Cong., 1st sess., (Washington, D.C., 1971).

      Van Meerhaeghe, M. A. G.International Economic Institutions, Longman (London, 1971).

      Volker, Paul A., and ToyooGyohten.Changing Fortunes: The World’s Money and the Decline of American Supremacy, Times Books (New York, 1992).

      Williamson, John.The Economic Opening of Eastern Europe, Institute for International Economics (Washington, D.C., 1991).

      [Radcliffe] Committee on the Working of the Monetary System, Report, Cmnd. 827, HMSO (London, 1959).

    International Debt Problems

      Aspe Armello, Pedro.“The Renegotiation of Mexico’s External Debt,” Institute of Development Studies, IDS Bulletin, Vol. 21, No. 2 (1990).

      Aspe Armello, Pedro.Economic Transformation: The Mexican Way, MIT Press (Cambridge, Massachusetts, 1993).

      Aubon, Roger.The Bank for International Settlements, 1930-1955, Essays in International Finance No. 22, Princeton University Press (Princeton, New Jersey, 1955).

      Avery, William P.“Origins of Debt Accumulation Among LDCs in the World Political Economy,”Journal of Developing Areas, Vol. 24 (July1990).

      Bird, Graham, (ed)ed. Third World Debt: The Search for a Solution, E. Elgar (Aldershot, Hampshire, England, 1989).

      Grown, Richard P. C.Public Debt and Private Wealth: Debt, Capital Flight and the IMF in Sudan, Macmillan (London, 1992).

      Clark, John, and CarolineAllison.Zambia: Debt & Poverty, Oxfam (Oxford, 1989).

      Claudon, Michael P., (ed)ed. World Debt Crisis: International Lending on Trial, Ballinger (Cambridge, Massachusetts, 1986).

      Cline, William R.“International Debt: Analysis, Experience and Prospects,”Journal of Development Planning, No. 16 (1985).

      Cline, William R.“The Baker Plan and Brady Reformulation: An Evaluation,” in Dealing with the Debt Crisis, ed. by IshratHusain and IshacDiwan, (ed)World Bank (Washington, D.C., 1989).

      Cohen, Benjamin J.Developing-Country Debt: A Middle Way, Essays in International Finance, No. 173, Princeton University Press (Princeton, New Jersey, 1989).

      Commonwealth Secretariat. The Debt Crisis and the World Economy: Report by a Commonwealth Group of Experts, Commonwealth Secretariat (London, 1984).

      Congdon, Tim.The Debt Threat: The Dangers of High Real Interest Rates for the World Economy, Basil Blackwell (Oxford, 1988).

      Conway, Patrick.“Baker Plan and International Indebtedness,”World Economy, Vol. 10, No. 2 (June1987).

      Diaz-Alejandro, Carlos F.Some Aspects of the 1982-83 Brazilian Payments Crisis, Brookings Papers on Economic Activity, No. 2, Brookings Institution (Washington, D.C., 1983).

      Diaz-Alejandro, Carlos F.Exchange-Rate Devaluation in a Semi-Industrialized Country: The Experience of Argentina 1955–1961, MIT Press (Cambridge, Massachusetts, 1965).

      Dornbusch, Rudiger.“Overborrowing: Three Case Studies,” in Dollars, Debts and Deficits, by Dornbusch, MIT Press and Leuven University Press (Cambridge, Massachusetts, and Leuven, Belgium, 1986).

      Dornbusch, Rudiger.Mexico: Stabilization, Debt and Growth,”Economic Policy, No. 7 (October1988).

      Dornbusch, Rudiger.“The World Debt Problem: 1980-84 and Beyond,” in Dornbusch, Dollars, Debts and Deficits, MIT Press and Leuven University Press (Cambridge, Massachusetts, and Leuven, Belgium, 1986).

      Felix, David.“Latin America’s Debt Crisis,”World Policy Journal, Vol. 7, No. 4 (Fall1990).

      Fried, Edward R., and Charles L.Shultze,Higher Oil Prices and the World Economy: The Adjustment Problem, Brookings Institution (Washington, D.C., 1975).

      George, Susan.A Fate Worse Than Debt, Penguin Books (London, 1988).

      Ghosh, Jayati.“Foreign Debt and Economic Development: The Case of Zaire,”Development and Change, Vol. 17 (1986).

      Griffith-Jones, Stephany, (ed)ed. Managing World Debt, Harvester-Wheatsheaf (Hemel Hempstead, Hertfordshire, England, 1988) andSt, Martin’s Press (New York, 1988).

      Helleiner, Gerald K.“International Policy Issues Posed by Sub-Saharan African Debt,”World Economy, Vol. 12, No. 3 (Sept. 1989).

      Kenen, Peter B.“Organizing Debt Relief: The Need for a New Institution,”Jounal of Economic Perspectives, Vol. 4 (Winter1990).

      Knox, David.Latin American Debt: Facing Facts, Oxford International Institute (Oxford, 1990).

      Kraft, Joseph.The Mexican Rescue, Group of Thirty (New York, 1984).

      Lancaster, Carol, and JohnWilliamson, (ed)eds. African Debt and Financing, Institute for International Economics (Washington, D.C., 1986).

      Lissakers, Karin.Banks, Borrowers, and the Establishment: A Revisionist Account of the International Debt Crisis, Basic Books (New York, 1991).

      Lomax, David F.The Developing Country Debt Crisis, St. Martin’s Press (New York, 1986).

      Lustig, Nora.Mexico, The Remaking of an Economy, Brookings Institution (Washington, D.C., 1992).

      MacDonald, Scott B., MargieLindsay, and DavidCrum.The Global Debt Crisis: Forecasting for the Future, Pinter (London and New York, 1990).

      Miller, Morris.Coping Is Not Enough! The International Debt Crisis and the Roles of the World Bank and International Monetary Fund, Dow Jones-Irwin (Homewood, Illinois, 1986).

      Nafziger, E. Wayne.The Debt Crisis in Africa, Johns Hopkins University Press (Baltimore, 1993).

      Onimode, Bade, (ed)ed. The IMF, the World Bank and African Debt, 2 vols., Zed Books (London and Atlantic Highlands, New Jersey, 1989).

      Parfitt, Trevor W., and Stephen P.Riley.The African Debt Crisis, Routledge (London, 1989).

      Rieffel, Alexis.The Role of the Paris Club in Managing Debt Problems, Essays in International Finance, No. 161, Princeton University Press (Princeton, New Jersey, 1985).

      Rieke, Wolfgang.“The Development of the Deutschemark as a Reserve Currency, in Reserve Currencies in Transition, Group of Thirty (New York, 1982).

      Roll, Eric.“Behind Bretton Woods: The Climate Then and Today,” in International Capital Movements, Debt and Monetary System, ed. by WolframEngels, ArminGutowski, and Heny C.Wallich, (ed)v. Hase & Koehler (Mainz, 1984).

      Sampson, Anthony.The Money Lenders: Bankers in a Dangerous World, Hodder & Stoughton (London, 1988).

      Singer, H. W., and SoumitraSharma, (ed)eds. Economic Development and World Debt, Macmillan (London, 1989).

      Stiles, Kendall Wayne.Negotiating Debt: The IMF Lending Process, Westview Press (Boston, Massachusetts, 1991).

      World Institute for Development Economics Research. Debt Reduction: Report of a Study Group of the World Institute for Development Economics Research, World Institute for Development Economics Research of the United Nations University, Study Group Series, No. 3 (Helsinki, 1989).

    Reform of the International Monetary System

      Bhagwati, Jagdish N., (ed)ed. The New International Economic Order: The North-South Debate, MIT Press (Cambridge, Massachusetts, 1977).

      Bird, Graham.World Finance and Adjustment: An Agenda for Reform, Macmillan (London, 1985).

      Bretton Woods Commission. “Commission Report,” in Bretton Woods: Looking to the Future, Bretton Woods Committee (Washington, D.C., 1994).

      Cline, William R.International Monetary Reform and the Developing Countries, Brookings Institution (Washington, D.C., 1976).

      Cooper, Richard N.“A Monetary System for the Future,”Foreign Affairs, Vol. 63, No. 1 (Fall1984).

      Cooper, Richard N.“What Future for the International Monetary System?” in International Financial Policy: Essays in Honor of Jacques J. Polak, ed. by Jacob A.Frenkel and MorrisGoldstein, (ed)International Monetary Fund and De Nederlandsche Bank (Washington, D.C., 1991).

      Cooper, Richard N.The Evolution of the International Monetary Fund Toward a World Central Bank,” in The International Monetary System: Essays in World Economics, ed. by Cooper, (ed)MIT Presss (Cambridge, Massachusetts, 1987, originally published in 1983).

      Cooper, Richard N.The International Monetary System: Essays in World Economics, MIT Press (Cambridge, Massachusetts, 1987).

      Crockett, Andrew.“The International Monetary Fund in the 1990s,”Government and Opposition, Vol. 27, No. 3 (1992).

      Dam, Kenneth W.The Rules of the Game: Reform and Evolution in the International Monetary System, University of Chicago Press (Chicago, 1982).

      de Grauwe, Paul.International Money: Post-War Trends and Theories, Clarendon Press (Oxford, 1989).

      de Vries, Tom.“Jamaica, or the Non-reform of the International Monetary System,”Foreign Affairs, Vol. 54, No. 3 (April1976).

      Dell, Sydney, (ed)ed. The International Monetary System and Its Reform: Papers Prepared for the Group of Twenty-four by a United Nations Project directed by Sidney Dell, North Holland (New York, 1987).

      Dornbusch, Rudiger.Economic Performance, Vol. 1, The International Financial System, ed. by Jeffrey D.Sachs, (ed)University of Chicago Press (Chicago, 1989).

      Edwards, Richard W.International Monetary Collaboration, Transnational Publishers (Dobbs Ferry, New York, 1985).

      Expert Group on International Monetary Issues (UNCTAD). International Monetary Issues and the Developing Countries, UN document TD/B/32 and TD/B/C. 3/6 (New York, 1965).

      Friedman, Irving S.Toward World Prosperity: Reshaping the Global Money System, Lexington Books (Lexington, Massachusetts, 1986).

      German Council of Economic Experts. Toward a New Basis for International Monetary Policy, Princeton Essays in International Finance, No. 31, Princeton University Press (Princeton, New Jersey, 1972).

      Gowa, Joanne S.“Hegemons, IOs, and Markets: The Case of the Substitution Account,”International Organization, Vol. 38, No. 4 (Autumn1984).

      Gowa, Joanne S.Closing the Gold Window: Domestic Politics and the End of Bretton Woods, Cornell University Press (Ithaca, New York, 1983).

      Group of Thirty. Towards a Less Unstable International Monetary System: Reserve Assets and a Substitution Account, Reserve Asset Study Group, Group of Thirty (New York, 1980).

      Grubel, George N.Jamaica and the Par-Value System, Essays in International Finance, No. 20, Princeton University Press (Princeton, New Jersey, 1977).

      Grubel, Herbert G.The International Monetary System: Efficiency and Practical Alternatives, Penguin Books (Harmondsworth, Greater London, England, 1984).

      Grubel, Herbert G. (ed)ed. World Monetary Reform: Plans and Issues, Stanford University Press (Stanford, California, 1963).

      Hamouda, Omar F., RobinRowley, and Bernard M.Wolf, (ed)eds. The Future of the International Monetary System: Change, Coordination or Instability?E. Elgar (Aldershot, Hampshire, England, 1989).

      Houthakker, Hendrik S.“The Breakdown of Bretton Woods,” in Economic Advice and Executive Policy: Recommendations from Past Members of the Council of Economic Advisers, ed. by Werner Sichel, Praeger (ed) (New York, 1978).

      Independent Commission on International Development Issues. North-South: A Programme for Survival; A Report of the Independent Commission on International Development Issues Under the Chairmanship of Willy Brandt, MIT Press (Cambridge, Massachusetts, 1980).

      International Institute of International Finance. Financial Crises in Emerging Markets, by a working goup chaired by William Cline (Washington D.C., 1999).

      Khatkhate, Deena, (ed)ed.“The Evolving International Monetary System,”World Development, Vol. 15, No. 12 (Dec. 1987).

      Machlup, Fritz.Plans for Reform of the International Monetary System, Special Papers in International Economics, No. 3, Princeton University Press (Princeton, New Jersey, 1962 and 1964).

      Machlup, Fritz.Remaking the International Monetary System: The Rio Agreement and Beyond, Committee for Economic Development, Supplementary Paper, No. 24, Johns Hopkins Press (Baltimore, 1968).

      Machlup, Fritz, and Burton G.Malkiel, (ed)eds. International Monetary Arrangements: The Problem of Choice, Study Group of 32 Economists (Princeton, New Jersey, 1964).

      McKinnon, Ronald I.An International Standard for Monetary Stabilization, Institute for International Economics (Washington, D.C., 1984).

      McKinnon, Ronald I.“The Rules of the Game: International Money in Historical Perspective,”Journal of Economic Literature, Vol. 31 (March1993).

      Mozhin, Alexei V.“Russia’s Negotiations with the IMF,” in Changing the Economic System in Russia, ed. by AndersÅslund and RichardLayard, (ed)Pinter Publishers (London, 1993).

      Mundell, Robert A., and Jacques J.Polak, (ed)eds. The New International Monetary System, Columbia University Press (New York, 1977).

      Narasimham, M.Bretton Woods—Forty Years On, Forum of Free Enterprise (Bombay, 1984).

      Ossola, Rinaldo.Towards New Monetary Relationships, Essays in International Finance, No. 87, Princeton University Press (Princeton, New Jersey, 1971).

      Palyi, Melchior.Managed Money at the Crossroads: The European Experience, University of Notre Dame Press (Notre Dame, Indiana, 1958).

      Polak, Jacques. J.The World Bank and the International Monetary Fund: A Changing Relationship, Brookings Institution (Washington, D.C., 1994).

      Putnam, Robert D., and NicholasBayne.Hanging Together: The Seven-Power Summits, Harvard University Press (Cambridge, Massachusetts, 1984).

      Rasminski, Louis.“Canadian Views,” in Bretton Woods Revisited, ed. by A. L. K.Acheson, J. F.Chant, and M. F. J.Prachowny, (ed)University of Toronto Press (Toronto, 1972).

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