- Luis Mendonca, Shamsuddin Tareq, Luis Valdivieso, Alejandro Lopez Mejia, and Toshihide Endo
- Published Date:
- August 2000
©2000 International Monetary Fund
Production: IMF Graphics Section
Cover design: Sanaa Elaroussi
Typesetting: Alicia Etchebarne-Bourdin
Figures: Theodore F. Peters, Jr.
East Timor: establishing the foundations of sound macroeconomic management/Luis M. Valdivieso … [et al.]—Washington, D.C.: International Monetary Fund, 2000.
Includes bibliographical references.
1. Timor Timur (Indonesia)—Economic policy. 2. Timor Timur (Indonesia)—Economic conditions. 3. Macroeconomics. 4. International Monetary Fund—Indonesia—Timor Timur. 5. World Bank—Indonesia—Timor Timur. 6. Referendum—Indonesia—Timor Timur. I. Valdivieso, Luis. II. International Monetary Fund.
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The following symbols have been used throughout this paper:
… to indicate that data are not available;
— to indicate that the figure is zero or less than half the final digit shown, or that the item does not exist;
– between years or months (for example, 1998–99 or January–June) to indicate the years or months covered, including the beginning and ending years or months;
/ between years (for example, 1998/99) to indicate a crop or fiscal (financial) year.
“Billion” means a thousand million.
Minor discrepancies between constituent figures and totals are due to rounding.
The term “country,” as used in this paper, does not in all cases refer to a territorial entity that is a state as understood by international law and practice; the term also covers some territorial entities that are not states, but for which statistical data are maintained and provided internationally on a separate and independent basis.
This paper has benefited from the comments of a large number of IMF colleagues, in particular Shigemitsu Sugisaki, Yusuke Horiguchi, Anoop Singh, and Anthony Elson. It also reflects comments received from Sérgio Vieira de Mello, Andrew Whitley, and Fernanda Borges (all of the United Nations Transitional Administration in East Timor—UNTAET).
In preparing this report, IMF staff held extensive consultations with UNTAET; leaders and technical representatives of the National Council of the East Timorese Resistance (CNRT); the authorities of the East Timorese church; representatives of the main bilateral donors and NGOs; and representatives of the East Timorese private sector and civil society at large. The paper has also benefited from close cooperation with the Indonesian authorities. The staff has also held numerous meetings with various organizations involved in humanitarian relief operations (initially the UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (OCHA) and subsequently the Humanitarian module of UNTAET, UN agencies, and various NGOs). IMF staff has coordinated closely with the staff of the World Bank and the Asian Development Bank.
Most of the information used in the background section and the key elements of the strategy were developed by the first IMF mission to East Timor, which consisted of Messrs. Valdivieso (head) and Wade (both Asia and Pacific Department), Messrs. Corfmat and Prakash (both Fiscal Affairs Department), Messrs. Lee and Lonnberg (both Monetary and Exchange Affairs Department), and Mr. Morris (Regional Office for Asia & the Pacific). The strategy was further developed by two technical assistance missions from the Monetary and Exchange Affairs Department and the Fiscal Affairs Department in January–February 2000, while the assessment of implementation and monitoring of developments have been done through a combination of sequential Asia and Pacific Department missions, a full-fledged Asia and Pacific Department mission in June 2000, and two review missions by the Monetary and Exchange Affairs Department (May 2000) and the Fiscal Affairs Department (June 2000).
Acronyms and AbbreviationsAsDB
Asian Development BankASEAN
Association of South East Asian NationsBI-D
Bank Indonesia Office in DiliBULOG
National Food Logistics AgencyCAP
Consolidated Appeal ProcessCEP
Community Empowerment ProjectCFA
Central Fiscal AuthorityCNRT
National Council of the Timorese ResistanceCPO
Central Payments OfficeDCU
Donor Coordination UnitEC
Elang Kakatua projectETA
East Timor AdministrationFAD
IMF Fiscal Affairs DepartmentFAO
Food and Agriculture Organization of the United NationsGDP
Gross Domestic ProductHAER
Humanitarian Assistance and Emergency RehabilitationJAM
Joint Assessment MissionJICA
Japan International Cooperation AgencyLPG
Liquified Petroleum GasMAE
IMF Monetary and Exchange Affairs DepartmentNCC
National Consultative CouncilNGO
Small Enterprise ProjectSRSG
Special Representative of the Secretary General of the United Nations for East TimorTFET
Trust Fund for East TimorUNAMET
United Nations Mission to East TimorUNDP
United Nations Development ProgrammeUNOCHA
United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian AffairsUNTAET
United Nations Transitional Administration in East TimorUSAID
U.S. Agency for International DevelopmentWFP
World Food Programme
East Timor: Basic Social Indicators
|Infant mortality rate per 1,000 live births (1996)||149|
|Maternal mortality rate per 1,000 live births (1990)||8|
|Life expectancy (1996)||52|
|Percentage of malnourished children (1998)1||38|
|Percentage of children under five with full immunization coverage (1996)||49|
|Medical doctors per 100,000 people (1996/97)||15|
|Illiteracy, percentage (1996/97)||50|
|Percentage of adult population with secondary or higher education (1998)||19|
|Percentage of the population below the poverty line (1998)||50|
|Number of buses per 100,000 people (1998)||1.5|
|Percentage of households with access to electricity (1996)||25|
|Number of phone lines per 1,000 people (1996)||8|
|Percentage of households with access to running water (1996)||25|