Balance of Payments Manual, Sixth Edition Compilation Guide

Back Matter

Back Matter

Author(s):
Eduardo Valdivia-Velarde, and Tamara Razin
Published Date:
December 2014
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    Index

    Numbers in references refer to paragraphs in chapters, boxes, tables, or Appendixes. Page numbers are included for Model forms.

    A

    • Accessibility of data, 1.9, 1.28, 17.1, 17.8–17.12, Box 17.1

    • Accounting system, 1.19–1.23

      • for insurance technical reserves, A2.32

    • Accrual basis accounting, 1.21

      • for debt securities, 10.36

      • recording interest income in, 13.63–13.73

      • in services, 3.27

    • Advance release calendar, 8.37

    • Agreement on Implementation of Article VII of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade 1994, 5.21

    • Agriculture, employment relationships in, 13.4

    • Airline services

      • code share agreements, 12.38, 12.48–12.49

      • interlining, 12.38, 12.48–12.49

      • leasing arrangements, 12.28, 12.34

      • passenger fare data, 3.24, 3.28, 3.30–3.31, 12.47–12.50, 12.66

      • residency of multiterritory companies, 8.68–8.69, 10.4

      • surveys of, 3.42–3.47

    • Airspace licensing, 15.10

    • Annuities, changes in volume of, 9.111

    B

    • Balance of payments

      • coding systems, 1.10, A7.1–A7.13, Table A7.1–A7.3

      • compiling register for, 2.8–2.19, Figure 4.1

      • component accounts, 1.24

      • consignment trade in, 3.7, Table 11.4, Model form 4

      • data sources for compilation of, 1.9, 1.26, 2.1–2.2, 3.1–3.240, 4.1–4.78, 5.35–5.40, 6.1–6.49, 7.1–7.48

      • data structure definitions, A7.10–A7.46, Table A7.4–A7.7

      • definition of, as statistical statement, 1.13

      • deriving IIP from transactions data, 9.82

      • exceptional financing transactions, 16.1–16.8, Table 16.1

      • financial transactions data, 9.36

      • imbalances, 1.23, 8.88

      • institutional arrangements for agency in charge of data collection on, 3.192, 8.1, 8.3–8.16

      • international transactions reporting system statement of, 4.45–4.58

      • main tasks in compilation of, 1.6

      • merchanting transactions in, 3.8–3.9, 11.29–11.32, Model form 5

      • purpose of Guide in compilation of, 1.1–1.4, 1.8

      • securities transactions and, 3.154

      • surveys in, 3.1

      • use of international merchandise trade statistics in compiling, 3.2–3.4, 5.35–5.40

      • See also Balance of Payments and International Investment Position Compilation Guide; Balance of Payments and International Investment Position Manual

    • Balance of Payments and International Investment Position Compilation Guide (Guide)

      • BPM6 and, 1.1

      • compilation methodology recommendations in, 1.8

      • content and organization of, 1.9–1.11

      • preparation of, 1.5

      • purpose of, 1.1–1.4

      • scope of, 1.6–1.7

    • Balance of Payments and International Investment Position Manual, sixth edition (BPM6)

      • accounting system recommendations, 1.19–1.22

      • on allocation of special drawing rights, 10.92

      • Balance of Payments Manuals, BPM5 and BPM6, 1.10, 8.102–8.103, Appendix 1, Tables 8.10–8.11

      • classification of economic sectors in, A6.57

      • classification of other services in, 3.92, Table 3.1

      • classification of securities in, 3.158

      • on compilation of value of manufacturing services, 3.16

      • conceptual framework of, 1.1, 1.12–1.14

      • on conversion of foreign currency positions and transactions, 3.141

      • on currency composition of financial assets and liabilities, 6.22, 13.40

      • on direct investment relationships, 7.16, 10.7, A4.2

      • on exceptional financing transactions, 16.1–16.8, Table 16.1

      • on freight services, 12.35, 12.37

      • Guide and, 1.1

      • on identification of parties in stock trades, 10.49

      • insurance accounting requirements, 14.34, A2.18, A2.41, Box A2.1, Box A2.4

      • on intellectual property products and transactions, 12.4, 12.120, Table 3.1

      • international merchandise trade statistics guidelines and, 5.3–5.5, 5.16–5.17, Table 5.1

      • on investment funds, 10.15

      • linkage of monetary and financial statistics with, 10.40, A6.31–A6.53

      • on loans with concessional interest, 10.80

      • on manufacturing services, 12.5, 12.11

      • on offshore banks, 3.149

      • positive and negative sign conventions, 8.102, 8.103, Tables 8.10–8.11

      • purpose, 1.1

      • on recording consignment trade in balance of payments, 3.7

      • on recording of stock options, 10.54

      • on recording transactions in financial derivatives, 10.49, 10.56

      • on regional arrangements, 8.74

      • on research and development transactions, 12.126, 12.128

      • on securities repurchase and lending agreements, 3.182, 10.81

      • on special purpose entities, 10.16

      • System of National Accounts 2008 and, 1.2, A6.2–A6.30

      • on technical assistance and aid, 12.156

      • on travel and tourism expenditures, 12.78–12.80

      • on treatment of transfer pricing, 11.25, A4.56–4.57

      • valuation methodology, 10.40

      • on valuation of direct investment flows, 10.16

    • Balance sheet data

      • from banks and financial institutions, 3.142–3.143, 3.146

      • in government finance statistics, A6.109–A6.110

      • in national accounts and IIP, A6.27–A6.30

      • on other accounts receivable/payable, 10.89–10.90

      • reinvested earnings calculation from, 13.54, 13.55

    • Bank for International Settlements, 7.3–7.4

      • adjustments to data from, 7.26–7.28

      • balance of payments data from, 7.23

      • foreign exchange activity data, 12.114

      • IIP data from, 7.23, 9.63–9.70

      • nonbank sector data, 7.26

      • statistics collected by, 7.23–7.25

      • See also International banking statistics

    • Banks

      • international banking statistics, 9.63–9.70

      • in international transactions reporting system, 4.3–4.5

      • monetary and financial statistics from, 9.11–9.22, Table 9.1

      • offshore, 3.149

      • recording of transactions of, in ITRS, 4.22–4.26

      • remittances services to households, 14.12–14.13

      • surveys of, 3.142–3.151

      • See also Central bank; Financial services

    • Benchmark Definition of Foreign Direct Investment, 7.17, 10.5, 10.10, A4.5

    • Bilateral Loan Agreements, IMF, 10.107–10.108

    • BIS Quarterly Review, 9.63–9.64

    • Bonded factories, 12.16 See also Manufacturing services on physical inputs owned by others

    • Bookkeeping system in international accounts, 1.19

    • Border surveys, 12.73, 13.20

    • Border workers, see Foreign workers

    • BPM6. See Balance of Payments and International Investment Position Manual, sixth edition (BPM6)

    • Branch operations

      • companies operating seamlessly across economies, 8.68–8.70, 10.4

      • construction company, residency issues in compilation and, 8.65–8.67, 12.93–12.94, 12.101, Table 8.7

      • in production sharing arrangement, Box 10.1

      • transport equipment ownership, 12.28

    • Broadcast rights transactions, 12.128–12.129

    • Broad Economic Category, 5.19, 5.20

    C

    • Cancellation of liabilities, 9.99

    • Capital account

      • acquisition/disposal of nonproduced, nonfinancial assets, 15.4–15.17

      • capital transfers, 15.18–15.40

      • definition of, 15.1

      • linkage with the national accounts, A6.22

      • reporting and types of transactions in, 8.99

      • scope of coverage of, 1.24

      • sign conventions in, Table 8.10

    • Capitalization ratio, A4.50, A4.53

    • Capital taxes, 15.38–15.40

    • Capital transfers

      • current transfers versus, 15.18

      • debt assumption, 15.22–15.25, Table 15.2

      • debt forgiveness, 15.3

      • definition of, 15.2

      • investment grants as, 15.32–15.38

      • nonlife insurance claims including catastrophic events, 15.26–15.31

      • technical assistance as, 14.39–14.41

      • types and characteristics of, 15.3, Table 14.2

    • Carry forward, 9.90

    • Central bank

      • credit and loans with the IMF, 6.19

      • currency and deposits data, 10.72

      • data sources on external assets and liabilities, 6.3

      • external assets and liabilities data collection components from, 6.20, 9.23, 9.26, 9.27, Table 6.1, Table 9.2

      • financial derivatives statistics, 10.64, 10.65, 10.67, 10.100

      • macroeconomic statistical datasets from, 9.11, 9.12, 9.23–9.30

      • public sector external debt data from, 6.19

      • reconciliation of sectoral balance sheet with IIP, 9.30, A6.49, Table A6.4

      • reserve assets data from, 6.25–6.26, 9.23, 9.24, 10.100, 10.104, Table 10.2

      • significance of, in balance of payments compilation, 6.1

    • Centralized Securities Database, Box 10.4

    • Charitable organizations, 3.113–3.115

    • Classification adjustment, 11.9

    • Code sharing agreement, 12.48, 12.49

    • Commercial free zone, 5.8, 5.9, 5.11

    • Commissions and fees, 3.165, 13.37

    • Compensation of employees

      • data models for estimating, 13.23, 13.24

      • data sources, ITRS, 13.11–13.16

      • data sources, official sources, 13.19–13.20

      • data sources, partner economy data, 13.22

      • data sources, surveys, 13.17–13.18, 13.21

      • definition of, 13.3–13.4, Table 14.2

      • in government finance statistics, A6.89, A6.90

      • identifying employment relationships, 13.4–13.7

      • payment in kind, 13.15

      • primary income, 13.1

      • recording, 13.8–13.10, Example 13.1

      • tax withholding, 14.19, 14.21

    • Compilation process

      • gathering data from multiple sources, 8.11–8.15

      • various agencies involved in, 8.4 Consignment trade, 3.7

    • Construction activity, 8.65–8.67, Table 8.7, Example 12.1

    • Construction services

      • abroad, 12.96, 12.99

      • data sources, Table 12.4

      • as direct investment activity, 12.92–12.94

      • example of balance of payments recording, 12.100

      • identifying employment relationships in, 12.98, 12.101, 13.6

      • model form for data collection, 3.68, 3.69

      • other services category, 3.92, Table 3.1

      • in the reporting economy, 12.97, 12.99

      • residency, 8.65–8.67, 12.94, Table 8.7

      • scope of, 3.67

      • See also Other services

    • Contract manufacturing, 12.6

    • Contracts

      • change in contractual terms, 9.103

      • as marketable assets, 15.11

      • transfer agreements, 15.11–15.13

      • types of, 15.7, 15.10

    • Coordinated Direct Investment Survey

      • adjustments to, for balance of payments and IIP, 7.20–7.22, A4.5, A5.21

      • data initiative, 7.4

      • directional principle presentation, 7.22, Table 7.1

      • scope, 7.16–7.19, 10.26

      • valuation, 9.51

    • Coordinated Portfolio Investment Survey

      • adjustments to, for balance of payments and IIP, 7.14–7.15

      • data initiative, 7.4

      • frequency, 7.13

      • mirror data for partner country as proxy, 7.7, 7.11–7.12, 10.48

      • scope, 7.9, A5.21

      • Survey of Securities Held as Foreign Exchange Reserves (SEFER), 7.10

    • Corporate change of residence, 9.110

    • Cost, insurance and freight (c.i.f)/f.o.b, 5.22

      • adjustments, 11.21, 11.22

    • Coverage adjustment, 11.8

    • Currency and deposits, 10.72–10.75, Table 14.2

    • Currency and economic unions, 8.74–8.83

    • Currency conversion

      • customs valuation under international merchandise trade statistics, 5.24, 5.25

      • in international transactions reporting system, 4.18–4.21

      • in margins on buying and selling transactions, 12.108–12.114

      • in monetary and financial statistics, 10.75, 10.91

      • net errors or omissions arising from, 8.95

      • transactions in foreign currency, 10.74

    • Current account

      • bookkeeping system, 1.20

      • linkage with the national accounts, A6.11–A6.21

      • nonlife insurance premiums and claims, 15.26–15.27

      • scope of coverage of, 1.24

      • sign convention in, Table 8.11

      • transactions, types and reporting, 8.99

    • Current transfers

      • capital transfers versus, 15.18

      • compilation of, 14.5, Table 14.1

      • international cooperation, 14.38, 14.40, 14.45

      • miscellaneous, 14.49

      • personal, 14.10–14.13, Table 14.2

      • scope and coverage, 14.1, 14.3, 14.4

      • taxes on income and wealth, 14.18–14.24, 15.39, Example 14.1

      • types of, 14.4, Table 14.1

    • Customs arrangements, 8.84–8.86

    • Customs declaration forms, 5.29, 5.30

      • manufacturing services data in, 12.22

    • Customs procedures, 5.32

    D

    • Data models, 8.25–8.28, 13.23–13.24, 13.39

    • Data Quality Assessment Framework

      • accessibility 17.1, Box 2.2

      • consistency evaluation 17.6

      • revision policy, 8.34, 17.7

      • scope 8.6, Box 17.1

    • Data structure definitions, A7.10–A7.46, Table A7.4–A7.7

    • Debt, government-guaranteed, recording, 6.16

    • Debt assumption, 15.22–15.25, Table 15.2

    • Debt forgiveness, 15.19–15.21

    • Debt instruments

      • data from financial statements on, 9.44

      • as source of investment income, 13.25

    • Debt reorganization, 9.93

    • Debt securities

      • coupon payments, 13.70

      • definition, 3.158, 10.32

      • issued at discount, 10.36

      • issued at premium, 10.36

      • in portfolio investment, 10.32

      • reclassification of loans to, 9.102

      • recording of accrued interest, 13.69–13.72

      • valuation, 10.36

    • Defense transactions, 6.12–6.14

    • Depository receipts, 3.161

    • Deposit-taking corporations

      • currency and deposits data, 10.72

      • external debt data, 10.78

      • financial intermediaries, 3.153, 10.13

      • macroeconomic statistical datasets for IIP compilation, 9.11–9.12, 9.19–9.20

      • net operating surplus, 13.53

    • Derivatives. See Financial derivatives

    • Derived data

      • direct investment statistics, 7.20–7.21, 10.18, Box 10.2

      • insurance services, A2.35, A2.36, A2.47–A2.49, Example A2.4

      • insurance technical reserves, A2.43–A2.46

      • loans, 10.84

      • portfolio investment statistics, 7.11–7.12, 10.48

      • quarterly positions from quarterly transactions, 9.81–9.89, Example 9.1

    • Development assistance

      • Development Assistance Data Reporting System, 7.29–7.35

      • in donor economies, measurement of, 6.28, 6.29

      • in recipient economies, measurement of, 6.30–6.35

    • DIENT. See Direct investment enterprises

    • Diplomatic missions. See Embassies and diplomatic missions

    • Direct investment

      • affiliated financial intermediaries, 10.13, 10.14

      • assets/liabilities presentation, A4.70, A4.71, A5.25, Table A4.2, Table A4.3

      • concept and coverage, 10.3–10.4, Appendix 4

      • in construction activity, 8.65, Table 8.7

      • data sources, 9.39–9.60, 10.20–10.31

      • defining relationships in, 10.7–10.10, A4.2, A4.41–A4.43, A4.64–A4.67

      • directional principle presentation, A4.70, A4.71, A5.26–A5.28, Table 7.1, Table A4.2

      • entities established abroad for fiscal purposes, A4.21–A4.24, Table A4.1

      • extrapolation of income, 13.42

      • fellow enterprises, 10.11, 10.12

      • from financial statements, 9.40–9.54

      • income, 13.26–13.27, A5.29, Table 13.1

      • investment funds, 10.15–10.16

      • motivation for, 10.6

      • notional units, A4.15–A4.20

      • operation of mobile equipment, 8.61–8.62, Table 8.5

      • pass-through capital, A4.34–A4.37

      • position data, See CDIS and IIP

      • presentation by partner economy data, A5.24–A5.30

      • production sharing arrangements and, Box 10.1

      • reinvested earnings on, 13.43–13.61

      • round tripping, A4.38, A4.39, Figure A4.1

      • special purpose entities, A4.25–A4.33, A4.80, Box A4.1

      • statistical units, A4.7–A4.13

      • tax data, 6.46, 10.29

      • valuation of transactions and positions, 10.17–10.19, A4.43–A4.55

      • voting power, A4.40–A4.42

      • See also Direct investment enterprises

    • Direct investment enterprise (DIENT) calculation of reinvested earnings. See Reinvested earnings

      • construction services companies, 12.93–12.94

      • definition of, 10.7–10.8

      • foreign investment approvals, 6.41, 9.58

      • framework for, 10.9

      • goods traded between, 4.47

      • grants within, 15.35

      • hidden dividends, A4.60–A4.62

      • hidden injection of equity, A4.63

      • notional units, A4.14–A4.19, Table 14.2

      • pension services, 3.87

      • production sharing arrangements, Box 10.1

      • reverse investment, A4.67

      • surveys of, 10.21

      • tax data, 6.46

      • transfer prices, 11.24–11.28, A4.57–A4.59, Table 11.6

      • treatment of retained earnings in, 9.95

      • See also Direct investment

    • Directional principle presentation of data, 7.22, Table 7.1

    • Direction of Trade Statistics, 7.45–7.48

    • Dividends

      • estimation, 13.39, 13.41

      • ex-dividend date, 13.74–13.77

      • investment fund shareholder income, 13.82–13.90

      • investment income, 13.1, 13.25–13.28, Table 13.1, Figure 13.1

      • net operating surplus of insurance companies and, 13.52

      • retained earnings and, 13.43, 13.49

    • Double-entry bookkeeping, 1.19, 8.97

    E

    • E-commerce, 11.7, 12.50, 12.158–12.161

    • Economic territory

      • companies operating seamlessly across multiple economies, 8.68–8.70, 10.4

      • definition of, 1.14

      • definition of residency in, 8.54–8.55

      • split of, 15.15

      • reconciliation with IMTS 2010, 5.4, 5.65.7, 5.10, 5.12, Figure 5.1

    • Economic unions, 8.76–8.83

    • Educational assistance, 6.35

    • Education data, 6.48

    • Embassies and diplomatic missions

      • compensation of employees and, 12.156, 13.16, 13.21

      • government services, 6.12–6.13, 12.152–12.154

      • land transactions, 15.15

      • transactions of, 3.94–3.97

    • Employee stock options

      • definition and characteristics of, 10.53–10.55

      • external debt and, 7.39

      • valuation and recording of, 10.59–10.63

    • Enterprise surveys, See Surveys

    • Equity securities

      • definition 10.32

      • valuation, A6.36

    • European System of Central Banks, Box 10.4

    • Exceptional financing transactions

      • data sources, 16.11–16.13, Table 16.3

      • definition, 16.1

      • identifying, 16.3–16.7

      • recording, 16.8, Table 16.1

      • timing of recording, 16.9, Table 16.2

      • valuation of, 16.9, 16.10, Table 16.2

    • Exchange rate(s)

      • estimation of quarterly position data and, 9.85–9.87

      • multiple, 8.40–8.48, Table 8.1

      • other adjustments, 2.59

      • See also Currency conversion

    • Expansion factors, 8.22, 8.24

    • Export processing zones, 12.16

    • Extended Balance of Payments Services Classification, Table 3.1

    • External assets and liabilities, surveys of central bank data, 9.23–9.29, Table 6.1, Table 9.2

      • classification of positions, transactions and income in, 3.139, 3.140

      • conversion of foreign currency positions and transactions in, 3.141

      • data collection, 3.121–3.123

      • data from banks and financial institutions, deposit taking corporations, 3.142–3.151, 9.13–9.22

      • government data. See Government, external assets and liabilities of model forms for, 3.124–3.130

    • External debt statistics

      • External Debt Statistics: Guide for Compilers and Users, 6.17, 9.5

      • Joint External Debt Hub, 7.41–7.42

      • loans, 10.76

      • other accounts receivable/payable, 10.89

      • Quarterly External Debt Database, 7.37–7.40, 9.71

      • registers of external loans, 9.74

      • trade credit and advances, 10.87

    F

    • Fellow enterprises

      • definition of, 10.8, 10.11–10.12

      • directional principle, A5.26

      • investment income, 13.27

      • loans to/from, 9.50, Table 9.4

      • ultimate controlling parent, A4.63–A4.65, Figure A4.2

    • Financial account

      • balance, 8.102, Table 8.9

      • change of sign conventions in, 8.103, Tables 8.10–8.11

      • definition, 10.1

      • functional categories of, 10.2. See also specific category

      • instrument categories of, 10.2. See also specific category

      • insurance technical reserves, A2.32–A2.34

      • international transactions reporting system data on, 4.56

      • linkage between macroeconomic datasets, A6.23–A6.26

      • recording transactions in, 8.100

      • scope, 10.1

      • See also Other changes in financial assets and liabilities account

    • Financial derivatives

      • data sources, 3.210–3.211, 10.64–10.68, Model form 20

      • definition of, 3.209, 10.52

      • transactions and positions, 9.94, 10.56–10.58, Box 10.5

    • Financial intermediaries, selected affiliated, 10.13–10.14

    • Financial intermediation services indirectly measured

      • balance of payments entries, Box A3.1

      • data sources, A3.24, A3.24, A3.26, Table 12.4

      • definition of, 3.89, 12.105, A3.1–A3.3

      • exports of, A3.4, A3.11, A3.12, Table A3.1

      • imports of, A3.5, A3.13, A3.14, Table A3.2

      • interest income and, 13.62

      • negative, A3.15

      • reference rate, A3.2, A3.7–A3.10, A3.17–A3.20

    • Financial lease, 10.82

    • Financial services

      • data sources, 3.90, 12.105–12.107, Table 12.4

      • margins on buying and selling foreign exchange transactions, 12.108–12.118

      • scope of, 3.89, 12.102

    • Financial statements of companies

      • data source for IIP, 9.40, Table 9.5

      • direct investment and, 9.41–9.44, 9.51

      • from official channels, 9.47–9.54

      • portfolio/other investment and, 9.53

      • publicly available, 9.45–9.46

    • FISIM. See Financial intermediation services indirectly measured

    • Fixed capital consumption, 13.48

    • Flows

      • currency conversion, 1.22

      • definition of, 1.15–1.17

      • positions derived from, 9.81–9.89, 10.18, 10.84, Box 10.2, Example 9.1

      • reconciliation with positions, 3.131–3.135, 4.39, Table 4.2

      • time of recording of, 1.21

    • Food aid, 6.34

    • Foreign aid, 4.50

    • Foreign currency, 8.49

    • Foreign exchange accounts, international transactions reporting system and, 4.5, 4.30–4.37

    • Foreign investment boards, 6.38–6.41

    • Foreign workers definition, 12.35–12.36

    • Framework for Direct Investment Relationships, 10.9

    • Franchise and trademark licensing fees, 12.124

    • Frascati Manual: Proposed Standard Practice for Surveys on Research and Experimental Development, 12.138

    • Free circulation area, 5.8

    • Free on board (f.o.b). See Cost, insurance and freight/f.o.b. adjustments

    • Free zone, 5.8–5.9, 12.16

    • Freight services

      • adjustment in imports, 3.79–3.82, 12.37

      • definition, 12.35–12.36

      • estimation for exports and imports, Tables 12.1 and 12.2

    G

    • General Arrangements to Borrow, 10.101, 10.105, 10.106

    • General Data Dissemination Standard, 7.37

    • General government, 9.31

      • data from embassy and defense transactions, 6.12–6.14

      • data on other current expenditures and revenues, 6.15

      • data sources, 6.4–6.7, 6.9–6.11

      • public sector external debt, 6.16–6.24

    • Gold, nonmonetary

      • definition, 11.33

      • data source, 11.34–11.35

    • Gold accounts

      • as reserve assets, 10.99

      • unallocated, 9.107, 10.99

    • Gold bullion

      • definition, 9.106

      • monetization and demonetization, 6.26, 9.106, 10.98, Table 9.6

      • as reserve asset, 10.94, 10.99

    • Gold loans and gold swaps, 10.81, 10.88, 10.98–10.99, Table 10.3

    • Goods

      • adjustments to International Merchandise Trade Statistics (IMTS), 11.5, Tables 11.1–11.4

      • adjustments to International Transactions Reporting System (ITRS) data, Table 11.5

      • c.i.f./f.o.b. adjustments, 11.21, 11.22

      • classification adjustments, 11.9, Table 11.2, Table 11.5

      • concept of consignment, A5.17, Table A5.14

      • concept of origin/consumption, A5.12–A5.16, Table A5.4

      • coverage adjustments, 11.8, Table 11.1, Table 11.5

      • definition of, 11.1

      • electronic commerce in, 11.7

      • enterprise surveys as a data source, 11.13

      • estimations, 11.16–11.20

      • IMTS as a data source, 11.11

      • ITRS as a data source, 11.12

      • linkage between macroeconomic datasets, A6.11–A6.21

      • merchanting transactions, 11.29–11.32

      • nonmonetary gold, 11.33–11.35

      • primary entries, 11.2

      • timing adjustments, 11.11, Table 11.4, Table 11.5

      • transfer pricing adjustments, 11.24–11.28, Table 11.6

      • valuation adjustments, 11.10, 11.21, 11.22, Table 11.3, Table 11.5

    • Government external assets and liabilities, 9.32–9.34, Table 9.3

    • Government finance statistics, linkages with international accounts

      • balance sheet, A6.109–A6.110

      • consumption of fixed capital, expense, A6.93

      • compensation of employees, expense, A6.89–A6.90, Table A6.8

      • coverage and accounting rules, A6.57–A6.60

      • data on other accounts receivable/payable, 10.89

      • grants, expense, A6.97–A6.99, Table A6.8

      • interest, expense, A6.94, Table A6.8

      • other expenses, A6.101–A.103, Table A6.8

      • other revenue, A6.81–A6.88, Table A6.7

      • revenue from grants, A6.77–A6.80

      • revenue from social contributions, A6.75–A6.76

      • revenue from taxes, A6.69–A6.74

      • social benefits, expense, A6.100, Table A6.8

      • statement of operations, A6.63–A6.68, Table A6.5

      • statement of other economic flows, A6.108

      • structural framework, comparison with balance of payments and IIP A6.61, A6.62, Table A6.1, Figure A6.1

      • subsidies, expense, A6.95–A6.96

      • transactions in financial assets and liabilities, A6.106, A6.107, Table A6.9

      • transactions in nonfinancial assets, A6.104, A6.105

      • use of goods and services, expense A6.91–A6.92, Table A6.8

    • Government Finance Statistics Manual, A6.54

    • Government goods and services n.i.e.

      • expenditure by foreign governments in compiling economy, 12.152–12.155

      • government expenditure abroad, 12.150–12.151

      • provision of technical assistance and aid, 12.156–12.157

      • See also Other services

    • Government-owned companies, 6.7

    • Grants. See Current transfers; Capital transfers

    • Grossing up data, 2.23, 2.58, 7.14, 7.21

    • Gross recording of transactions, 8.98

    • Guide. See Balance of Payments and International Investment Position Compilation Guide

    H

    • Handbook on Deriving Capital Measures of Intellectual Property Products, 12.137, 12.138

    • Harmonized Commodity Description and Coding System, 5.19, 5.20

    • Health services, 6.48, Table 8.8

    • Hidden dividends, A4.59–A4.61

    • Hidden injections of equity, A4.62

    • Holding gains/losses, 9.92

    • Households

      • compensation of employees, 13.15

      • currency and deposits data, 10.72

      • e-commerce transactions, 12.161

      • recording transactions of, in balance of payments, Table 3.3

      • remittances services to, 14.12, 14.13

      • surveys of. See Household surveys

      • transactions and positions, 8.73, Table 8.8

    • Household surveys

      • data sources for, 3.213

      • expenditure, 3.237

      • external assets and liabilities, 9.77

      • income from, 3.240

      • insurance services from, 3.78

      • migration statistics from, 3.215–3.225

      • of transactions associated with foreign workers, 3.107

    • Humanitarian aid, 6.34

    I

    • IIP. See International investment position

    • IMF. See International Monetary Fund

    • Income taxes. See Taxes on income

    • Income yield analysis, 3.135

    • Information services, 3.92

    • Insurance services,

      • data sources, 3.73, 3.74, 3.75, 3.77–3.78, 14.35, 14.37, A2.37, A2.4, A2.5, Table 12.4

      • on imports, 3.79–3.82, 12.46, Table 12.2

      • model form for, 3.71, 3.72, 3.77

      • scope of, 3.70, Table 3.1

      • See also Insurance transactions and positions

    • Insurance transactions and positions

      • balance sheet example, Example A2.2

      • BPM6 entries related to, 14.34, A2.18, Box A2.1

      • current account data, Table A2.2

      • data sources, A2.37–A2.48, Table 12.4

      • example of BPM6 compliance, Box A2.4

      • example of profit and loss account, Example A2.1, Example A2.7

      • extraordinary claims, 15.26–15.31

      • financial account, A2.32–A2.34, Table A2.3

      • goods and services account, 12.45, 12.46, A2.35–A2.36, A2.70–A2.72, Table 12.2

      • IIP entries, Tables A2.1, A2.4

      • indirect insurance, Example A2.6

      • life, A2.60–A2.69, Box A2.3

      • net operating surplus, 13.52

      • net premiums earned and claims payable or due, A2.20–A2.28

      • nonlife, A2.6–A2.7, Example A2.5

      • nonlife claims, 15.26–15.31, A2.11–2.13

      • nonlife premiums, 14.32–14.37, A2.8–A2.10

      • nonresidents’ provision, Example A2.4

      • premium supplements, A2.29–A2.31

      • reinsurance, A2.3, A2.49–A2.59

      • sales agents and brokers, Box A2.2

      • scope of, A2.1–A2.5

      • technical reserves, A2.14–A2.16, A2.32–A2.34, A2.43–A2.46, Example 2.3

      • See also Insurance services

    • Intangible assets, 15.3, 15.4–15.13

    • Intellectual property

      • BPM6 entries, 12.120–12.121

      • data sources and methods, 12.119, 12.122, Table 12.4

      • scope, 12.117

      • types of products, 12.123–12.133

    • Inter-American Development Bank, 7.41

    • Interest

      • accrued, 10.79, 13.62–13.73

      • in arrears, 13.67–13.68

      • concessional rates, 10.80

      • contractual changes in, 9.103

      • on debt securities, 10.36

      • as expense in government finance statistics, A6.94

      • fees for security lending recorded as, 13.91–13.94

      • FISIM reference rate, A3.7–A3.10, A3.17–A3.20

      • implications of treatment of, 9.97

      • investment income and, 13.27–13.31, Table 13.1

      • on special drawing rights allocations, 10.92, Table 10.1

      • retained earnings, 13.43

    • Interlining, 12.48–12.49

    • Intermediaries, 3.153

    • International Accounting Standards Board, 10.60

    • International accounts

      • bookkeeping system, 1.19

      • classification used, 1.24–1.25

      • compilation and dissemination, 1.27–1.28

      • components, 1.1, 1.13

      • data sources for compilation of, 1.26

      • linkages with government finance statistics, A6.54–A6.109

      • linkages with monetary and financial statistics, A6.31–A6.53

      • linkages with the system of national accounts, A6.1–A6.30

      • transactions in, 1.16

    • International banking statistics, 7.23, 7.27, 9.62–9.70, 10.78, A3.22

    • International Development Association, 7.41

    • International Direct Investment Statistics, 10.27

    • International Financial Statistics, 13.40, 16.1

    • International investment position (IIP)

      • classification of assets and liabilities in, 1.25

      • coding system, A7.1–A7.13, Table A7.2

      • compilation methodology, 1.8

      • data source, approvals of foreign investment, 9.55–9.59

      • data source, central bank, 9.23–9.30, Table A6.4

      • data source, deposit-taking corporations, except the central bank, 9.13–9.22, Table A6.3

      • data source, financial press, 9.60–9.61

      • data source, financial statements, 9.40–9.54

      • data source, general government, 9.31–9.35

      • data source, nonstatistical, 9.39

      • data source, other, 9.70–9.73

      • data source, surveys, 9.76–9.79

      • data sources, 9.4–9.5

      • definition of, as statistical statement, 1.13

      • domestic data sources, 9.6–9.10

      • external data sources, international banking statistics data, 9.62–9.70

      • institutional arrangements for agency in charge of data collection on, 8.3–8.16

      • pension entitlements, A2.114, Table A2.1

      • quarterly estimates, 9.37–9.38, 9.81–9.89, 9.69

      • reconciliation with balance of payments, 9.36

      • See also Balance of Payments and International Investment Position Compilation Guide (Guide); Other changes in financial assets and liabilities

    • International Merchandise Trade Statistics: Compilers’ Manual 2010, 7.45

    • International Merchandise Trade Statistics: Concepts and Definitions–2010, 5.3

    • International merchandise trade statistics (IMTS), 1.26, 3.2

      • challenges in use of, 3.3

      • commodity classification in, 5.19–5.20

      • compilation procedures, 5.29–5.34, A5.10–A5.17

      • coverage of, 5.4

      • currency conversion issues, 5.24, 5.25

      • data on freight and insurance on imports, Table 12.2

      • data source for goods, 11.3–11.11, 11.20, Tables 11.1–11.4

      • data source for nonmonetary gold, 11.34, 11.35

      • general trade system, 5.6, 5.16

      • import and export flows, goods, 5.10–5.15

      • manufacturing services in, 12.7–12.9, 12.12, 12.22

      • partner economy classification in, 5.28, A5.10–A5.17

      • point of valuation, 5.22, 5.26

      • purpose of, 5.1, 5.35

      • quality control in, 5.34

      • quantity measurement in, 5.27

      • reconciliation with BPM6, 5.5, 5.16, 5.17, Table 5.1

      • scope of, 3.2, 5.1, 5.29

      • special trade system, 5.7–5.9, 5.17, 5.18

      • use of, in international accounts, 5.35–5.40

      • valuation, 5.21–5.26

    • International Monetary Fund

      • balance of payments coding structure, A7.1–A7.9, Table A7.1

      • bilateral data collection, Coordinated Direct Investment Survey, 7.16–7.19, A4.5, A5.21, Table 7.1

      • bilateral data collection, Coordinated Portfolio Investment Survey, 7.4, 7.9–7.13, A5.21

      • borrowing from, as exceptional financing, 16.7

      • data quality assessment framework, 17.1, 17.6, 17.7, Box 17.1

      • data sources, 7.1–7.22

      • General Data Dissemination Standard, 7.37

      • lending to, 10.105–10.109

      • metadata recommendations of, 8.38, 8.39

      • reserve position in, 10.93, 10.101

      • Special Data Dissemination Standard, 7.37

    • International organizations, data collections of, 7.1–7.8

    • International Recommendations for Tourism Statistics 2008, 12.76, 12.77

    • International Reserves and Foreign Currency Liquidity: Guidelines for a Data Template, 10.102

      • See also Reserves Data Template

    • International Securities Identification Number, 7.9

    • International Transaction in Remittances: Guide for Compilers and Users, 14.15

    • International transactions reporting system (ITRS)

      • advantages as data source, 4.69–4.72

      • aggregation process, 4.38, 4.39, Table 4.1, Table 4.2

      • balance of payments statement in, 4.45–4.58

      • bundling of transactions in, 4.28, 4.29

      • classification of transactions in, 4.15–4.17, A5.18

      • collection and processing of data in, 4.59–4.68, Table 4.1, Figure 4.1

      • compensation of employees in, 13.12–13.16

      • for compilation of goods in balance of payments, 3.2, 3.4–3.6, 11.12, Table 11.5

      • for compilation of trade in services, 3.11

      • comprehensiveness of, 4.7

      • currency conversion in, 4.18–4.21

      • data items collected, 4.8–4.11

      • definition of, 4.1, 4.2

      • deposits data in, 10.72

      • direct investment flows from, 10.22

      • disadvantages as data source, 4.69–4.78

      • in economies with relaxed or abolished exchange regulations, 4.40, 4.41

      • financial account transactions in, 4.56

      • financial services data in, 12.104

      • government expenditures abroad in, 12.152, 12.154

      • household transaction data in, 3.213

      • investment income in, 4.54, 13.36–13.38, 13.73

      • limitations of, 12.85–12.86, 14.6, A5.19

      • manufacturing services data in, 12.23

      • measurement of noncash transactions in, 4.42–4.44

      • measures, 4.2

      • model collection forms, 4.9, Model forms 3.1–3.5

      • offshore banking units in, 4.41

      • other services data in, 12.85–12.87

      • portfolio investment data in, 10.42

      • quality control procedures, 4.61, 4.64, 4.67

      • reporters, 4.3–4.6

      • reporting thresholds, 4.12–4.14, 4.72, 4.74

      • research and development data in, 12.141

      • scope, 4.30–4.37

      • social contributions and benefits in, 14.31, 14.32

      • technical assistance and aid in, 12.159

      • time of recording, 4.22–4.26

      • transaction classification codes, 4.11

      • transport services in, 12.51, 12.55, 12.56, 12.60–12.62

      • travel expenditure data in, 12.69–12.71

      • valuation adjustments in, 4.27

    • Interpolation techniques, 8.31

    • Investment funds

      • calculation of reinvested earnings, 13.43–13.61

      • definition and features of, 10.13, 10.15, 13.80, 13.81

      • extrapolation techniques for estimating, 13.41, 13.42

      • investment income attributable to, 13.82–13.89

      • special purpose entities and, 10.16

    • Investment grants, 15.32–15.38, Example 15.1

    • Investment income

      • from accrued interest, 13.62–13.73

      • attributable to investment fund shareholders, 13.81–13.90

      • calculation of reinvested earnings, 13.43–13.61

      • components of, 13.26

      • data sources, 13.32–13.38

      • definition of, 13.25

      • estimation models of, 13.39–13.42

      • from dividends, 13.74–13.80

      • from fees for security lending without cash collateral, 13.91–13.94

      • functional classification, 13.27–13.31, Table 13.1

      • as primary income, 13.1

      • surveys of, 3.121, 3.123, 3.131, 3.135, 3.139

    J

    • Joint External Debt Hub, 7.36, 7.41, 7.42, 9.35, 9.75

    L

    • Land, international transactions in, 15.14–15.17

    • Leases

      • dry, 12.34

      • financial, 10.82, 12.149–12.150

      • of mobile oil rigs, 12.149, 12.150

      • of natural resource, 12.147, Box 10.1

      • as nonproduced nonfinancial assets, 15.3, 15.12, A6.105

      • operating, 12.143–12.146, 13.105–13.107

      • scope of, 15.7, 15.10

      • time-share arrangements, 15.8, 15.9, Table 15.1

      • transport equipment, 12.28, 12.29–12.31

      • wet, 12.34

    • Legislation, statistical, 8.6–8.8

    • License/Licensing

      • foreign investment data from, 9.55–9.59

      • franchise and trademark, 12.124, 15.5

      • as nonproduced nonfinancial assets, 15.7, 15.10, 15.12

      • to reproduce or distribute audiovisual and related products, 12.128

      • to reproduce or distribute software, 12.127

      • for use of intellectual property, 12.119–12.120, 12.132–12.133

      • for use of research and development outcomes, 12.126

    • Life insurance, 14.34, A2.60–A2.69, Box A2.3

    • Loan agreements, 15.11–15.13

    • Loans

      • accrued interest on, 10.79

      • arrears, 10.79

      • with concessional interest rates, 10.80

      • data collection, 10.76–10.84

      • to International Monetary Fund, 10.105–10.109

    • Local enterprise group, 13.46, A4.10–A4.12

    M

    • Maintenance and repair services, 3.18–3.20, Table 12.4. See also Other services

    • Manual on Statistics of International Trade in Services 2010, 3.92, Table 3.1

    • Manufacturing services on physical inputs owned by others

      • data collection, 3.15–3.16, 12.20–12.25

      • versus merchanting, 12.19

      • scope and definition, 12.5–12.19

    • Marketing assets, 12.121, 12.124, 15.3–15.6, A6.105

    • Merchanting

      • data collection on, 3.9, 11.32

      • definition of, 3.8, 11.29

      • versus manufacturing services, 12.19

      • partner economy data, A5.31, A5.32

      • reconciliation between IMTS2010 & BPM6, Table 5.1, Table 11.1, Table A5.3

      • recording in BPM6, 11.30–11.31

    • Metadata, 8.38–8.39

    • Migration

      • alternative statistics on cross-border movements, 3.225

      • arrivals and departures data, 3.221–3.224, Table 3.4

      • balance of payments treatment of, Table 8.8

      • data collection, 3.215–3.218

      • international guidelines, 3.219–3.220

    • Mobile equipment, 5.5

      • residency treatment of, 3.50, 8.56–8.64, Tables 8.2–8.6

      • types of, 8.57

    • Mobile oil rigs and floating production, storage and off-load vessels, 12.149–12.150

    • Model form

      • summary of model survey forms, Table A8.1

      • 1, Exploratory Survey, 2.12; pp. 460–465

      • 2, Company Register Form, 2.17; pp. 466–471

      • 3–1, ITRS—Payments and Receipts, 4.9, 4.31; pp. 472–473

      • 3–2, ITRS—Imports and Exports, 4.9; pp. 474–475

      • 3-3, ITRS—Companies, 4.9, 4.42; pp. 476–481

      • 3–4, ITRS—Banks, 4.9, 4.31; pp. 482–488

      • 3–5, ITRS—Bank’s records of Transactions, 4.31; pp. 489–493

      • 4, Goods 3.6, 3.19, 3.80; pp. 494–498

      • 5, Goods for Merchanting, 3.9, 11.32, A5.17, A5.32; pp. 499–501

      • 6, International Trade in Services, 3.12, 3.20, 3.53, 3.77, 3.86, 3.92, 15.5; pp. 502–508

      • 7, Manufacturing Services, 3.17, 12.20; pp. 509–511

      • 8, Resident Transport Operators, 3.24, 3.25, 3.29, 3.30, 3.46; pp. 512–515

      • 9, Transactions with Nonresident Transport Operators, 3.27, 3.29, 3.30, 3.46; pp. 516–519

      • 10, International Travel, 3.54, 3.56, 3.59, 3.60, 3.65; pp. 520–524

      • 11, Construction Services, 3.68; pp. 525–527

      • 12, International Insurance Transactions, 3.71, 3.72, 3.119, A2.5; pp. 528–533

      • 13, International Pension Services, 3.84, 14.29, A2.124; pp. 534–539

      • 14, Foreign Embassies and International Institutions, 3.95, 12.104; pp. 540–543

      • 15, Private Aid and Charitable Organizations, 3.114; pp. 544–548

      • 16, Current Transfers, Grants, and Technical Assistance, 3.120, 15.37; pp. 549–553

      • 17, Financial Claims on and Liabilities to Nonresidents, 3.90, 3.112, 3.124, 3.125, 3.127, 3.131, 3.135, 3.136, 3.137, 3.140, A4.48; pp. 554–563

      • 18, Foreign Direct Investment, 3.126, 10.20; pp. 564–578

      • 19, Foreign Direct Investment, 3.180, 3.194, 3.196, 3.202, 3.204, 10.34; pp. 579–584

      • 20, Holdings of and Transactions in Financial Derivatives Contracts with Nonresidents, 3.211; pp. 585–589

      • 21, Travel: Returning Residents, 3.223; pp. 590–592

      • 22, Travel: Departing Nonresidents, 3.223; pp. 593–595

      • 23, International Transactions and Positions of Households, 3.238; pp. 596–601

    • Monetary and financial statistics

      • as a data source, 10.40, 10.72, 10.89, 10.91

      • currency conversion, 10.75

      • deriving insurance technical reserves from, A2.43–A2.46

      • limitations of, for compiling IIP, 10.40

      • linkage with international accounts, A6.31–A6.53, Table A6.3

      • overview of framework, A6.31, A6.111–A6.124

    • Monetary and Financial Statistics Manual and Compilation Guide, 9.3, 9.12, 9.29

    • Monetary authorities, 9.23, 9.24

    • Monetization/demonetization of gold, 6.26, 9.106, 10.98

    • Money transfers operators, 14.12, 14.13

    • Multilateral settlements, A5.8–A5.9, Table A5.2

    N

    • National accounts, system of

      • BPM6 and, 1.2

      • linkage with international accounts, A6.1–A6.30

    • Natural resource rents and leases, 12.145, 13.101, 13.102, 15.3, 15.7, Box 10.1, A6.105

    • Net asset value, A4.44, A4.50–A4.52

    • Net errors and omissions

      • analysis over time, 8.93–8.96

      • definition of, 1.23, 8.88

      • negative figure for, 8.102

      • revisions and, 8.91, 8.92

      • significance of, in balance of payments analysis, 8.89, 8.90

    • Net incurrence of liabilities, 1.20, 8.103

    • Net operating surplus, 13.47, 13.49–13.53

    • Net recording of transactions, 8.98

    • Neutral/special codes, 4.16

    • New Arrangements to Borrow, 10.101, 10.105, 10.106

    • Nominal valuation, 9.96

    • Non-branch foreign operations, surveys of, 3.116–3.118

    • Noncash transactions, 4.42–4.44, 10.22

    • Nonlife insurance, 14.32–14.34, 15.26–15.30, A2.3, A2.6–A2.7, A2.16, A2.47, Example A2.4

    • Nonnegotiable instruments, 9.96

    • Nonproduced nonfinancial assets

      • acquisitions and disposals of, 15.4–15.17

      • types of, 15.3

    • Nonprofit institutions serving households (NPISH), 14.49

    • Nostro accounts, 4.5

    • Note Purchase Agreements, 10.107, 10.109

    • Notional units for ownership of land, A4.14–A4.18

    O

    • Official Development Assistance, 7.29, 12.157

    • Offshore banking units, 3.149, 4.41

    • Oil rigs, 12.147, 12.148

    • Operating leasing, 12.143–12.146, 13.105–13.10715.8

    • Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, 7.3, 7.4, 7.41, 10.27, 12.135, 12.138, A4.5

      • Development Assistance Data, 7.29–7.35

    • Other accounts receivable/payable—other, data collection, 10.88–10.91

    • Other business services, 12.145–12.150, Table 12.4

      • See also Other services

    • Other changes in financial assets and liabilities account

      • cancellation and write off, 9.99–9.100

      • categories of, 9.91

      • change in volume of insurance reserves, pension entitlements, and provisions for standardized guarantee schemes, 9.111

      • change of residence, 9.108–9.110, 10.37

      • debt reorganization, 9.93

      • definition of, as statistical statement, 1.13, 9.91

      • financial derivatives and, 9.94

      • interest and, 9.97

      • reclassifications, 9.101–9.107

      • reconciliation statement and, 9.112, 9.113

      • retained earnings and, 9.95

      • revaluations, 9.92

      • transaction in nonnegotiable instruments and, 9.96

      • volume changes, 9.98, Table 9.6

    • Other current transfers, 14.4

    • Other depository corporations

      • monetary and financial statistics, 9.12, 9.15, A6.33, A6.39, A6.43

      • reconciliation with IIP, 9.15, A6.49–A6.50, Table A6.3

      • sectoral balance sheet, 9.14, Table 9.1

    • Other equity, 10.70–10.71

    • Other financial corporations

      • currency and deposits, 10.72

      • external debt, 10.78

      • monetary and financial statistics, 9.12, 9.21, A6.33, A6.40–A6.42, A6.44

    • Other flows

      • definition of, 1.17

      • in government finance statistics, A6.108

    • Other investment, 13.27

      • currency and deposits, data source and compilation issues, 10.72–10.75

      • definition and types of, 10.69

      • income, 13.27, 13.29

      • insurance, pensions and standardized guarantees schemes, data source and compilation issues, 10.85

      • loans, data source and compilation issues, 10.76–10.84

      • other accounts receivable/payable-other, data source and compilation issues, 10.88–10.91

      • other equity, data source and compilation issues,10.70–10.71

      • special drawing rights, data source and compilation issues, 10.92

      • trade credit and advances, data source and compilation issues, 10.86–10.87

    • Other primary income, 13.94, 13.95, Table 13.1

    • Other services

      • data sources and methods, 12.84–12.90, Table 12.4

      • definition and types of, 12.4, 12.83, Table 12.4. See also specific type

    • Own funds at book value, 7.19, 9.51, 9.88, A4.48, A4.49

    P

    • Paris Club Secretariat, 7.41

    • Partner economies

      • balance of payments compilation by partner economy, A5.1

      • comparison among multiple sources of, 8.15

      • data from CDIS, 7.17

      • data from CPIS, 7.14

      • data on compensation of employees, 13.22–13.24

      • data on external debt, 7.42, A7.34

      • data on government services, 12.90

      • data on merchanting of goods, A5.31, A5.32

      • data on trade in goods, 7.45–7.48

      • data on travel, 12.74,

      • economy classification, 5.28, A5.2–A5.6

      • multilateral settlements, A5.8, A5.9, Table A5.2

      • presentation of direct investment, A5.24–A5.30, Table A5.5, Table A5.6

      • regional arrangements in compilation process, 8.74–8.86

      • sources and use of, 7.2–7.8, A5.10–A5.23

    • Passenger transport services

      • data collection, 3.30–3.31, 3.213, 12.47–12.50, 12.59

      • estimates of, 12.53, 12.66

      • fare data, 3.24, 3.28, 3.30–3.31, 12.47–12.50

    • Pass-through capital, A4.33–A4.35

    • Pension and standardized guarantee schemes, 10.85

      • data collection on, 14.30–14.32, A2.77–A2.78

      • defined benefit schemes, A2.81–A2.109, Examples, 2.8–2.10, Examples 2.11a-2.11c

      • defined contribution schemes, A2.77, A2.78, A2.110–A2.126, Examples 2.12a-2.12c

      • foreign worker participation in, 3.102, 3.110

      • forms of employment-related pension schemes, A2.75–A2.76

      • investment income from, 13.27, 13.29, 14.26

      • pension services, 3.83–3.88

      • secondary income data from, 14.25–14.26

      • See also Social security

    • Personal, cultural and recreational services, Table 12.4. See also Other services

    • Personal transfers

      • definition of, 14.10–14.11, Table 14.2

      • institutions concerned with, 14.12–14.13

      • See also Remittances

    • Pipeline transport, 12.39

    • Port authorities, 6.5, 8.4

    • Portfolio investment

      • Coordinated Portfolio Investment Survey and, 1.26, 3.154, 7.4, 7.9–7.15, 9.75, 10.48, A5.21

      • data sources, 10.39–10.51, Box 10.4

      • definition of, 10.32–10.33

      • estimation of income, 13.39

      • income from, 13.27–13.28

      • valuation of transactions and positions, 10.34–10.38, Box 10.3

      • See also Coordinated Portfolio Investment Survey

    • Positions

      • currency conversions, 1.22, 3.141

      • definition of, 1.15, 1.18

      • derived from transactions, 9.81–9.89, 10.18, 10.84, Box 10.2, Example 9.1

      • reconciliation statement, 3.131–3.135

    • Postal and courier services, 3.53, 12.26

    • Primary income

      • definition of, 13.1

      • linkage with national accounts, A6.16–A6.19

      • other, 13.94

      • premium supplements, A2.29–A2.31

      • rent, 13.101–13.104

      • rent and rentals, 13.105–13.108

      • taxes and subsidies as, 13.96–13.100

      • See also Compensation of employees; Investment income

    • Private capital flows survey, Box 2.2

    • Production sharing arrangements, Box 10.1

    • Professional associations, data from, 6.49

    • Progressive payments, 10.86

    • Property income, A6.17

    • Public sector external debt

      • credit and loans with the IMF in, 6.19

      • currency composition, 6.22

      • debt management office and, 6.16–6.17

      • maturity breakdown of, 6.23

      • standard components of, 6.20–6.21, Table 6.1

    • Pure interest, 13.26, 13.62

    Q

    • Quarterly External Debt Statistics, 7.36, 7.37–7.40, 9.35, 9.71

    • Quarterly International Investment Position Statistics: Data Sources and Compilation Techniques, 9.1

    • Quarterly positions data

      • carry forward estimates in absence of, 9.90

      • deriving from transactions data, 9.81–9.89, Example 9.1

    • Quasi-corporations

      • equity in, 10.70

      • investment income from, 13.1, 13.26, 13.27, 13.74, Table 13.1

    R

    • Rail transport, 3.48

    • Reclassification of asset or liability

      • change in contractual terms, 9.103

      • changes in functional category, 9.105

      • changing residence, 9.108–9.110, 10.37

      • definition, 9.101

      • monetization and demonetization of gold bullion and, 9.106

      • tradable loans, 9.102

      • transactions in existing assets, 9.104

      • unallocated gold accounts, 9.107

    • Recommendations of Statistics on International Migration, 3.217, 3.219

    • Refugees, 12.79

    • Regional arrangements

      • currency and economic unions, 8.74–8.83

      • customs arrangements, 8.84–8.86

    • Register, balance of payments

      • data sources for building, 2.9–2.10

      • definition of, 2.8

      • development of, 2.11–2.12

      • maintaining and updating, 2.16, 2.19

      • scope of, 2.15, 2.17

    • Register of Ships, 3.33

    • Reinvested earnings

      • calculation of, 13.43–13.61, A4.71–A4.77, Table A4.4

      • investment fund shares, 13.61

      • negative, 13.57–13.60

      • as primary income, 13.1

    • Remittances, international transactions in

      • compilation guide, 14.15

      • data sources, 13.15, 14.17

      • definition and measures of, 14.14

      • recording in balance of payments, 14.16

      • services to households, 14.12

      • See also Personal transfers

    • Rent

      • definition of, 13.101, 13.106

      • of land by other governments, 13.104

      • of natural resource, 13.102, 13.103

      • primary income, 3.117, 13.1

      • versus rental, 13.105–13.108

      • of rights to use professional athletes and, 13.105

      • scope of, 13.102–13.104

    • Rental

      • of buildings, 12.145

      • definition of, 13.105

      • of dwellings, 12.145

      • of land, 12.145

      • of mobile equipment, 12.145

      • versus rent, 13.105–13.108, Figure 13.2

    • Research and development

      • data collection on, 12.136–12.142

      • licensing for use of outcomes of, 12.126

    • Reserve assets

      • allocation of SDRs, 10.92, Table 10.1

      • Bilateral Loan Agreements (BLA), 10.108

      • central bank data, 6.25, 9.23, 9.24

      • classification of income from, 13.30

      • data compilation, 10.100–10.102, 10.103, 10.104, Table 10.2

      • data sources, 6.25, 6.27, 10.103–10.104, Table 10.2

      • definition and forms of, 10.93, 10.94, 10.95–10.99

      • description of, 10.94–10.99

      • financial derivatives as, 10.65, 10.100

      • IMF reserve position and, 10.101, 10.106

      • income from, 13.27, 13.30, 13.35

      • in international transactions reporting system, 4.57

      • Survey of Securities Held as Foreign Exchange Reserves (SEFER), 7.10

      • See also Reserves Data Template; specific instrument

    • Reserve position in IMF, 10.101, 10.106

    • Reserves Data Template, 7.43, 7.44

      • See also International Reserves and Foreign Currency Liquidity: Guidelines for a Data Template

    • Residency of institutional unit

      • construction activity, 8.65–8.67, Table 8.7

      • definition of, 8.54

      • individuals with multiple residences, 8.71, 8.72

      • multiterritory companies, 8.68–8.70

      • operation of mobile equipment and, 8.56–8.64, Tables 8.2–8.6

      • reclassification of assets and liabilities from change in, 9.108–9.110, 10.37

    • Rest of the world account

      • balance of payments statement and, 1.2, 1.3

      • IMTS and, 5.40

    • Retained earnings

      • calculation of, 13.50, 13.51, 13.55, 13.61

      • in calculation of reinvested earnings, 13.44

      • definition, 13.43

      • net operating surplus, 13.47, 13.49

      • See also Reinvested earnings

    • Revaluations, 9.92

    • Reverse investment, A4.67–A4.68

    • Revision of data, 8.32–8.37, 8.91–8.92

    • Road transport services, 3.50, 3.51

    • Royalties and fees data, 3.92

    S

    • Sample expansion, 8.22–8.24

    • Seasonal workers, 3.99

    • Secondary income

      • data sources, 14.6–14.9

      • definition and scope, 14.1–14.4

      • insurance in, 14.32–14.37, A2.20–A2.28

      • international cooperation, 14.38–14.48

      • linkage with national accounts, A6.20, A6.21

      • miscellaneous current transfers, 14.49

      • other current transfers, 14.18–14.23

      • personal transfers, 14.10–14.13

      • remittances, 14.14–14.17

      • social contributions and benefits, 14.24–14.31

    • Sectoral Balance Sheet for Other Depository Corporations, 9.12, 9.14

    • Sectoral Balance Sheet for Other Financial Corporations, 9.12

    • Sectoral Balance Sheet for the Central Bank, 9.12

    • Sector classification, A6.7, Table A6.1

    • Securities

      • data collection on, 3.181–3.184, 10.33, 10.47, A5.20. See also Securities, surveys on international activity in

      • European Centralized Security Database of, Box 10.4

      • fees for lending without cash collateral, 13.91–13.94

      • identification of parties to transactions in, 10.49, 10.50

      • international banking statistics, 9.68

      • repurchase agreements, 3.182, 10.81

      • See also Portfolio investment; Security-by-security database

    • Securities, surveys on international activity in

      • challenges in, 3.154, 3.204–3.208

      • data requirements, 3.152, 3.155–3.165

      • data sources for, 3.180–3.193, Table 3.2

      • identifying issuers and owners in, 3.159, 3.166–3.174

      • issues and redemptions data in, 3.175, 3.176

      • model collection form for, 3.194–3.203

      • secondary market transactions in, 3.177–3.179

    • Security-by-security database

      • definition and scope of, 10.43, 10.44

      • for euro area economies, Box 10.4

      • for IIP compilation, 9.71, 9.72

      • portfolio investment data, 10.43–10.45

    • Serviceability of data, 1.9, 1.28, 17.1, 17.2–17.7

    • Services

      • classification of, Table 3.1

      • e-commerce, 12.158–12.161

      • linkage with national accounts, A6.13

      • manufacturing, on physical inputs owned by others, 12.5–12.25

      • other services, 12.83–12.161

      • scope, 12.1–12.4

      • transport, 12.26–12.66

      • travel, 12.67–12.82

      • See also Services, surveys of

    • Services, surveys of

      • construction, 3.67–3.69, 3.92

      • financial, 3.89–3.91

      • freight and insurance on imports, 3.79–3.82

      • insurance, 3.70–3.78

      • introduction, 3.10–3.14

      • maintenance and repair, 3.18–3.20

      • manufacturing on physical inputs owned by others, 3.15–3.17

      • pension, 3.83–3.88

      • transport, 3.21–3.53

      • travel, 3.54–3.66

    • Shareholders equity, 9.46

    • Social contributions and social benefits, 14.24–14.31

    • Social insurance, 14.25, A2.2, A2.79, A2.100

      • contributions as revenue in government finance statistics, A6.75–A6.76

    • Social security schemes, A2.73, A2.79, A2.127–A2.129

    • Societas europaea, 8.68

    • Space transport, 12.40

    • Special Data Dissemination Standard, 7.37

    • Special drawing rights, 10.92, Table 10.1

    • Special purpose entities, A4.25–A4.32, Box A4.1

    • Special trade system, 5.7–5.9, 5.13–5.18, 11.11, Table 11.1

    • Standard International Trade Classification, 5.19, 5.20

    • Standardized report forms, A6.31, A6.46

      • Standardized Report Form 2SR for Other Depository Corporations, 9.14, A6.50, Table 9.1

      • Standardized Report Form 4SR for Other Financial Corporations, 9.21

      • Standardized Report Form 1SR for the Central Banks, 9.29, Table 9.2

    • Stapled securities, 3.208

    • State and local government data, 6.6

    • Statistical Data and Metadata Exchange, coding structure

      • balance of payments, A7.14–A7.20, Tables A7.1–A7.4

      • data structure definitions, attributes, A7.47–7.48, Tables A7.6–A7.8

      • data structure definitions, dimensions, A7.22–A7.46, Table A7.5

      • introduction, A7.10–A7.13

    • Stock exchange

      • identification of transacting parties, 10.49–10.50

      • portfolio investment data, 10.47

    • Subsidies

      • definition, A6.95

      • linkage with government finance statistics, A6.96

      • on products and production, 13.1, 13.96–13.100

    • Superdividends, 13.78–13.79, Example 13.2

    • Surveys

      • advantages, 2.70–2.75

      • disadvantages, 2.76–2.79

      • discussion with key respondents, 2.46–2.51

      • editing/validating data collected, 2.63–2.69

      • introduction, 2.1–2.3

      • legal mandate, 2.5–2.6

      • questionnaire design, 2.42–2.45

      • response rate, 2.56–2.62

      • timetable, 2.4, 2.46–2.55, Box 2.1

      • training seminars, 2.52

      • trial run, 2.50

      • See also Services, surveys of

    • Survey frame, creating or updating

      • building the population, 2.20–2.30

      • computerizing, 2.34

      • developing a register for, 2.8–2.19

      • information content, 2.31–2.32

      • log, response details, 2.33

      • use of, 2.35–2.41

    • Survey of Securities Held as Foreign Exchange Reserves, 7.10

    • Survey of Securities Held by International Organizations, 7.10

    • Surveys of individuals traveling abroad, 3.226–3.236, Table 3.4

    • System of National Accounts 2008

      • balance sheet, A6.27–A6.30, Table A6.2

      • capital accounts, A6.22

      • classification of economic sectors, A6.6, A6.7, A6.57

      • current account, A6.11–A6.21

      • financial account, A6.23–A6.26

      • international merchandise trade statistics guidelines and, 5.3

      • linkage of government finance statistics with, A6.57

      • linkage with BPM6, 1.2, A6.2–A6.30

      • linkage with IMTS 2010, 5.4–5.5

      • linkage with monetary and financial statistics, A6.31–A6.53

    T

    • Taxes

      • capital, 15.39–15.41

      • on income and wealth, 14.18–14.23, Table 14.1, Example 14.1

      • paid by foreign workers, 3.102–3.103

      • on products and production, 13.1, 13.96–13.100

      • sources of government revenue, 6.15, A6.69–A6.74, Table A6.6

      • use of data on, 6.45–6.47

    • Technical assistance

      • data sources, 14.45–14.47

      • examples of reporting in balance of payments, 14.48, Examples 14.2–14.5

      • forms of, 14.38–14.43

      • grants and donations to NPISHs, Example 14.4

      • long-term missions financed by the donor government, Example 14.5

      • model form, 3.120, Model form 16

      • personnel employed by donors, Example 14.2

      • personnel employed by recipient government, Example 14.3

    • Telecommunications, computer and information services, 15.10, Table 12.4. See also Other services

    • Time charter arrangement, 12.32

    • Timeliness, 17.4, Box 17.1

    • Time of recording

      • change of ownership and, 3.4

      • discrepancies in import and export data, 7.47

      • of flows, 1.21

      • in IMTS, 5.6

      • in ITRS, 4.22–4.26

      • in Quarterly External Debt Statistics, 7.39

    • Time-share arrangements, 15.8–15.9, Table 15.1

    • Tourism statistics, 12.75–12.80

    • Trade. See International merchandise trade statistics

    • Trade associations, data from, 6.49

    • Trademark

      • licensing fees, 12.124–12.125

      • sale of, 15.4

    • Transaction(s)

      • accounting system of, 1.19–1.22

      • definition of, 1.16

      • deriving positions from data on, 9.81–9.89, 10.18, 10.84, Box 10.2, Example 9.1

      • direct investment, valuation of, 10.16–10.19

      • financial, 3.139–3.140

      • international transactions reporting system data, 4.8–4.17

      • recording in balance of payments, 8.97–8.104

    • Transactor principle, A5.5–A5.7, A5.18, Table A5.1

    • Transfer agreements, 15.11–15.13

    • Transfer pricing, 11.24–11.28, A4.56–A4.58, Table 11.6

    • Transport services

      • activities of nonresident operators, 12.55–12.60

      • activities of resident operators, 12.51–12.54

      • balance of payment treatment of employees in, Table 8.8

      • data sources, 12.43, Table 12.1

      • freight services, 12.35–12.38

      • international airline, 3.42–3.47

      • international shipping, 3.32–3.41

      • international transactions reporting system data on, 4.52

      • leasing and chartering arrangements, 12.28–12.34

      • other, 12.41–12.42

      • other modes of transport, 3.49–3.52

      • passenger fares, 3.30–3.31, 12.47–12.50

      • passenger services, 12.38

      • postal and courier, 3.53

      • rail, 3.48

      • scope of, 3.21–3.23, 12.26

      • surveys of, 3.24–3.29

      • wet leasing, 12.34

      • See also Mobile equipment

    • Traveler’s checks

      • data collection on, 3.60–3.63, 12.71

      • international transactions reporting system entries for, 4.30, 4.33, 4.35

    • Travel services

      • data sources and methods, 12.68–12.82, Table 12.3

      • description and classification, 12.67

      • medical patients and, 3.215, 12.72, 12.78, Table 8.8

      • students and, 3.215, 3.239, 12.72, 12.78, Table 3.3, Table 8.8, Table 14.2

      • surveys of, 3.54–3.66

      • See also Survey of individuals traveling abroad

    • Treasury International Capital Reporting System of the United States Department of Treasury, 10.66

    U

    • Unit of account, 1.22, 8.40

      • conversion of foreign currency positions and transactions to, 3.141

    • Unlisted equity valuation, A4.44–A4.55

    • Unrequited transfers, 1.16

    V

    • Valuation

      • of direct investment transactions and positions, 10.17–10.19

      • of employee stock option, 10.59–10.63

      • of exceptional financing transactions, 16.9–16.10, Table 16.2

      • of financial derivatives, 9.94, 10.56–10.58, Box 10.5

      • of goods, 5.21–5.26, 11.1, 11.10, 11.21, 11.22, Table 11.3, Table 11.5

      • of loans sold at discount, 10.84

      • in monetary and financial statistics, A6.36–A6.38

      • of portfolio investments, 10.34–10.38, 10.40, Box 10.3

      • of research and development, 12.139

      • of technical assistance, 14.41–14.42

      • of transactions in nonnegotiable instruments, 9.96

      • of unlisted equity, A4.44–A4.56

    • Vostro accounts, 4.5, 4.22

    • Voyage charters, 3.45, 12.33

    W

    • Water rights, 15.10

    • Weighting techniques, 8.22

    • Wire transfers, 3.55, 3.57, 3.61

    • World Bank, 7.3, 7.41, 9.71

    • Write-offs, 9.99–9.100, 9.112

    Z

    • Zero-coupon bonds, 10.36

    The team consists of Mr. Simon Quin (Module Manager), Mr. Kenneth Egesa, and Mr. Howard Murad.

    The qualifier “For banks within the same economy” allows that FISIM may be significant for interbank positions whose counterparty institutions are resident in different economic territories, the context of this appendix.

    The interbank rate is not suitable when it does not “reflect the risk and maturity structure of deposits and loans.” As such, alternatives, such as the average cost of funds to the financial corporations sector, are likely to be better choices for the reference rate.

    There also has been some discussion that a different rate may be needed for each currency in which loans and deposits are denominated, but this question has not been fully resolved.

    The Advisory Expert Group to the Inter-Secretariat Working Group on National Accounts, which includes national accountants experts from a number of government statistical agencies and central banks, recommended at its meeting in May 2013 the following practical guidelines for setting the reference rate for the financial corporations sectors of a given economy:

    The calculation (definition) of the reference rate should be determined according to national circumstances, using preferably any of the following approaches:

    • A reference rate based on a single observable rate for a specific instrument, such as interbank lending rates

    • A reference rate based on a weighted average of observable rates of maturities with different terms (weighted by the positions of loans and deposits in each maturity)

    • A weighted average of the interest rates on loans and deposits.

    In this appendix, the terms “direct investment” and “foreign direct investment” are used interchangeably and have the same meaning.

    The CDIS database as a data source is also discussed in Chapter 7.

    See the BPM6, paragraphs 4.50–4.52.

    See the BPM6, paragraphs 6.33–6.34.

    See the BPM6, paragraph 6.46.

    The rearrangement of standard components for direct investment positions and transactions is shown in Box 6.4 of the BPM6.

    The compiler should make the economy attribution clear for users.

    IMTS 2010 states:

    Paragraph 6.25: Although no single method of attributing partner country is ideal, attribution by origin for imports meets what is considered to be a priority application of international merchandise trade statistics, namely, matters of trade policy and related economic analysis. Consequently, it is recommended that:

    • In the case of imports, the country of origin be recorded;

    • In the case of exports, the country of last known destination be recorded.

    Paragraph 6.26: Country of consignment. Since the partner data compiled on the basis of the country of origin (for imports) and the country of last known destination (for exports) are very often not comparable and in view of the needs for internationally comparable partner data for analytical purposes as well as for trade data reconciliation studies, it is recommended that country of consignment be recorded for imports as the second partner country attribution, alongside country of origin. Considering, in the case of exports, that countries often do not differentiate the country of last known destination and the country of consignment and that their separate recording could create a significant additional data-reporting and data-processing burden, the compilation of export statistics on the country of consignment basis is only encouraged, depending on a country’s needs and circumstances. It is recognized that the compilation of country of consignment for exports may be considered by some countries as a longer-term objective.

    See the BPM6, paragraphs 3.67–3.91, for more details on valuation in balance of payments and IIP.

    The annex to the Linkages of the International Accounts with Monetary and Financial Statistics contains an overview of the monetary statistics framework.

    An IMF project to expand the SRFs called the Supplementary Data Report Forms (SDRFs) is under consideration. The SDRFs include maturity breakdowns.

    See footnote 3, Chapter 9.

    See footnote 4, Chapter 9.

    The reconciliation of OFC vis-à-vis nonresidents with the corresponding IIP components is very similar to the one for ODC and is, therefore, not included in this annex.

    Balancing items summarize the net value of the activities covered by a set of accounting entries, such as the net operating balances, which is the value of total revenue less total expense.

    For the selection of data sources for the compilation of GFS, see the Government Finance Statistics-Compilation Guide for Developing Countries (IMF, 2011) at http://www.imf.org/external/data.htm#guide.

    Financial corporations include subsectors for the central bank, deposit-taking corporations, except the central bank, and other financial corporations, while the GFS framework also recommends that subsectors for public corporations be identified both in the financial and nonfinancial corporate sectors.

    The “other sector” category in the international accounts includes both financial and nonfinancial sectors, so it is recommended that the other financial corporations be identified separately. The full institutional sector detail is required for international accounts to be fully integrated with monetary, flow of funds, and other financial data. Public corporations may be identified separately on a supplementary basis.

    The general government sector consists of entities that fulfill the functions of government as their primary activity. Depending on the administrative and legal arrangements, there may be more than one level of government within an economy, and statistics should be compiled for each level. In GFS, provision is made for three levels of government: central, state/provincial/regional, and local. Social security funds are permitted to either be included in one of these levels or constitute a separate level of government. Not all the economies will have all the levels of government. The international accounts identify general government, but they do not present data for the subsectors of the general government, as is the case in GFS.

    Expenditure is the sum of expense and the net acquisition of nonfinancial assets.

    Consumption of fixed capital can be difficult to measure in practice, and a satisfactory estimate may not be possible. If so, the gross operating balance may be more practical for analysis than the operating balance. The net operating balance is, however, preferred because it captures all current costs of government operations.

    Financial assets and natural resources put at the disposal of another institutional unit.

    In GFS, sales of goods and services consist of sales by market establishments, administrative fees, incidental sales by nonmarket establishments, and imputed sales of goods and services.

    Tax revenue is considered to be unrequited because the government provides nothing directly to the individual unit in exchange for the payment. Certain compulsory receivables, such as fines, penalties, and most social security contributions, are excluded from taxes. These transfers have, under certain conditions, an element of exchange and are therefore not classified as taxes.

    The classification of taxes in the GFSM 2014 is quite similar to the classification employed in Revenue Statistics by the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD).

    For a complete list of taxes, see Chapter 5, GFSM 2014.

    Here and further the numbers in parentheses next to GFS refer to classification codes in the GFSM 2014.

    GFS does not have a category of capital taxes.

    For additional information about autonomous and nonautonomous pension funds and funded and unfunded employer social insurance schemes, see Appendix 2 in the GFSM 2014.

    See the BPM6, paragraph 12.38, for additional information about the adjustment (“adjustment for change in pension entitlements”).

    Debt forgiveness is defined as the voluntary cancellation by mutual agreement of all or part of a debt obligation within a contractual arrangement between a creditor and a debtor.

    Cash is used in a broader sense since it includes all types of financial instruments.

    See paragraph A6.60 for consolidation.

    Insurance enterprises hold technical reserves in the form of prepayments of premiums, reserves against outstanding claims, and actuarial reserves against outstanding risks with respect to life insurance policies. These reserves are considered to be assets of the insurance company with matching liabilities towards the beneficiaries, including any government units that are policyholders. Any income receivable from the investment of insurance technical reserves is also considered to be the property of the policyholders or beneficiaries and is described as property income from investment income disbursements (GFS 1414). In the BPM6, the account title used is Investment income attributable to policyholders in insurance, standardized guarantees, and pension funds.

    The GFS framework also uses a functional classification for expenses, based on the OECD/UN classification of the functions of government (COFOG). It is a detailed classification of the functions (socioeconomic objectives) that general government units aim to achieve through various kinds of expenditure (see GFSM 2014, paragraph A6.1 for additional information).

    See paragraphs 6.25–6.30 in the GFSM 2014.

    A social risk is an event or circumstance that may adversely affect the welfare of the households concerned either by imposing additional demands on their resources or by reducing their incomes.

    The international accounts identify general government, but, contrary to GFS, they do not present data for the subsectors of the general government.

    Because of the importance of different currencies in the IIP, revaluations (holding gains and losses) are separately shown for those arising from exchange rate changes and those arising from other price changes.

    Through the SRFs, the IMF collects only stock data.

    For more details on the analytical presentation of balance of payments see Chapter 14 of the BPM6.

    The BIS is also participating in the technical group responsible for developing the DSD, as it has been involved in SDMX standards and data exchanges for many years and has a long-standing involvement in external sector statistics.

    ISO 3166–1 alpha-2 codes are two-letter economy codes defined in ISO 3166–1, part of the ISO 3166 standard published by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO), to represent economes, dependent territories, and special areas of geographical interest.

    There are very few instances when credits and debits may be recorded as a negative number. Such instances include the refund of taxes to taxpayers, the recording of negative reinvestment of earnings by direct investment enterprises, which also implies the recording of negative income receivable and/or payable (depending if the data are about the economy of the direct investor or of the direct investment enterprise). The balance is reported as credit minus debit.

    Additional net concepts are provided to support the needs of direct investment reporting.

    For balance of payments reporting of transactions in financial assets and liabilities, only the net result is usually requested: “A” for net acquisition of assets, and “L” for net incurrence of liabilities.

    The DSD provides for a detailed identification of investment income by instruments, although this is not part of the standard components of the BPM6.

    1

    A subsidiary is a company over which its owner can exercise control–that is, it owns more than 50 percent of the voting securities.

    1.

    Including premiums ceded to reinsurers, and excluding premiums assumed from other direct insurers.

    2.

    Including premiums received for cross border beneficiaries of group insurances.

    1.

    In most widely followed financial accounting rules, interest costs are calculated as interest rate multiplied by the PBO at the beginning of the accounting period. The interest rate may be an estimated discount rate reflecting the market rate currently used to settle benefits due, or a rate based on the expected return on high-quality fixed income securities (e.g., long-term government bonds).

    1.

    If the reporter is a private entity, sections 1 and 2 should be skipped.

    2.

    If in the same period grants are aimed at financing both current expenditures and capital formation, please try to split the total accordingly.

    3.

    It suffices to provide an estimate for the number and average duration of short-term staff working in the reporting economy.

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