- Susan Schadler, and Hugh Bredenkamp
- Published Date:
- June 1999
© 1999 International Monetary Fund
Production: IMF Graphics Section
Cover design: Massoud Etemadi
Typesetting: Alicia Etchebarne-Bourdin
Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data
Economic adjustment and reform in low-income countries / studies by the staff of the International Monetary Fund; edited by Hugh Bredenkamp and Susan Schadler.
Includes bibliographical references (p.).
1. Structural adjustment (Economic policy)—Developing countries. 2. Debts, Public—Developing countries. 3. International Monetary Fund. I. Bredenkamp, Hugh. II. Schadler, Susan.
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The following symbols have been used throughout this paper:
… to indicate that data are not available;
— to indicate that the figure is zero or less than half the final digit shown, or that the item does not exist;
- between years or months (for example, 1994-95 or January-June) to indicate the years or months covered, including the beginning and ending years or months;
/ between years (for example, 1994/95) to indicate a crop or fiscal (financial) year.
“Billion” means a thousand million.
Minor discrepancies between constituent figures and totals are due to rounding.
The term “country,” as used in this paper, does not in all cases refer to a territorial entity that is a state as understood by international law and practice; the term also covers some territorial entities that are not states, but for which statistical data are maintained and provided internationally on a separate and independent basis.